E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries

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To get full report fill the request form on: http://wp.me/pLh8x-qn or e-mail: wiweck@gmail.com

The purpose of the report is to assess key drivers of the E-commerce Industry and evolving its growth scenarios and new e-commerce business model. Itnovations Georgia helped in gather secondary and primary information available over internet and other sources and conducted online poll & survey and applied analytical tools for qualitative and quantitative (for poll & survey) assessments. The major building blocks of the report are:

•Identify key trends of global e-commerce industry and its growth prospective..

•Countrywise development of e-commerce, size & growth, industry profitability factors in respect of B2B e-commerce.

•Consumer study on use of internet, social networks, online shopping and apprehend e-commerce trend.

•Assessment of impact of major cross-cutting external factors such as infrastructure, regulatory environment, use and access of IT, R&D development and innovation, availability of venture capital, the quality of science and engineering education and starting new businesses etc.

•Identification of selected countries e-commerce industry development and growth, based on experience of countries e-commerce development, and the priorities to become knowledge based economy.

•Analysis of B2B major player Alibaba.com and competitive analysis of B2B e-commerce.

•Evaluation of countries external dimension that are directly responsible for growth and development of e-commerce.

•Identify prospective consumer group for B2C and B2B e-commerce in selected countries.

This report contributes to Vivek K. Singh goal to help organizations and business leaders understand the e-commerce development prospective to excel success factors and evolving new business model to growth. I would like to emphasize that this work is independent and solely reflect author’s views.

To get full report fill the request form on: http://wp.me/pLh8x-qn or e-mail: wiweck@gmail.com

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E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries

  1. 1. E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |
  2. 2. Click to download the full report Disclaimer The report survey exhibits some of the key general findings of the Consumer Study on Internet and E-commerce developed by author, with the addition of industry trend, country insight, and competitive analysis of B2B e-commerce service providers. Participation in the online poll & survey is strictly confidential and selected example mentioned in report sections on industry trends do not necessarily imply to author e-commerce study. The opinions expressed in this report are those of the author. Data collected from the journals, various industry and companies’ reports and case studies. These views do not necessarily represent any company. E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |i
  3. 3. Insight Report E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries Strategic Report on E -commerce Industry Vivek K. Singh Independent Consultant Click to download the full report E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |ii
  4. 4. List of Content Disclaimer .................................................................................................................................................................... i About the report......................................................................................................................................................... ix Acronyms .................................................................................................................................................................... x 1. Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 1 A. Industry Classification ...................................................................................................................................... 1 B. B2B E-commerce ............................................................................................................................................. 1 I. B2B E-commerce Business Models ............................................................................................................... 2 II. B2B e-Marketplace ...................................................................................................................................... 2 C. Size and Growth .............................................................................................................................................. 3 I. Global: E-commerce S tatus Qu o ......................................................................................................... 3 II. Armenia: E-commerce S ta tus Q uo ................................................................................................. 4 III. Azerbaijan: E-commerce S ta tus Q uo ............................................................................................. 6 IV. Bulgaria: E-commerce S tatus Quo .................................................................................................. 7 V. Georgia: E-commerce S tatus Q uo ...................................................................................................... 8 VI. Kazakh stan : E-commerce S tatus Qu o ............................................................................................ 9 VII. Kyrgyzstan : E-commerce S tatus Q uo ........................................................................................... 11 VIII. IX. X. Moldova: E-commerce S tatus Quo ........................................................................................... 12 Romania: E- commerce S tatus Qu o ............................................................................................... 13 Turkey: E-commerce S tatus Qu o ...................................................................................................... 15 XI. Ukraine: E-commerce S tatus Quo ................................................................................................ 16 XII. Uzbekista n: E-commerce S ta tus Q uo .......................................................................................... 17 D. Profitability.................................................................................................................................................... 19 I. Industry P rofi tability .......................................................................................................................... 19 II. Complementary Se rvices or Model Profi tability ...................................................................... 20 III. Factors affect p rofi tability ............................................................................................................. 21 E. 2. SWOT Analysis ............................................................................................................................................... 23 Consumer Study................................................................................................................................................. 27 A. Linked Poll ..................................................................................................................................................... 27 B. Online Survey ................................................................................................................................................ 28 C. User Types and Usage (E-commerce Consumer Groups) ................................................................................ 42 3. Porter’s Five Forces ............................................................................................................................................ 45 A. Entry Barriers ................................................................................................................................................ 45 I. Entry & Exit ........................................................................................................................................... 45 II. III. Capital Intensity ............................................................................................................................... 45 IV. B. Eco nomy of Scale/Scope ................................................................................................................. 45 Network Exter nalities ..................................................................................................................... 45 Threat of Substitute ....................................................................................................................................... 46 E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |iii
  5. 5. I. Buyer Tenden cy to Cha nge ................................................................................................................ 46 II. Price Ela stici ty .................................................................................................................................. 46 III. Switching Co st ................................................................................................................................... 46 IV. Threat of Blue Ocean Strategies .................................................................................................. 47 C. Rivalry ........................................................................................................................................................... 47 I. Market S tru ctu re .................................................................................................................................. 48 II. Produ ct Differentiation .................................................................................................................. 48 III. Diversity of Op ponents ................................................................................................................... 48 IV. Traditio n of S trategic Respon ses ................................................................................................. 48 D. Buyer Power .................................................................................................................................................. 49 I. Scale and Scope of buyers ................................................................................................................. 49 II. Buyer’s Ability of Ba ckgrou nd Integration ................................................................................ 49 III. Cost Str uctu re of Bu yers ................................................................................................................ 49 E. Supplier Power .............................................................................................................................................. 49 I. Scale and Scope of S uppliers ............................................................................................................ 49 II. III. 4. Supplier’s Ability of Forwa rd Integration .................................................................................. 49 Supplier’s Indu stry S tru ctu re ........................................................................................................ 50 Macro-Environment ........................................................................................................................................... 52 A. Political Dimensions....................................................................................................................................... 52 I. Political Stability .................................................................................................................................. 52 II. Taxation Policy ...................................................................................................................................... 53 III. Foreign Trade Regulation ............................................................................................................... 54 IV. Research a nd Inn ovation Policy ................................................................................................... 55 B. Economic Dimensions .................................................................................................................................... 56 I. Business Cycle ....................................................................................................................................... 56 II. New Business De nsity ..................................................................................................................... 57 III. Ease of Doing B usiness ................................................................................................................... 58 IV. ICT Trade ............................................................................................................................................ 59 V. Foreign Dire ct Investment (F DI) ....................................................................................................... 60 VI. Venture Capi tal/Joint Ventu re an d S trategic Alliances .......................................................... 61 VII. E-commerce Business Investment an d M arket Potential ....................................................... 62 C. Social Dimensions.......................................................................................................................................... 64 I. Edu cation ............................................................................................................................................... 64 II. Scientific & Tech nical Jour nal Arti cle and Dai ly Newspaper Circulation ........................... 66 III. Research a nd Development (R&D) ............................................................................................... 67 IV. ICT Access an d Use .......................................................................................................................... 67 V. Uni versity & Indu stry Re search Collabo ration and Quality of Research Institu tion .......... 68 VI. D. E- readiness or E-government and online parti cipation ......................................................... 69 Technological Dimensions .............................................................................................................................. 70 E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |iv
  6. 6. I. R&D Per formed and Finan ced by Business Enterprise and Abroad ......................................... 70 II. Patent .................................................................................................................................................. 71 III. ISO 9 00 1 Certification ..................................................................................................................... 72 IV. ICT and Business & Organizatio nal M odel Cre ation ................................................................ 72 E. Environmental Dimension.............................................................................................................................. 73 F. Legal Dimensions........................................................................................................................................... 73 I. Electronic Contracts a nd Dispute Handling ................................................................................... 74 II. 5. Privacy an d Se curity ........................................................................................................................ 74 Competitive Analysis .......................................................................................................................................... 76 A. The B2B E-commerce Value Chain.................................................................................................................. 76 I. Value Adde d Se rvices .......................................................................................................................... 79 II. Vertical Concen tration ........................................................................................................................ 80 III. Strategic Synergies of M&A ........................................................................................................... 81 B. Hype Cycle: A key mentality constraint to implement e-commerce ................................................................ 81 C. Case Study: Alibaba.com................................................................................................................................ 84 D. Rivalry Analysis .............................................................................................................................................. 91 Appendix A: Country Insight ....................................................................................................................................... 98 Appendix B: LinkedIn Poll and Online Survey ............................................................................................................. 157 Appendix C: Advantages of ISO 9001 Certification ..................................................................................................... 171 List of references ..................................................................................................................................................... 172 Click to download the ful report E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |v
  7. 7. List of Exhibits Exhibit 1.1: Global B2B E-commerce Growth ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Exhibit 1.2: Mobile B2B E-commerce Growth ……………………………………………………...……………………………………………………………… Exhibit 1.3: Armenia: Telecom, Internet Users and Populations…………………………………………………………………………………………….. Exhibit 1.4: E-commerce trade…………………………………….…………………………………………….……………………………………………………….. Exhibit 1.5: Gross Electronic payment…………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………... Exhibit 1.6: Total no. of payment cards in circulation…………….…………………………………………………..………………………………………….. Exhibit 1.7: Azerbaijan: Telecom, Internet Users and Populations…………….………………………………………………….……......................... Exhibit 1.8: Gross electronic payment……………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………….... Exhibit 1.9: Payment cards in circulation………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………….. Exhibit 1.10: Value of the purchase and sales via a website…………………………………………………………………………..………………………. Exhibit 1.11: Bulgaria: Telecom, Internet Users and Populations……….…………………………………………………………………………………… Exhibit 1.12: Transaction through Internet ……………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………….... Exhibit 1.13: Payment cards in circulation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Exhibit 1.14: Transaction with payment cards…..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Exhibit 1.15: Georgia: Telecom, Internet Users and Populations……….…………………………………………………………………………………… Exhibit 1.16: Kazakhstan: Telecom, Internet Users and Populations……….……………………………………………………….……………………... Exhibit 1.17: Payment cards in circulation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Exhibit 1.18: Transaction with payment cards…............................................................................................................................................. Exhibit 1.19: E-commerce growth forecast in Kazakhstan by i-miz.kz. …………………………………………………………….……………………... Exhibit 1.20: Kyrgyzstan: Telecom, Internet Users and Populations……….…….………………………………………………….……………………… Exhibit 1.21: Transaction made by payment cards……………………………………………………………………………………..………………………… Exhibit 1.22: Moldova: Telecom, Internet Users and Populations……….…….…………………………………………………….…………………….. Exhibit 1.23: Total no. of card in circulation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Exhibit 1.24: Transaction made by payment cards……………………………………………………………………………………..………………………… Exhibit 1.25: E-commerce transaction value …………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………… Exhibit 1.26: E-commerce transaction forecast from 2010 to 2013……………………………………………………………………………………….. Exhibit 1.27: Romania: Telecom, Internet Users and Populations……….…….…………………………………………………….…………………….. Exhibit 1.28: Payment cards in circulation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Exhibit 1.29: Transaction with payment cards…............................................................................................................................................ Exhibit 1.30: E-commerce Trade Volume ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………… Exhibit 1.31: Turkey: Telecom, Internet Users and Populations……….…….…………………………………………………….…..……………………. Exhibit 1.32: Payment Cards ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Exhibit 1.33: Debit and Credit card Payments on internet ………………………………………………………………………..………………………..... Exhibit 1.34: Ukraine: Telecom, Internet Users and Populations …………………………………………………………………………………………… Exhibit 1.35: Uzbekistan: Telecom, Internet Users and Populations……….…….………………………………….…………………………………….. Exhibit 1.36: Payment cards ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Exhibit 1.37: Payment cards transaction. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Exhibit 1.38: B2B E-commerce sales ……………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………. Exhibit 1.39: B2B E-commerce sales by region in billion euro 2003-2008 ………………………………………………..……………………………. Exhibit 1.40: B2B E-commerce sales by region in percent, 2003-2008……………………………………………..……………………………………. Exhibit 1.41: B2B E-commerce sales in selected countries of Western Europe in billion euro, 2003-2008……………………………….. Exhibit 2: Poll Response …………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Exhibit 2.1: Place of internet access ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………….. Exhibit 2.2: Purpose to use internet (aggregate illustration) …………………………………………………………………………………………………. Exhibit 2.3: Frequency of internet use (aggregate illustration). ……………………….…………………………………………………………………….. Exhibit 2.4: Smartphone & Tablet dispersion (aggregate illustration)……………………………………………………………………………………... 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 10 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 27 28 28 28 29 E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |vi
  8. 8. Exhibit 2.5: Social Network (aggregate illustration)…………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………. Exhibit 2.6: Online shopping trend (aggregate illustration) …………………………………………………………………………..………………………. Exhibit 2.7: Recurrence of online shopping (aggregate illustration) ……………………………………….…………………….………………………... Exhibit 2.8: Commonly used payment methods (aggregate illustration) ……………………………………………………………………………….. Exhibit 2.9: Concern during online shopping (aggregate illustration)……………………………………………………………………………………… Exhibit 2.10: Trust level on online shops (aggregate illustration) …………………………………………………………………………………………… Exhibit 2.11: Years of using e-commerce (aggregate illustration)…………………………………………………………………………………………… Exhibit 2.12: Purpose of using e-commerce (aggregate illustration) ……………………………………………………………………………………… Exhibit 2.13: Usefulness of e-commerce for consumer in e-business (aggregate illustration) ………………..……………………………….. Exhibit 2.14: Usefulness of e-commerce in business discourse (aggregate illustration) …………………………………………………………... Exhibit 2.15: Implementation motivation of e-commerce in existing business activities ……………………….………………………………… Exhibit 2.16: Challenges to implement e-commerce ……………………………………….…………………………………………………………………... Exhibit 2.17: Perception on e-commerce development …………………..…………………………………………………………………………………... Exhibit 2.18: Government support to promote e-commerce ………………………………………………………………….……………………………. Exhibit 2.19: Government support to private channel to increase consumer trust level…………………………………………………………. Exhibit 2.20: Future of e-commerce …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Exhibit 4: Change in Real GDP growth (annual %) ……………………….……………………………………………………………………………………….. Exhibit 4.1: ICT Goods Export & Import ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Exhibit 4.2: Foreign direct investment, net inflow (%GDP) …………………………………………………………………………….……………………… Exhibit 4.3: Foreign direct investment, net inflow (BoP, US$ in billion) ………………………………………………………….……………………….. Exhibit 4.4: Foreign direct investment, net outflow (%GDP) ………………………………………………………………………….……………………… Exhibit 4.5: Percentage of individual using the internet ………………………………………………………………………..………………………………. Exhibit 4.6: ICT expenditure (current US$) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Exhibit 5: B2B E-commerce Value Chain ……………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………….. Exhibit 5.1: Carrier Offerings ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………….. Exhibit 5.2: Content Offerings ……………………….…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………… Exhibit 5.3: B2B E-commerce Applications ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Exhibit 5.4: Gartner Inc. IT Hype Cycle ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...... Exhibit 5.5: The Vision Gap Model ………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………….. Exhibit 5.6: IT Hype Cycle of selected countries …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30 31 31 32 33 33 34 35 35 36 37 38 39 40 40 41 57 59 60 60 61 63 63 76 76 77 78 81 82 83 List of Tables Table 1: Global Telecom Snapshot …………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………… Table 2.1: Countrywise insight on place of internet access ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Table 2.2: Countrywise insight on frequency of use of internet ………………………………….………………………………………………………... Table 2.3: Countrywise insight on purpose to internet use ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Table 2.4: Countrywise insight on Smartphone & Tablet use………………………………………….……………………………………………………. Table 2.5: Countrywise insight on social network use ………………………………………………………..……………………………………………...... Table 2.6: Countrywise insight on online shopping trend ……………………………………………………..…………………………………………...... Table 2.7: Countrywise insight on recurrence of online shopping ………………………………………..………………………………………………. Table 2.8: Countrywise insight on commonly use payment method ……………………………………………………………….......................... Table 2.9: Countrywise insight on concerns during online shopping ………………………………………………………………........................... Table 2.10: Countrywise insight on trust level on online shops ………………………………………………………………………........................... Table 2.11: Countrywise insight on years of using e-commerce ……………………………………………………………………............................ Table 2.12: Countrywise insight on purpose of using e-commerce ……………………………………….…………………………......................... Table 2.13: Countrywise insight on usefulness of e-commerce for consumer in e-business ………………………………………………….. 1 28 28 29 29 30 31 31 32 33 33 34 35 35 E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |vii
  9. 9. Table 2.14: Countrywise insight on usefulness of e-commerce in business discourse ………….……………………………………………….. Table 2.15: Countrywise insight on motivation for e-commerce implementation in existing business ……………………………………. Table 2.16: Countrywise insight on challenges to implement e-commerce ………………………………………………………………………….. Table 2.17: Countrywise insight on perception on e-commerce development …………………………………………………………………….. Table 2.18: Countrywise insight on government support to promote e-commerce ………………….………………………………………….. Table 2.19: Countrywise insight on government support to private channel to increase consumer trust ……………………………….. Table 2.20: Countrywise insight on future of e-commerce ………………………………………………….………………………………………………. Table 3: Blue Ocean Strategy ……………………………………………………………………..……………………….…………………………………………….. Table 4: Political Environment Indices ………………………………………………………..……………………….……………………………………………… Table 4.1: Foreign trade turnover in 2011 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………… Table 4.2: Major economic factors …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………… Table 4.3: New business density rank and score ……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………….. Table 4.4: Easiness of doing business ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………….. Table 4.5: Computer, Communication and other services export & import ……………………………………………..……..……………………. Table 4.6: Venture capital deal, joint venture/Strategic alliance, Venture capital availability …………………………..………………………. Table 4.7: Internet & Facebook users and penetration rate ……….…………………………………………………………………..……………………. Table 4.8: B2C E-commerce estimation by eMartketer.com ………………….………………………………………………………..…………………… Table 4.9: Education Indicators ………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………..………………….. Table 4.10: Scientific & Technical journal articles ………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………….. Table 4.11: Research and development expenditure (%GDP) ………………………………………………………………………..……………………. Table 4.12: ICT Access and Use ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………... Table 4.13: Quality of scientific research institutions, University/Industry research collaboration ………….……..………………………… Table 4.14: Online service index and its components ………………………………………..…………………………………………..……………………. Table 4.15: Gross domestic expenditure on research and development in 2009 …………………………………………..……………………… Table 4.16: Patent Statistics 2011 ………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………..……………………. Table 4.17: ISO 9001: Quality management system certification 2011 …………………………………………….………….……………………….. Table 4.18: Business model creation, Organization model creation ……………….……………………………………………..……………………… Table 5: Alibaba’s History Timeline …………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..……………………. 36 37 38 39 40 40 41 47 52 54 56 58 58 59 62 63 63 65 66 67 68 69 69 71 71 72 72 84 Click to download the full report E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |viii
  10. 10. About the report This Report has been prepared by the Vivek K. Singh for identify the E-commerce potential in selected Black Sea and CIS countries. The purpose of the report is to assess key drivers of the E-commerce Industry and evolving its growth scenarios and new e-commerce business model. Itnovations Georgia helped in gather secondary and primary information available over internet and other sources and conducted online poll & survey and applied analytical tools for qualitative and quantitative (for poll & survey) assessments. The major building blocks of the report are:  Identify key trends of global e-commerce industry and its growth prospective.  Countrywise development of e-commerce, size & growth, industry profitability factors in respect of B2B ecommerce.  Consumer study on use of internet, social networks, online shopping and apprehend e-commerce trend.  Assessment of impact of major cross-cutting external factors such as infrastructure, regulatory environment, use and access of IT, R&D development and innovation, availability of venture capital, the quality of science and engineering education and starting new businesses etc.  Identification of selected countries e-commerce industry development and growth, based on experience of countries e-commerce development, and the priorities to become knowledge based economy.  Analysis of B2B major player Alibaba.com and competitive analysis of B2B e-commerce.  Evaluation of countries external dimension that are directly responsible for growth and development of ecommerce.  Identify prospective consumer group for B2C and B2B e-commerce in selected countries. This report contributes to Vivek K. Singh goal to help organizations and business leaders understand the ecommerce development prospective to excel success factors and evolving new business model to growth. I would like to emphasize that this work is independent and solely reflect author’s views. Click to download the full report E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |ix
  11. 11. Acronyms ADB IDA International Development Association ILO International Labor Organization AM or ARM AMD ASP ATP Asian Development Bank State Agency on Intellectual Property of the Republic of Moldova Armenia Armenian Dram Application Service Provider Autonomous Trade Preference IMF IP IPR ISAF AZ or AZE Azerbaijan ISO AZN B2B B2C B2E B2G BASSCOM BEA BGN BGR bln. BM BoP BSEC BY C2B C2C C2G CA CEE Azerbaijani Manat Business-to-Business Business-to-Consumer Business-to-Employee Business-to-Government Bulgarian Association of Software Companies Bulgarian E-commerce Association Bulgarian Lev Bulgaria Billion Business Model Balance of Payment Black Sea Economic Cooperation Belarus Consumer-to-Business Consumer-to-Consumer Citizen-to-Government Certification Authorities Central and Eastern Europe ISP IT ITU KG or KGZ KGS KITA KZ or KAZ KZT LAN M&A M-commerce MD or MDA MDA mln. MP n/a NATO NBM NGO CEFTA Central European Free Trade Agreement OECD CIS CIT OEM OIC OM Organization Model COMECON Commonwealth of Independent States Corporate Income Tax Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Confederation of Independent Trade Union of Bulgaria Council for Mutual Economic Assistance International Monetary Fund Innovation Policy Intellectual Property Right International Security Assistance Force International Organization for Standardization Internet Service Provider Information Technology International Telecommunication Union Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstani Som Korea International Trade Association Kazakhstan Kazakhstani Tenga Local Area Network Merger and Acquisition Mobile Commerce Moldova Moldovan Leu Million Member of Parliament Not Available North Atlantic Treaty Organization National Bank of Moldova Non-Governmental Organization Organization for Economic Cooperation Development Original Equipment Manufacture Organization of the Islamic Conference CPI Corruption Perception Index PCA CPL CRM CSTO CU EAI e-Banking Consumer Protection Law Customer Relationship Management Collective Security Treaty Organization Custom Union Enterprise Application Integration Electronic Banking European Bank for Reconstruction and Development E-commerce Business Electronic Commerce Act Electronic Commerce European Commission against Racism and Intolerance PCT PDA PIT PKI PSA PSTN Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Point-to-Point or Person-to-Person Partnership and Cooperation Agreement Patent Cooperation Treaty Personal Digital Assistant Personal Income Tax Public Key Infrastructure Production Sharing Agreements Public Switched Telephone Network QMS Quality Management System R&D RATS RMB Research and Development Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure Renminbi ROM Romania AGEPI CITES CITUB EBRD E-business ECA E-commerce ECRI OSCE P2P E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |x
  12. 12. EDI EDL EE RON SaaS SBA Romanian Leu Software as a Service Small Business Administration SCO Shanghai Cooperation Organization e-Government EIA e-Marketplace EP e-Payment Electronic Data Interchange Electronic Document Law Environmental Expertise EU-Eastern Europe and Central Asia for ICT Research, Development and Policy Dialogue Electronic Government Environmental Impact Assessment Electronic Marketplace Eastern Partnership Electronic Payment SDR SECI SERP SME SPNT ERP Enterprise Resource Planning SWIFT e-Signature ETG EU EUR EurASEC FDI Electronic Signature Electronic Trade Ground European Union Euro Eurasian Economic Community Foreign Direct Investment Thou. TI TJ TLD TM TR or TUR FEZ Free Economic Zone TRIPS FTA G2B G2C G2E Free Trade Agreement or Free Trade Area Government-to-Business Government-to-Citizen Government-to-Employee TRY or TL UA or UKR UAH UIS G2G Government-to-Government UNCTAD GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services UNDP GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade UNESCO GDP Gross Domestic Product UNPAN GE or GEO Georgia URL GEL Georgian Lari USAID Special Drawing Rights Southeast Europe Cooperation Initiative Search Engine Result Page Small and Medium Enterprises Specially Protected Natural Territories Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication Thousand Transparency International Tajikistan Top-level domain Turkmenistan Turkey Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Turkish Lira Ukraine Ukrainian Hryvnia UNESCO Institute for Statistics United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Development Programme United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization United Nations Public Administration Network Uniform Resource Locator United States Agency for International Development EECA-ICT GMAT GNI GNP GOR Govt. GSP GUAM Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development Graduate Management Admission Test Gross National Income Gross National Product Government of Romania Government Generalized System of Preferences Georgian, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova HGA Host Government Agreement WIPO IAMAI ICT Internet and Mobile Association of India Information and Communication Technology WM WTO GERD USD American Dollar USSR UTC UZ or UZB UZS VAN VAT WG Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Coordinated Universal Time Uzbekistan Uzbekistani Som Value-Added Network Value Added Tax Working Group World Intellectual Property Organization Wire Money World Trade Organization Download the full report E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |xi
  13. 13. Part I: Industry Profile Click to download the full report E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |xii
  14. 14. Part II: Consumer Study Click to download the full report
  15. 15. Part III: E-commerce Competitive Forces Click to download the full report E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |14
  16. 16. Part IV: Externalities Click to download the full report E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |15
  17. 17. Part V: Competitive Landscape and Case Study In context of B2B E-commerce Click to download the full report E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |16
  18. 18. APPENDIXES Click to download the full report E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |17
  19. 19. Click to download the full report E-commerce Prospective in Black Sea and CIS Countries |18

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