Chemistry in Biology
Elements in the Human Body (CHON 96%)
We’ve got chemistry…(which is the study of matter) <ul><li>The  atom  is the basic unit of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>(buil...
<ul><li>Protons & neutrons  are found in the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons  orbit  the  nucleus . </li></ul><ul><li...
Using the Periodic Table to calculate: <ul><li>Protons = atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons = atomic number (neutra...
 
 
<ul><li>ELEMENT: pure substance, consisting of only 1 type of atom. </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOUND: substance formed from the ...
<ul><li>H 2 O - water contains H and O in a definite proportion (2 to 1)  This is the formula for water. </li></ul><ul><li...
Isotopes <ul><li>atoms of the same element with different numbers of  neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Brainpop  video:http://gl...
Isotopes of Carbon Carbon-12  Carbon-13  Carbon-14
Radioactive Isotopes <ul><li>When a nucleus breaks apart, it gives off radiation that can be detected and used for many ap...
Chemical Bonds <ul><li>Involve valence (outermost) electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 types. </li></ul>
1) Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Involves a  transfer  of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces  ions  ( charged atoms that have gai...
 
2) Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Electrons are  shared  between atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest unit of this type of compound i...
Chemical Reactions <ul><li>Chemical reaction  - process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are reorganized in...
Chemical Equations <ul><li>Chemical formulas  describe the substances in the reaction and arrows indicate the process of c...
<ul><li>Glucose and oxygen react to form carbon dioxide and water. </li></ul>
Energy of Reactions <ul><li>The   activation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products ...
What is an enzyme? <ul><li>An enzyme is a special type of  protein   called a   catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst: subst...
 
How do enzymes work? <ul><li>Enzyme comes in contact with substrate at certain spot called ACTIVE SITE </li></ul><ul><li>F...
 
 
What are enzymes used for?  What regulates them? <ul><li>Used for digestion, photosynthesis, & DNA reproduction </li></ul>...
Enzyme Lab!
Warm up -  <ul><li>Make a Venn Diagram for Ionic and Covalent Bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Copy the following: 1) What is this...
Water is soooo special! <ul><li>Most abundant compound in  living things . </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid  at temperatures found...
What is polarity??? <ul><li>Polarity is the  uneven distribution of electrons between atoms in a covalent bond. </li></ul>...
<ul><li>The hydrogen atoms in water have a slight  positive  charge because they are missing the  electrons  attracted mor...
<ul><li>Because of polarity, the water molecules  attract  each other.  This is called  cohesion . </li></ul><ul><li>Water...
<ul><li>Example of adhesion:  water on the sides of a graduated cylinder. </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary action  is caused by...
Water Lab!!!!
Warm up  Enzymes p. 159 <ul><li>What is the function of an enzyme? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of organic compounds are en...
Mixtures <ul><li>Two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together, but not chemically combined.  They ...
Solutions vs. Suspensions  <ul><li>Can be made with  water …the  universal  solvent. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution =  solvent...
<ul><li>Water can dissolve  ionic compounds  and other  polar   molecules …it is known as the greatest  solvent  on earth!...
<ul><li>Water and non-dissolved material with small particles that are suspended in the water. </li></ul>Suspension
Acids & Bases <ul><li>pH scale:  indicates the concentration of H+ ions in a solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Below 7 =  acid, ...
 
 
 
Buffers <ul><li>Weak acid/bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp sudden changes in pH. </li></ul>
Carbon Compounds C 6 carbon 12.011
What is organic chemistry? <ul><li>The study of all compounds containing the element CARBON </li></ul><ul><li>Natural elem...
What is a macromolecule? <ul><li>A giant molecule made up of 100’s or 1000’s of smaller units called MONOMERS </li></ul><u...
The types of macromolecules: CARBOHYDRATES LIPIDS NUCLEIC ACIDS PROTEINS
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Made of Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Main source of energy for living things </...
<ul><li>Simple sugars are monosaccharide. </li></ul><ul><li>Two monosaccharides join together to form a disaccharide </li>...
Starch Glucose Section 2-3 Figure 2-13 A Starch Go to Section:
Lipids (Fats, Oils & Waxes) <ul><li>Made mostly from carbon & hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Used to store energy & waterproof...
<ul><li>A triglyceride is a fat if it is solid at room temperature and an oil if it is liquid at room temperature. </li></ul>
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Made of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, & phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Made of monomers called n...
Proteins <ul><li>Made of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Polymers of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 2

1,585 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Chapter 2

  1. 1. Chemistry in Biology
  2. 2. Elements in the Human Body (CHON 96%)
  3. 3. We’ve got chemistry…(which is the study of matter) <ul><li>The atom is the basic unit of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>(building block of matter) </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms consist of subatomic particles </li></ul><ul><li>Protons (+ charge) </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrons ( no charge) </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons (- charge) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Protons & neutrons are found in the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons orbit the nucleus . </li></ul><ul><li>Protons & neutrons have about the same mass , and electrons are much less ( 1/1840 the mass of p & n) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Using the Periodic Table to calculate: <ul><li>Protons = atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons = atomic number (neutral atom, not in an ion) </li></ul><ul><li>Remember Protons are positive and Electrons are negative so they are equal! </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrons = atomic MASS – atomic number </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>ELEMENT: pure substance, consisting of only 1 type of atom. </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOUND: substance formed from the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in </li></ul><ul><li>definite proportions. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>H 2 O - water contains H and O in a definite proportion (2 to 1) This is the formula for water. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the formula for table salt? </li></ul>Examples of Compounds:
  8. 10. Isotopes <ul><li>atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Brainpop video:http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078695104/164155/00038306.html </li></ul>
  9. 11. Isotopes of Carbon Carbon-12 Carbon-13 Carbon-14
  10. 12. Radioactive Isotopes <ul><li>When a nucleus breaks apart, it gives off radiation that can be detected and used for many applications. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Chemical Bonds <ul><li>Involve valence (outermost) electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 types. </li></ul>
  12. 14. 1) Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Involves a transfer of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces ions ( charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons) </li></ul><ul><li>Metal + Nonmetal </li></ul>
  13. 16. 2) Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Electrons are shared between atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest unit of this type of compound is called a molecule . </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetal + Nonmetal or diatomic molecules have this type of bond. </li></ul>
  14. 17. Chemical Reactions <ul><li>Chemical reaction - process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are reorganized into different substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Clues that a chemical reaction has taken place: 1) heat or light </li></ul><ul><li>2) see bubbles </li></ul><ul><li>3) something new </li></ul>
  15. 18. Chemical Equations <ul><li>Chemical formulas describe the substances in the reaction and arrows indicate the process of change. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants are the starting substances, on the left side of the arrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Products are the substances formed during the reaction, on the right side of the arrow. </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Glucose and oxygen react to form carbon dioxide and water. </li></ul>
  17. 20. Energy of Reactions <ul><li>The activation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction. </li></ul>
  18. 21. What is an enzyme? <ul><li>An enzyme is a special type of protein called a catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst: substance that speeds up a reaction because it lowers the activation energy </li></ul><ul><li>Cells use enzymes to speed up reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Very specific: usually only catalyzes one item called the SUBSTRATE </li></ul>
  19. 23. How do enzymes work? <ul><li>Enzyme comes in contact with substrate at certain spot called ACTIVE SITE </li></ul><ul><li>Fits together like a “lock & key” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bonding at active site weakens the bonds in the substrate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Makes it easier to change substrate </li></ul>
  20. 26. What are enzymes used for? What regulates them? <ul><li>Used for digestion, photosynthesis, & DNA reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated by changes in pH, temperature, other proteins, and chemicals </li></ul>
  21. 27. Enzyme Lab!
  22. 28. Warm up - <ul><li>Make a Venn Diagram for Ionic and Covalent Bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Copy the following: 1) What is this called? Label the reactant(s) and the product(s) </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O 2  2H 2 O + O 2 </li></ul>
  23. 29. Water is soooo special! <ul><li>Most abundant compound in living things . </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid at temperatures found over much of earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Expands when freezes, which causes density less than liquid water. (unusual for a liquid) </li></ul>
  24. 30. What is polarity??? <ul><li>Polarity is the uneven distribution of electrons between atoms in a covalent bond. </li></ul><ul><li>In water, the oxygen is slightly negative because the electrons are attracted more to it than Hydrogen. </li></ul>
  25. 31. <ul><li>The hydrogen atoms in water have a slight positive charge because they are missing the electrons attracted more to oxygen. </li></ul>
  26. 32. <ul><li>Because of polarity, the water molecules attract each other. This is called cohesion . </li></ul><ul><li>Water is also attracted to molecules of different substances. This is called adhesion . </li></ul>
  27. 33. <ul><li>Example of adhesion: water on the sides of a graduated cylinder. </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary action is caused by this. </li></ul>
  28. 34. Water Lab!!!!
  29. 35. Warm up Enzymes p. 159 <ul><li>What is the function of an enzyme? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of organic compounds are enzymes? </li></ul><ul><li>What substance takes part in an enzymatic reaction, but is unchanged by the reaction? </li></ul><ul><li>Draw Figure 6.18 and label it. (p. 160) </li></ul>
  30. 36. Mixtures <ul><li>Two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together, but not chemically combined. They can be separated Physically! </li></ul>
  31. 37. Solutions vs. Suspensions <ul><li>Can be made with water …the universal solvent. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution = solvent + solute </li></ul><ul><li>solution = homogeneous mixture </li></ul>
  32. 38. <ul><li>Water can dissolve ionic compounds and other polar molecules …it is known as the greatest solvent on earth! </li></ul>Universal solvent!
  33. 39. <ul><li>Water and non-dissolved material with small particles that are suspended in the water. </li></ul>Suspension
  34. 40. Acids & Bases <ul><li>pH scale: indicates the concentration of H+ ions in a solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Below 7 = acid, the lower the number, the more acidic. </li></ul><ul><li>Above 7 = Base , the higher the more basic </li></ul>
  35. 44. Buffers <ul><li>Weak acid/bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp sudden changes in pH. </li></ul>
  36. 45. Carbon Compounds C 6 carbon 12.011
  37. 46. What is organic chemistry? <ul><li>The study of all compounds containing the element CARBON </li></ul><ul><li>Natural elements: make up 96% of the mass of a human: CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, NITROGEN (CHON) </li></ul><ul><li>Trace elements: only needed in small amounts, called “minerals”: </li></ul>
  38. 47. What is a macromolecule? <ul><li>A giant molecule made up of 100’s or 1000’s of smaller units called MONOMERS </li></ul><ul><li>Monomers link together to form large POLYMERS </li></ul><ul><li>formed by polymerization </li></ul>
  39. 48. The types of macromolecules: CARBOHYDRATES LIPIDS NUCLEIC ACIDS PROTEINS
  40. 49. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Made of Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Main source of energy for living things </li></ul><ul><li>Plants & some animals use for structural purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide (sugars & starches) </li></ul>
  41. 50. <ul><li>Simple sugars are monosaccharide. </li></ul><ul><li>Two monosaccharides join together to form a disaccharide </li></ul><ul><li>Longer carbohydrate molecules are called polysaccharides (starches). </li></ul>
  42. 51. Starch Glucose Section 2-3 Figure 2-13 A Starch Go to Section:
  43. 52. Lipids (Fats, Oils & Waxes) <ul><li>Made mostly from carbon & hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Used to store energy & waterproof coverings </li></ul><ul><li>Olive oil, peanut oil </li></ul>
  44. 53. <ul><li>A triglyceride is a fat if it is solid at room temperature and an oil if it is liquid at room temperature. </li></ul>
  45. 54. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Made of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, & phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Made of monomers called nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleotides consist of </li></ul><ul><li>1) a 5 carbon sugar </li></ul><ul><li>2) a phosphate group </li></ul><ul><li>3) a nitrogenous base </li></ul><ul><li>Store and transmit genetic information. </li></ul>
  46. 55. Proteins <ul><li>Made of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Polymers of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Some control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes </li></ul><ul><li>Some used to form bones & muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Others transport substances into or out of cells or help fight disease </li></ul>

×