Child abuse and maltreatment for merge


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Child abuse and maltreatment for merge

  1. 1. You have role to play in child abuse CHILD ABUSEDefinition of Child Abuse:A broad definition of child abuse implies purposeful and serious injury inflicted upon a child by acaregiver, Child abuse is defined as a variety of harmful behaviors directed against children. Child abuse can be seen as situation whereby the fundamental human right of a child istempered with. That is, the child is not given adequate care and protection as its the responsibilityof every parent to take good care of their children. These rights are: right to education, religion, freedom, movement, Shelter etc. The child on most occasions is exposed to unnecessary hardship and odds in life.Research has shown that age: 67% of abused children are less than 1 year old; 80% are lessthan 3 years old, while 90% are less than 15years.QUESTION: ARE GIRLS OFTEN ABUSE THAN BOYS?Answer:Girls are somewhat more likely to be abused. According to statistics published in 1996, about52% of victims of abused were female and 48% were male. Data obtained in the federally funded2005 study demonstrate no significant change in these values.QUESTION: WHO ABUSES CHILDREN?Answer:Those who abuses children are According to the statistics, the majority of perpetrators of childmistreatment or abuse (77%) are parents and another 11% are other relatives of the victim.People who are in other caretaking relationships to the victim (for example, child-care providers,foster parents, and facility staff) account for only 2% of the offenders. About 10% of allperpetrators are classified as non-caretakers or unknown individuals. In many states, childabusers by definition must be in a caretaking role.An estimated 81% of all offenders are under age 40. Overall, approximately 61% of perpetratorsare female, although the gender of the abuser differs by the type of mistreatment. Neglect andmedical neglect are most often attributed to female caretakers, while sexual abuse is most oftenassociated with male offenders. The EFFECTS and CONSEQUENCES of child abuse by OFFOR SON
  2. 2. You have role to play in child abuseQUESTION: WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF CHILD ABUSE?Answer:FAMILY STRUCTURECertain types of families have an increased risk of child abuse and neglect. However, single-parent families usually earn less money than other families, so this may account for the increasedrisk of abuse. Families with chronic marital discord or spousal abuse have higher rates of childabuse than families without these problems. In addition, families in which either the husband orwife dominates in making important decisions—such as where to live, what jobs to take, when tohave children, and how much money to spend on food and housing—have higher rates of childabuse than families in which parents share responsibility for these decisions. SOCIAL STRESSStress brought on by a variety of social conditions raises the risk of child abuse within a family.These conditions include unemployment, illness, poor housing conditions, a larger-than-averagefamily size, the presence of a new baby or a disabled person in the home, and the death of afamily member. A large majority of reported cases of child abuse come from families living inpoverty. Child abuse also occurs in middle-class and wealthy families, but it is better reportedamong the poor for several reasons. Wealthier families have an easier time hiding abuse becausethey have less contact with social agencies than poor families.Alcohol and drug use, common among abusive parents, may aggravate stress and stimulateviolent behavior. Certain characteristics of children, such as mental retardation or physical ordevelopmental disabilities can also increase the stress of parenting and the risk of abuse.CHILD-REARING PRACTICES.In the United States, immigrants bring their cultural heritage with them, including how to parentchildren. What may not have been considered child abuse in their home country could beconstrued as abuse in the U.S. In addition, child-rearing practices that are more punishment-oriented create a greater risk of child abuse.DOMESTIC VIOLENCE.When domestic violence is present, one parent may not be able to protect the child from anotherparents abusive behavior because that parent is also being abused. Children may be harmedwhile trying to protect a parent from domestic violence or as a result of the violence.LOW SELF-CONFIDENCE.Parents with low self-esteem are more susceptible to abusing their children because they oftensee themselves as worthless and may take out their feelings of inadequacy on their children.DRUG AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS.Parents with drug and alcohol problems are at a much higher risk of abusing their children.Parents with drug and alcohol problems are 3 times more likely to physically or sexually assaulttheir children than those parents without such problems.STRESSFUL CIRCUMSTANCESStressful circumstances can trigger child abuse. Such circumstances include poverty, singleparenting, parenting as a teen or twenty-something, domestic violence and raising a disabled The EFFECTS and CONSEQUENCES of child abuse by OFFOR SON
  3. 3. You have role to play in child abusechild. Parents struggling to raise children in these tense situations might become so distraughtthat their repeated losses of temper or neglect of their childrens basic needs cause physical andpsychological harm to their children.EMOTIONAL ILLNESSESThe causes of abuse generally fall into one of two categories: emotional illnesses and stressfulcircumstances affecting the abused childrens parents.Many parents who would never harm their children under ordinary circumstances can becomeneglectful or abusive when suffering from an untreated mental illness or substance abuse, notesPrevent Child Abuse New York in "General Causes and Risk Factors for Child Abuse." Childrenwhose mother is deeply depressed may find that she cannot make their meals or wash theirclothes. If a father becomes an alcoholic, his children might discover that their father is violent orunpredictable when he is drunk.ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORSWhile individual child abuse incidents can happen at any time, abusive environments also sharesimilar characteristics. According to a study from the Family Violence Prevention Fund, socialisolation is present in many families whee child abuse is present. And although low-income andlow-education households also have higher rates of child abuse, this isnt always the case. Incommunities where there is a high level of social cohesion, such as small communities whereeveryone knows each other and experience high levels of social trust and common values, childabuse rates are lower even in low-income and low-education level families. TYPES OF CHILD ABUSE ARE LISTED BELOW:- Physical Abuse- Sexual Abuse- Mental Abuse or Emotional Abuse- Child Neglect- Child ExploitationPHYSICAL ABUSE: Physical abuse is an act of another party involving contact intended to cause feelings of physical pain, injury or other physical suffering or bodily harm, it also involve the physical aggression directed at a child by an adult or it is defined as excessive intentional physical injury to a child or excessive corporal punishment of a child.FORMS OF PHYSICAL ABUSE ARE:- Corporal punishment by parents is subject to evaluation and interpretation. In general, corporal punishment should be avoided, though spanking with a hand and other forms of mild physical punishment that do not leave any marks are still considered within the realm of parental discretion.- Any person who has been reared in an environment of violence may be more likely to inflict violence on others. People who recognize their tendencies to get angry, out of control, or The EFFECTS and CONSEQUENCES of child abuse by OFFOR SON
  4. 4. You have role to play in child abuse violent should seek help. They can learn anger-management and child-rearing techniques, and try to suppress their violent tendencies through conscious and diligent effort at all times.- Punishment that leads to marks that last for more than a few minutes can be interpreted as abuse, regardless of intention. The use of any objects to strike a child (other than with your open hand) is wrong. That includes belts, paddles, sticks, or any other object. A family tradition of beatings or the fact that the parent was subjected to physical abuse is not an acceptable excuse for injury to a child.- Excessive physical discipline is harmful and dangerous to children. Small children can be killed by relatively minor acts of physical violence (for example, shaking, dropping, or throwing the child against hard surfaces). Any severe beating with an object, forceful shaking, submersion in hot water, intentional burning, and other forms of intentional infliction of pain are inappropriate and criminal behaviors.EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL CHILD ABUSE ARE:- Stomachaches- Migraines- gut problem- Other physical symptoms not directly caused by the abuse – these are psychosomatic indicator.WARNING SIGNS OF PHYSICAL ABUSE IN CHILDREN Frequent injuries or unexplained bruises, welts, or cuts. Injuries appear to have a pattern such as marks from a hand or belt. Shies away from touch, flinches at sudden movements, or seems afraid to go home. Wears inappropriate clothing to cover up injuries, such as long-sleeved shirts on hot days. Trouble walking or sitting. Displays knowledge or interest in sexual acts inappropriate to his or her age, or even seductive behavior. Makes strong efforts to avoid a specific person, without an obvious reason.SEXUAL ABUSE:A generally accepted definition of sexual abuse is that of a child involved in sexual activity forwhich consent cannot be given, This is when an older person uses the body of a child for hissexual satisfaction, Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or olderadolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation or includes any activity that uses a child to createsexual gratification either in you or in others. Cases of child abuse are been reported all over theworld. Experts believe that sexual abuse may be the most underreported type of abuse becauseof the secrecy or "conspiracy of silence" that so often characterizes these cases.FORMS OF SEXUAL ABUSE ARE:- Changes in behavior, including discipline problems, fecal soiling, bed wetting, insomnia, nightmares, depression, or other changes in the way a child normally acts can be signs of sexual abuse. Parents should discuss the possible reasons for such changes in behaviors The EFFECTS and CONSEQUENCES of child abuse by OFFOR SON
  5. 5. You have role to play in child abuse with professionals who are in a position to properly evaluate the behavioral changes and explore the possibility of child sexual abuse.- Photographing, videotaping, or filming of children with the intent to create sexual stimulation is a form of child abuse as well.- Child sexual abuse includes prolonged kissing, cuddling, French kissing, and excessive touching. Looking at children either with or without clothes with the intent to be sexually aroused is also included.EXAMPLES OF SEXUAL CHILD ABUSEFor example a girl coming back from school who went to visit her friend who did not come toschool that day, on getting their the friend was not at home only the father of the friend,immediately, the girl opened the door the father of her friend answered and welcome her in, notknowing that his mind was evil, when the girl sat down the father shut the door and ask a girl aquestion which she refused to answer, the father of her friend was angry and told her that if sherefuse to answer the question that he will sleep with her, but the young girl refuse to answer thequestion, so the father of her friend gets upset with the girl and ask her to pull off her cloth, the girlwanted to shout but the friend father threaten her, that he will kill her if she shout, because of fearthe young girl did what the father of her friend ask her to do, and immediately the father of thefriend slept with this young girl of about 12years old, not only that he released sperm (a cell that isproduced by the sex organs of a male and that can combine with the female egg to produceyoung) into her virgina. The girl refuse to tell anyone what had happen to her so after few days thegirl got ill and the doctor checked her and noticed that something is eating her up, so the doctorconvince her to tell him what is the problem, that if she tell him that he will not let anyone aboutthat.EFFECTS OF SEXUAL CHILD ABUSE: Guilt and self-blame, flashbacks, insomnia, fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects, smells, places, etc.), self-esteem issues, sexual dysfunction, behavioral, cognitive and psychological effects. Unusual interest in or avoidance of all things of a sexual nature Guilt and Self-blame Nightmares Self-esteem issues Fear of visiting the Doctor Sleep problems or nightmares Depression or withdrawal from friends or family Seductiveness Statements that their bodies are dirty or damaged, or fear that there is something wrong with them in the genital areaMENTAL CHILD ABUSE:Mental abuse is a form of violence that affects the mind, often leaving the abused feelingworthless and lacking empowerment or Emotional abuse of a child is commonly defined as apattern of behavior by parents or caregivers that can seriously interfere with a child’s cognitive,emotional, psychological or social development. The EFFECTS and CONSEQUENCES of child abuse by OFFOR SON
  6. 6. You have role to play in child abuseFORMS OF MENTAL CHILD ABUSE OR EMOTIONAL ABUSE:- Ignoring a Child- Isolation of a Child- Constant belittling, shaming, and humiliating a child.- Calling names and making negative comparisons to others.- Telling a child he or she is ―no good," "worthless," "bad," or "a mistake."- Frequent yelling, threatening, or bullying.- Ignoring or rejecting a child as punishment, giving him or her silent treatment.EFFECTS OF MENTAL OR EMOTIONAL ABUSE:Emotional abuse has devastating physical and mental consequences. Children of abusePoor Self-EsteemAnxietyYou may be experiencing Emotional abuse if someone monitor yourWARNING SIGNS OF EMOTIONAL ABUSE IN CHILDREN- Excessively withdrawn, fearful, or anxious about doing something wrong.- Shows extremes in behavior (extremely compliant or extremely demanding; extremely passive or extremely aggressive).- Doesn’t seem to be attached to the parent or caregiver.- Acts either inappropriately adult (taking care of other children) or inappropriately infantile (rocking, thumb-sucking, throwing tantrums).- Limited physical contact with the child—no hugs, kisses, or other signs of affection.CHILD NEGLECTChild neglect a very common type of child abuse is a pattern of failing to provide for a childs basicneeds, whether it be adequate food, clothing, hygiene, or supervision. Child neglect is not alwayseasy to spot. Sometimes, a parent might become physically or mentally unable to care for a child,such as with a serious injury, untreated depression, or anxiety. Other times, alcohol or drug abusemay seriously impair judgment and the ability to keep a child safe.Older children might not show outward signs of neglect, becoming used to presenting acompetent face to the outside world, and even taking on the role of the parent. But at the end ofthe day, neglected children are not getting their physical and emotional needs met.WARNING SIGNS OF NEGLECT IN CHILDREN Clothes are ill-fitting, filthy, or inappropriate for the weather. Hygiene is consistently bad (unbathed, matted and unwashed hair, noticeable body odor). Untreated illnesses and physical injuries. Is frequently unsupervised or left alone or allowed to play in unsafe situations and environments. Warning signs of sexual abuse in childrenCHILD EXPLOITATIONChild exploitation is prevalent in some form or the other throughout the world, especially in thirdworld and other developing countries. Child exploitation involves evils such as recruiting childrento perform laborious tasks, indulging them in prostitution, acts of child trafficking, and so on. Allthese acts amount to social and moral evil, and are punishable offenses. People subjected toexploitation as children may turn out to be anti-social elements or child exploiters themselves.One needs to understand that children need to play and study during their childhood, and should The EFFECTS and CONSEQUENCES of child abuse by OFFOR SON
  7. 7. You have role to play in child abusenot be made to succumb to the difficulties of life at such an early age, as such things tend to makea deep impact on their lives.TIPS FOR TALKING TO AN ABUSED CHILD Avoid denial and remain calm. A common reaction to news as unpleasant and shocking as child abuse is denial. However, if you display denial to a child, or show shock or disgust at what they are saying, the child may be afraid to continue and will shut down. As hard as it may be, remain as calm and reassuring as you can. Don’t interrogate. Let the child explain to you in his or her own words what happened, but don’t interrogate the child or ask leading questions. This may confuse and fluster the child and make it harder for them to continue their story. Reassure the child that they did nothing wrong. It takes a lot for a child to come forward about abuse. Reassure him or her that you take what is said seriously, and that it is not the child’s fault. Safety comes first. If you feel that your safety or the safety of the child would be threatened if you try to intervene, leave it to the professionals. You may be able to provide more support later after the initial professional intervention.CHILD ABUSE CAN HAVE THE FOLLOWING CONSEQUENCES:1. It will encourage your child to lie, resent, fear, and retaliate, instead of loving, trusting, and listening2. It will alienate your child from you and the rest of your family & make him a recluse.3. It will lower your childs self esteem, and affect your childs psychological development and ability to behave normally outside his home.4. When your child grows up, your child could probably carry on the family tradition, and abuse your grandchildren.5. Your child may exclude you from his adult life. For example, you might not be invited to your childs wedding, or not be allowed any contact or relationship with your grandchildren.PREVENTIONPreventing child abuse requires a multisectoral approach. Effective programmes arethose that support parents and teach positive parenting skills. These include: visits by nurses to parents and children in their homes to provide support, education, and information; parent education, usually delivered in groups, to improve child-rearing skills, increase knowledge of child development, and encourage positive child management strategies; and Multi-component interventions, which typically include support and education of parents, pre-school education, and child care.Other prevention programmes have shown some promise. Programmes to prevent abusive head trauma (also referred to as shaken baby syndrome, shaken infant syndrome and inflicted traumatic brain injury). These are usually hospital- based programmes targeting new parents prior to discharge from the hospital, informing of the dangers of shaken baby syndrome and advising on how to deal with babies that cry inconsolably. The EFFECTS and CONSEQUENCES of child abuse by OFFOR SON
  8. 8. You have role to play in child abuse Programmes to prevent child sexual abuse. These are usually delivered in schools and teach children about: Body ownership. The difference between good and bad touch. How to recognize abusive situations. How to say "no". How to disclose abuse to a trusted adult.Such programmes are effective at strengthening protective factors against child sexual abuse(e.g. knowledge of sexual abuse and protective behaviours), but evidence about whether suchprogrammes reduce other kinds of abuse is lacking.The earlier such interventions occur in childrens lives, the greater the benefits to the child (e.g.cognitive development, behavioural and social competence, educational attainment) and tosociety (e.g. reduced delinquency and crime).In addition, early case recognition coupled with ongoing care of child victims and families can helpreduce reoccurrence of maltreatment and lessen its consequences.To maximize the effects of prevention and care, WHO recommends that interventions aredelivered as part of a four-step public health approach: Defining the problem; Identifying causes and risk factors; Designing and testing interventions aimed at minimizing the risk factors; Disseminating information about the effectiveness of interventions and increasing the scale of proven effective interventions.WAYS TO STOP CHILD ABUSE ARE:  Act on you suspicions. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, trust your instincts. Suspected abuse is enough of a reason to make a report to the authorities. You do not need proof.  Be aware of unexplained injuries. Note unusual burns or bruises in the shape of objects, or unconvincing explanations of a child’s injuries.  Notice changes in behavior. Abuse can lead to many changes in a child’s behavior, ranging from becoming isolated and withdrawn to becoming overly aggressive.  Notice a child’s fear of going home. If a child is a victim of physical or sexual abuse, he or she may display apprehension about leaving school or going places with the abuser.  Notice if a child is expressing inappropriate knowledge of sexual relations. If a child is a victim of sexual, he or she may exhibit overly sexual behavior, or use explicit sexual language.  Notice unexplained weight loss or other signs that a child is not getting enough to eat. Underfed children may be unusually sluggish or fatigued.  Notice if there is an unexplained drop in a child’s attendance at school. Children may be unable to attend school due to injuries from their abuse or intentionally held out of school to cover up visible signs of abuse.  Sex should be brought to the scheme of work for secondary school student.  Parent should be mindful of the kind of friends their child follow and the kind of uncle or aunty they visit.  Parent should not subject their children to any hard punishment that will lead to injuries.  Any parent that is caught abusing he/her child should be discipline by the Government so that all other parent can learn their lesson from it. The EFFECTS and CONSEQUENCES of child abuse by OFFOR SON
  9. 9. You have role to play in child abuseREFERENCES Dinwiddie S, Heath AC, Dunne MP, Bucholz KK, Madden PA, Slutske WS, Bierut LJ, StathamDB et al. (2000). "Early sexual abuse and lifetime psychopathology: a co-twin-control study".Psychological Medicine 30 (1): 41–52. Doi: 10.1017/S0033291799001373. PMID10722174. Whealin Julia (22 May 2007). "Child Sexual Abuse". National Center for Post Traumatic Stress ,Disorder, US Department of Veterans Affairs. Finkelhor D. (1994). "Current information on the scope and nature of child sexual abuse". The ,Future of Children (Princeton University) 4 (2): 31–53. Doi: 10.2307/1602522. JSTOR 1602522.PMID 7804768. Crimesagainst Children Research Center FamilyResearch Laboratory Gorey, K.M.; Leslie, D.R. (April 1997). "The prevalence of child sexual abuse: integrativereview adjustment for potential response and measurement biases". Child Abuse & Neglect 21(4): 391–8. Doi: 10.1016/S0145-2134(96)00180-9. PMID 9134267. Finkelhor, David; Richard Ormrod, and Mark Chaffin (2009). "Juveniles Who Comm. The EFFECTS and CONSEQUENCES of child abuse by OFFOR SON