Dna

1,734 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,734
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
131
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
134
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Dna

  1. 1. Structure and Function of DNA
  2. 2. Structure of DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) <ul><li>Discovered by Watson & Crick in 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is a nucleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is made up of small subunits called nucleotides </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The nucleotides are made up of: </li></ul><ul><li>deoxyribose(sugar) </li></ul><ul><li>phosphate group </li></ul><ul><li>nitrogen bases-4 types 1. Adenine- A 2. Guanine-G 3. Cytosine- C 4. Thymine-T </li></ul>
  4. 4. DNA is actually 2 long chains of nucleotides that are joined together in the form of a ladder. The ladder is twisted in the form of a double helix or spiral
  5. 5.   Structure of DNA Hydrogen bonds Nucleotide Sugar-phosphate backbone Key Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G)
  6. 6. The sides of the ladder are composed if alternating deoxyribose(sugar) and phosphate. The rungs of the ladder are composed of pairs of nitrogen bases.
  7. 7. <ul><li>The nitrogen bases always pair up in a specific pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Adenine(A) pairs up with Thymine(T) </li></ul><ul><li>Guanine(G) pairs up with Cytosine(C) </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul>A G C T A C G C A one side T C G A T G C G T other side
  8. 8. All organisms have the same type of nucleotides. The nucleotide arrangement provides for all the different types Ex- A mouse and a rosebush have the same nucleotides. However, they are different because their nucleotides are in different orders. *This sequence of nucleotides forms the genetic information(code) of an organism.
  9. 9. Replication of DNA During meiosis and mitosis a copy of DNA must be made so that when the new cells are formed, they each get an exact copy of the genetic information. This DNA copy is made through a process known as replication.
  10. 10. Steps of Replication During replication, each strand serves as a pattern to make new DNA molecule. <ul><li>First step: DNA (H bonds are broken) unzips into 2 strands </li></ul><ul><li>Second step: free nucleotides join onto “unzipped” strands to form 2 new strands of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>2 complete strands will result, these will be exactly alike </li></ul>
  11. 11. Figure 12–11 DNA Replication Section 12-2 Growth Growth Replication fork DNA polymerase New strand Original strand DNA polymerase Nitrogenous bases Replication fork Original strand New strand

×