Nutrient cycles

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Nutrient cycles

  1. 1. Ecosystem Recycling
  2. 2. <ul><li>ENERGY FLOWS THROUGH ECOSYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>WATER — NITROGEN — CARBON — PHOSPHORUS ARE RECYCLED !!! </li></ul><ul><li>THEY MOVE THRU A BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLE : </li></ul><ul><li>ABIOTIC (non-living) PORTION OF ENVIRONMENT (ATMOSPHERE)  LIVING THINGS  THEN BACK AGAIN </li></ul>
  3. 3. Water Cycle <ul><li>CELLS CONTAIN 70-90 % H20 </li></ul><ul><li>VERY LITTLE OF EARTHS AVAILABLE H 2 0 IS IN LIVING THINGS </li></ul><ul><li>RIVERS / LAKES / STREAMS / OCEANS CONTAIN A BIG % </li></ul><ul><li>ATMOSPHERE CONTAIN WATER = WATER VAPOR </li></ul><ul><li>GROUND WATER = IN SOIL OR UNDERGROUND IN POROUS ROCK </li></ul><ul><li>WATER CYCLE = MOVEMENT OF H 2 0 B/T RESERVOIRS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EVAPORATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRANSPIRATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRECIPITATION </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Evaporation <ul><li>ADDS H 2 0 VAPOR TO ATMOSPHERE </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT CAUSES WATER TO EVAPORATE </li></ul><ul><li>90% OF EVAPORATED WATER FROM TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM PASSES THROUGH PLANTS IN A PROCESS CALLED… </li></ul>
  5. 5. Transpiration <ul><li>PLANTS TAKE IN H 2 0 THRU ROOTS </li></ul><ul><li>RELEASE WATER & TAKE IN CO 2 (CARBON DIOXIDE) </li></ul><ul><li>ANIMALS DRINK/ EAT TO TAKE IN H 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>ANIMALS RELEASE IT WHEN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BREATHING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SWEATING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXCRETION </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Precipitation <ul><li>WATER LEAVES ATMOSPHERE </li></ul><ul><li>TEMP & AIR PRESSURE ( ABIOTIC FACTORS ) DETERMINE HOW MUCH WATER CAN BE HELD </li></ul><ul><li>ONCE ATM. IS SATURATED W/VAPOR = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SNOW, RAIN, SLEET, HAIL OR FOG </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Exploring the Water Cycle <ul><li>Each person will start at one of the points on the water cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect a bead and put it on your string </li></ul><ul><li>While there, look at the die and predict what you think you will role. </li></ul><ul><li>Write your prediction in the first column. </li></ul><ul><li>Roll the die and write the result in the second column </li></ul><ul><li>When the teacher says go, move to the station you rolled, and repeat steps 2-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Do not move to the next station until instructed to by the teacher. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Carbon Cycle <ul><li>PHOTOSYNTHESIS + CELLULAR RESPIRATION </li></ul><ul><li>PHOTOSYNTHESIS = PLANTS & OTHER AUTOTROPHS USE: CO 2 + H 2 0 & SUNLIGHT = CARBOHYDRATES </li></ul>
  9. 9. CELLULAR RESPIRATION <ul><li>PROCESS IN WHICH AUTOTROPHS & HETEROTROPHS USE OXYGEN (O 2 ) TO BREAKDOWN CARBS. </li></ul><ul><li>CELLS MAKE ATP (ENERGY) BY BREAKING DOWN ORGANIC COMPOUNDS : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A COMPOUND THAT RESULTS FROM LIVING THINGS & CONTAINS CARBON </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. HUMAN INFLUENCE ON THE CARBON CYCLE <ul><li>IN THE PAST 150 YEARS CO 2 IN THE ATMOSPHERE HAS RISEN 30%  ALMOST ½ IN THE LAST 40 YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>HUMANS ACTIVITY IS THE CAUSE </li></ul><ul><li>BURNING FOSSIL FUEL : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REMAINS OF ORGANISMS THAT HAVE BEEN TRANSFORMED BY DECAY, HEAT, & PRESSURE  ENERGY RICH ORGANIC MOLECULES </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>BURNING RELEASES ENERGY & CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>BURNING VEGETATION RELEASES CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>TROPICAL RAINFOREST DESTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>WITH NO PLANTS CO 2 IS NOT ABSORBED </li></ul>
  12. 12. Nitrogen Cycle <ul><li>NITROGEN IS NEEDED TO MAKE PROTEINS & NUCLEIC ACIDS: </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIC MOLECULE, DNA OR RNA , THAT STORES & CARRIES IMPORTANT INFO FOR CELL FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 (NITROGEN GAS) MAKES UP 78% OF THE ATMOSPHERE </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 IS HOWEVER LIMITED TO AMMONIA FOR MOST LIVING THINGS </li></ul>
  13. 13. NITROGEN FIXATION <ul><li>CONVERSION OF N 2 TO AMMONIA </li></ul><ul><li>CERTAIN BACTERIA CAN CONVERT  NH3 = NITROGEN- FIXING BACTERIA </li></ul><ul><li>LIVE IN SOIL & IN SOME ROOTS </li></ul>
  14. 14. Recycling Nitrogen <ul><li>BODIES OF DEAD ORGANISMS CONTAIN “N” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>URINE & DUNG ALSO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DECOMPOSERS BREAK DOWN CORPSES & WASTE OF ORGANISMS GIVE OFF NITROGEN AS AMMONIA = AMMONIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>NITRIFICATION = BACTERIA IN SOIL TAKE IN AMMONIA & OXIDIZE IT INTO NITR ITES , NO 2 & NITR ATES , NO 3 </li></ul>
  15. 15. DENITRIFICATION <ul><li>RETURNING NITROGEN TO ATMOSPHERE </li></ul><ul><li>PLANTS CAN ABSORB NITRATES & AMMONIA FROM SOIL  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ANIMALS CAN NOT ! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ANIMALS OBTAIN IT BY EATING OTHER ORGANISMS & DIGESTING THE PROTEINS & NUCLEIC ACIDS </li></ul>
  16. 16. Phosphorous Cycle <ul><li>The only cycle that does not happen in the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Phosphorous comes from rocks. When they erode, it enters the soil and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant uptake phosphorous from the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Animals eat the plants </li></ul><ul><li>When organisms die or excrete waste, the phosphorous is released back into the ecosystem. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Fertilizers and the Nitrogen and Phosphorous Cycles <ul><li>Nitrogen and phosphorous are key components of fertilizers. </li></ul><ul><li>If excessive amounts of fertilizer are used, the N and P enter ecosystems through run-off and cause algal blooms </li></ul><ul><li>The bacteria that decompose the dead algae can deplete an </li></ul><ul><li>aquatic ecosystem of oxygen and kill the fish and other </li></ul><ul><li>organisms beneath the surface. </li></ul>

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