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Organizational Behavior

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  1. 1. Presentation Slides to Accompany Organizational Behavior 10 th Edition Don Hellriegel and John W. Slocum, Jr. Chapter 7 — Managing Individual Stress
  2. 2. Slide 7.1 Learning Objectives for Managing Individual Stress <ul><li>Explain the concept of stress and stressors and a person’s response to stress </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the relationship between personality and stress </li></ul><ul><li>State the primary sources of stress in organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the effects of stress on health and job performance </li></ul><ul><li>Identify individual and organizational practices for managing stress </li></ul>
  3. 3. Slide 7.2 The Relationship Between Stressors and Experienced Stress Influenced by the Person’s: Perceptions Past Experiences Social Support Individual Differences Stress Experienced by the Person Stressors from the Environment
  4. 4. Slide 7.3 Behavioral Tendencies of the Type A Personality <ul><li>Time urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Competitiveness and hostility </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphasic behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of planning </li></ul>
  5. 5. Slide 7.4 Characteristics of the Hardy Personality <ul><li>Feeling a sense of commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to each difficulty as a challenge and an opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Having a sense of control over one’s life </li></ul>
  6. 6. Slide 7.5 Sources of Work Stressors and Experienced Stress Workload Job Conditions Role Conflict and Ambiguity Career Development Interpersonal Relations Aggressive Behavior Conflict Between Work and Other Roles Perceptions Past Experiences Social Support Individual Differences Stress Experienced by the Employee Influenced by the Employee’s: Work Stressors
  7. 7. Slide 7.6 Stressors and Work–Family Conflict Stressors Dissatisfaction Frustration Depression Work–Family Conflicts Work and Family Stress on Employee Work Versus Family Creates Leads to Triggers Possible Outcomes
  8. 8. Slide 7.7 Stressful Events for College Students High Stress Events Moderate Stress Events Low Stress Events * Death of parent * Academic probation * Change in eating habits * Change of major * Death of close friend * Failing important course * Finding a new love interest * Loss of financial aid * Major injury or illness * Parents’ divorce * Serious arguments with romantic partner * Outstanding achievement Source: Adapted from Baron, R. A., and Byrne, D. Social Psychology: Understanding Human Interaction , 6th ed. Boston, Allyn & Bacon, 1991, 573. * Death of spouse * Divorce * Flunking out * Unwed pregnancy * Change in sleeping habits * Change in social activities * Conflict with instructor * Lower grades than expected
  9. 9. Slide 7.8 Effects of Stress <ul><li>Physiological effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, sweating, hot and cold spells, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger, anxiety, depression, lowered self-esteem, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor performance, absenteeism, high accident rates, high turnover rates, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Slide 7.9 Health Impacts of Stress <ul><li>Health problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary heart disease, back pain, headaches, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on the organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased health insurance costs and lost work days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 75% of industrial accidents are rooted in stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress-related workers’ compensation claims </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Slide 7.10 Typical Relationship Between Performance and Stress Too Little Stress Optimum Stress Excessive Stress Low Amount of Stress High Level of Performance Low (poor) High (excellent)
  12. 12. Slide 7.11 Components and Characteristics of Burnout <ul><li>Components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State of emotional exhaustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depersonalization of individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings of low personal accomplishment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences high stress from work-related stressors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealistic and self-motivating achievers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often seek unattainable goals </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Slide 7.12 Individual Stress Management Initiatives <ul><li>Designed to eliminate or control sources of stress and improve the person’s ability to cope </li></ul><ul><li>A person can manage stress by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning ahead and practicing good time management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having good personal health management practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining a positive perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balancing work life and personal life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning a relaxation technique </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Slide 7.13 Organizational Stress Management Initiatives <ul><li>Designed to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and modify or eliminate work stressors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help employees modify perception of work stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help employees cope with the consequences of stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizations can manage stress by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing work stressors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modifying behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating wellness programs </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Slide 7.14 Organizational Stress Management Initiatives for Reducing Stressors <ul><li>Improvements in the physical work environment </li></ul><ul><li>Job design </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in workloads and deadlines </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in work schedules, more flexible hours, and sabbaticals </li></ul><ul><li>Increased employee participation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Slide 7.15 Organizational Stress Management Initiatives for Modifying Behaviors <ul><li>Team building </li></ul><ul><li>Career counseling and other employee assistance programs </li></ul><ul><li>Time management workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Job burnout workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Training in relaxation techniques </li></ul>