Public Rights in Copyright: 10 principles for ‘copyleft’ Graham Greenleaf University of New South Wales GLAM-WIKI Conferen...
What rights do the public have to use works? <ul><li>What rights do the public have to use works? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Us...
Defining public rights <ul><li>“ Public rights”  are all those aspects of copyright law and practice that provide the abil...
Global & national  public rights <ul><li>Global public rights:  Some elements are common to most jurisdictions </li></ul><...
National influences affecting Australia’s © public rights <ul><li>None unique, but a distinctive combination </li></ul><ul...
Public rights need Principles <ul><li>Copyright laws clearly articulate the interests of authors and other creators: the  ...
10 Principles for Public Rights in Australian © <ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Limits on exclusive rights </li></ul><ul...
1 Balance <ul><li>Copyright laws should balance effective protection of the interests of private rights-holders (including...
2  Limits on exclusive rights <ul><li>Copyright protection should be  limited  strictly to the protection of  expressions ...
3 Minimum term <ul><li>The term of copyright protection should be limited to the  minimum duration  achievable, and should...
4 Preservation of Australian publications <ul><li>Australian publications should be  preserved  in a manner which ensures ...
5 Fair & flexible exceptions <ul><li>Exceptions to copyright law should allow  fair use  of works by the public in a  flex...
6 Fair statutory licences <ul><li>Collecting societies and statutory licences should operate to give appropriate protectio...
6 Cont. <ul><ul><li>Goal: Collecting societies must not impede their members’ use of voluntary licences. </li></ul></ul><u...
7 Support for  voluntary licensing <ul><li>Copyright law should  support  and not impede the role of  voluntary licensing ...
8 Protection from technology & contracts <ul><li>Technological or contractual measures should not be allowed to reduce pub...
9 Proportionality  in enforcement <ul><li>Copyright should generally be enforced through the civil law, with penalties tha...
10  Free/open access to  publicly-funded content  <ul><li>Australian publicly-funded content should be available for  free...
10 cont. <ul><ul><li>Goal: The Cutler Report recommendations that Australian PSI should be released under creative commons...
Background <ul><li>G Greenleaf ‘National and International Dimensions of Copyright’s Public Domain (An Australian Case Stu...
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Public Rights in Copyright - Greenleaf

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presentation at GLAM-WIKI, August 6 2009 by Graham Greenleaf. http://glam.wikimedia.org.au

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  • (Includes all of 1-4) More accurately, these describe effective rights
  • It makes some sense to talk of a ‘global public domain’ (or ‘global public rights’)
  • Values in fostering innovation, access to knowledge etc. What others are worth considering? I suggest goals
  • Public Rights in Copyright - Greenleaf

    1. 1. Public Rights in Copyright: 10 principles for ‘copyleft’ Graham Greenleaf University of New South Wales GLAM-WIKI Conference, Canberra, 6-7 August 2009
    2. 2. What rights do the public have to use works? <ul><li>What rights do the public have to use works? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses of works which are outside the exclusive rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses of works where there is no copyright owner (© has expired) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The public’s statutory rights to use works, where there is a © owner, which uses would otherwise be exclusive rights of the © owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>De facto usage of owner’s rights which go unchallenged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do we call these? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Public domain’ and ‘Commons’ are both ambiguous in scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those favouring their broader usage want their rhetorical value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Public rights’ is used by me to encompass all of 1-4 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Defining public rights <ul><li>“ Public rights” are all those aspects of copyright law and practice that provide the ability of the public to use works without obtaining a licence on terms set (and changeable) by the copyright owner. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The public” includes a class of the public, the members of which are not determined by the copyright owner. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private/proprietary rights are the rights the owner of copyright in a work can effectively exercise to refuse to allow another person to use the work, except on terms set by them. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Global & national public rights <ul><li>Global public rights: Some elements are common to most jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal : Constraints on public rights from near-universal adoption of Berne Convention and TRIPS (No registration, minimum terms, 3-step test etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ US multi-bilateralism through Free Trade Agreements? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal : Global effects of some aspects of the Internet (Viral licensing creating content-specific commons; Search engines creating a commons for searching texts) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Australian policy can’t alone change these </li></ul>
    5. 5. National influences affecting Australia’s © public rights <ul><li>None unique, but a distinctive combination </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of any significant constitutional limits on © (probably!) </li></ul><ul><li>The long history of legal deposit requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Crown copyright in legal/administrative documents </li></ul><ul><li>No significant other limits on the scope of © subject-matter </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of compilations perhaps even beyond the EU </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow, specific, fair dealing exceptions: inflexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Limited implied licences, broad authorisation doctrines </li></ul><ul><li>More extensive compulsory licences than many other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Highest international level of © duration, but no retrospectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Moral rights, but only co-extensive with economic rights </li></ul><ul><li>The need to accommodate indigenous rights </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Overall, Australia is inhospitable to public rights, but with significant exceptions/moderating factors </li></ul>
    6. 6. Public rights need Principles <ul><li>Copyright laws clearly articulate the interests of authors and other creators: the exclusive rights of the copyright owner, and all that flows from them (eg enforcement) </li></ul><ul><li>Public rights are not so clearly articulated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are merely implied , or in scattered statutory provisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to consciously articulate, through a set of Principles, the common interests of those who support the value of public rights (is it that creativity depends on access to cultural heritage?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They need to take into account distinctive national factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I suggest 10 Principles to provoke discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles take into account Australian Digital Alliance’s (ADA’s) principles (1998) and the Adelphi Charter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles need to be separate from strategic Goals </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. 10 Principles for Public Rights in Australian © <ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Limits on exclusive rights </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum term </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of Australian publications </li></ul><ul><li>Fair & flexible exceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Fair statutory licences </li></ul><ul><li>Support for voluntary licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Protection from technology & contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Proportionality in enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Free/open access to publicly-funded content </li></ul>
    8. 8. 1 Balance <ul><li>Copyright laws should balance effective protection of the interests of private rights-holders (including moral rights) against the wider public interests in innovation, the advancement of learning, research, and access to knowledge that are supported by public rights in works. </li></ul><ul><li>Australia’s copyright laws should reflect our national interests, not any conflicting interests of other countries. Australia should contribute to the global sharing of public rights, enriching all. </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous peoples’ interests require special protection. </li></ul><ul><li>The proponents of any expansion of the scope of copyright protection or its methods of enforcement should have the onus of proving the need for change. </li></ul>
    9. 9. 2 Limits on exclusive rights <ul><li>Copyright protection should be limited strictly to the protection of expressions and should not extend to facts (except original compilations), ideas, procedures, methods of operation or similar matter. </li></ul><ul><li>The exclusive rights of copyright owners should not be expanded. </li></ul>
    10. 10. 3 Minimum term <ul><li>The term of copyright protection should be limited to the minimum duration achievable, and should not be extended further. </li></ul>
    11. 11. 4 Preservation of Australian publications <ul><li>Australian publications should be preserved in a manner which ensures that they are available to the public for re-use when copyright expires, and are available for the appropriate exercise of public rights before then. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: Legal deposit requirements should be extended appropriately to digital and audio-visual works (completion of the current review of Legal Deposit) </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. 5 Fair & flexible exceptions <ul><li>Exceptions to copyright law should allow fair use of works by the public in a flexible manner which can adjust to changes in technology and social practices while preserving the appropriate balance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: Legislative ‘safe harbours’ should be extended to give appropriate protection for intermediaries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: A system for orphan works should be developed which both supports innovation and creativity and is fair to rights-holders. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 6 Fair statutory licences <ul><li>Collecting societies and statutory licences should operate to give appropriate protection to public rights, to protect against anti-competitive conduct, and to provide maximum effectiveness and fairness to both public and private rights-holders. </li></ul>
    14. 14. 6 Cont. <ul><ul><li>Goal: Collecting societies must not impede their members’ use of voluntary licences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: Collecting societies must not collect in relation to content intended to be fee-free. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: The operation of all collecting societies and compulsory licences should undergo a thorough review. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. 7 Support for voluntary licensing <ul><li>Copyright law should support and not impede the role of voluntary licensing systems in expanding public rights in works. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: The Copyright Act should be amended to establish or clarify the means by which public domain dedications may be made. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 8 Protection from technology & contracts <ul><li>Technological or contractual measures should not be allowed to reduce public rights, nor distort the balance of rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Nor should they disproportionately affect other interests such as privacy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: The Copyright Law Review Committee’s recommendations in relation to contracts and copyright support this Principle and should be implemented. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 9 Proportionality in enforcement <ul><li>Copyright should generally be enforced through the civil law, with penalties that are proportional to the damage to the interests of private rights-holders. </li></ul><ul><li>Criminalisation of copyright law should be minimised and there should be no criminal offences of strict liability. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: Offences of strict liability in relation to copyright should be repealed. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. 10 Free/open access to publicly-funded content <ul><li>Australian publicly-funded content should be available for free public access and wherever possible should have appropriate re-use rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Sector Information (PSI) should be made available by governments as open content unless there are compelling reasons otherwise. </li></ul><ul><li>Governments should facilitate effective access to both PSI and any non-copyright information that they hold, and should not use any other measures to impede access to it. </li></ul>
    19. 19. 10 cont. <ul><ul><li>Goal: The Cutler Report recommendations that Australian PSI should be released under creative commons licences to the maximum extent possible should be implemented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: The Cutler Report recommendations that Australian research, and content such as national collections, ‘should be freely available over the internet as part of the global public commons’, should be implemented. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Background <ul><li>G Greenleaf ‘National and International Dimensions of Copyright’s Public Domain (An Australian Case Study)’ (2009) 6:2 SCRIPTed </li></ul><ul><li><http://www.law.ed.ac.uk/ahrc/script-ed/issue6-2.asp> </li></ul>

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