Edu 5356 curriculum theory chapter 4 and 9


Published on

A presentation on Curriculum Theory coursework.

Published in: Technology, Education
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Edu 5356 curriculum theory chapter 4 and 9

  1. 1. EDU 5356CURRICULUM THEORY Wirda (GS31836) 1
  2. 2. “Curriculum Theory” by Beauchamp, G.A. Chapter 4 & Chapter 9 Chapter 4 – Curriculum Theory  Theory Processes in Curriculum  H/O1 – “Curriculum Theory”, Curriculum: Foundations, Principles and Theory (2nd Edition), Ornstein A.C. & Hunkins F.P., USA (1993) ;page 183-208  Article 1 – “Basic Components of a Curriculum Theory”, Beauchamp G.A., Curriculum Theory Network, No. 10 (Autumn, 1972); page 16-22  Article 2 – “Beauchamp’s ‘Basic Components of a Curriculum Theory’ – A Rejoinder, Posner, G.J., Curriculum Theory Network, Vol. 4 No. 1 (1973-1974); page 56-60  Exemplars in Curriculum Thinking  H/O2 - “The Field of Curriculum” & “Historical Foundations of Curriculum”, Curriculum: Foundations, Principles and Theory (5th Edition), Ornstein A.C. & Hunkins F.P., Pearson Boston (2009) ;page 18-21 & 63-102  H/O3 - “Curriculum Theory”, Curriculum Design Techniques, Nelson, A., Wm. C. Brown Publishers Indiana (1990), page 1-21  H/O1 – “Curriculum Theory”, Curriculum: Foundations, Principles and Theory (2nd Edition), Ornstein A.C. & Hunkins F.P., USA (1993) ;page 183-208 2
  3. 3. “Curriculum Theory” by Beauchamp, G.A. Chapter 4 & Chapter 9  Emerging Status of Curriculum Theory  H/O4 – “Curriculum Theorizing”, Curriculum: Alternative Approaches Ongoing Issues, Marsh C.J. & Willis G., Pearson New Jersey (2007), page 94-145  H/O5 – “Curriculum Theorizing”, Key Concepts for Understanding Curriculum (4th Edition), Marsh C.J., Routledge New York (2009), page 249-259 Chapter 9 – The Nucleus of a Curriculum  Basic Definitions 3
  4. 4. Curriculum TheoryHilda Taba George J. Posner “any enterprise as complex  “theoretical perspectives as curriculum requires allow us to contemplate some kind of theoretical or and ‘see’ educational conceptual framework of landscapes in particular ways.” thinking to guide it.” H/O 1 4
  5. 5. Curriculum TheoryOrnstein & Hunkins “Good curriculum theory  “However, it is impossible to fully predict educational describes and explains the outcomes. Like other aspects concepts, principles, and of education, curriculum relationships that exist involves judgments, hunches, and insights that are not within the field. It also has always conducive to laws, predictive values, rigorous principles or generalizations. laws yield high probability Often, a curriculum does not emerge as a tightly regulated, and control. Good theory concise set of enterprises but also prescribes actions to evolves as one action or choice that leads to another.” be taken.” 5
  6. 6. The Meaning of TheoryGreek word - theoria George Beauchamp Means: wakefulness of  All theories are derived from mind 3 broad categories of basic realms of knowledge: It is a type of ‘pure viewing’ of truth 1. The Humanities (philosophy, music, art, literature, etc) Theory explains reality 2. The Natural Sciences Four functions to theory: (chemistry, physics, botany, 1. Description geology, etc) 2. Prediction 3. The Social Sciences (history, 3. Explanation sociology, psychology, 4. Guidance anthropology, etc) 6
  7. 7. Theory Processes in Curriculum Curriculum Theory- Definitions & Theory Content Building Activities Definition 3 ways of using the word “Curriculum” (p59) As a substantive Relationships between: A curriculum phenomenon –theory is a set of - Goals & culture content talks and plan on related it, a written - School organization & scope and sequencestatements that curriculum - Culture content & overall designgives meaning to a school A system – 1. The choice of arena for curriculum decision making. curriculum by consists of the 2. The selection and involvement of persons in c. planning. pointing up the people and relationships 3. organization for and techniques used in c. planning procedures among its needed 4. Writing of c. 5. implementing 6. evaluatingelements and by 7. Providing for feedback & modification directing its An area of development, professional use and Purpose is to advance knowledge on curriculums and study – a total curriculum systems. evaluation. field of study 7
  8. 8. Theory Processes in CurriculumDefinitions & Theory Curriculum Theory-Building Activities Content 2. 3. Inferential and 1. Establishment Classification predictive research 4. Sub-theory development & of descriptive of existing Development and use of models and new - Inferring (a logical and prescriptive - A mature theory is supported knowledge process) is a proposition definitions for with sub-theories or generalization derived technical terms - Another from evidence by - The sub-theories are dependent - Essential for theory reasoning. upon the concepts and procedures theorists to function - Prediction is a special of the theorist wishes to associate define the key - with the field of curriculum. E.g.: case of inference – terms of his field Classification, procedures for c.planning predictive relationships - e.g.: concepts system is research is designed so & implementation such as needed to that one can estimate the - Model building – useful in curriculum, show order unknown from the depicting procedures for subject matter, and known. E.g.: correlation c.planning & implementation design, relationships and regression analysis implementation, and - Can be borrowed from other meanings. - Curriculum itself is an areas of knowledge, eg: business evaluation expression of prediction 8
  9. 9. Exemplars in Curriculum Thinking Historical Foundations of Curriculum 1918-1949 Later19th century Developments The * Activity European The Transitional Analysis *Tyler Rationale Educators Development Period *Macdonald* Herbartian *26th Period *Dewey Yearbook Diagram movement * Rugg (child (statement of *Beauchamp (society working * Caswell centered) Framework centered) principles for curriculum) 9
  10. 10. H/O 2: page 72 10
  11. 11. H/O 2: page 87 11
  12. 12. H/O 3: page 3 12
  13. 13. H/O 2: page 89 13
  14. 14. H/O 2: page 90 14
  15. 15. H/O 2: page 92 & 93 15
  16. 16. H/O 2: page 93 & 94 16
  17. 17. Exemplars in Curriculum Thinking Historical Foundations of Curriculum 1918-1949 Later19th century Developments The * Activity European The Transitional Analysis *Tyler Rationale Educators Development Period *Macdonald* Herbartian *26th Period *Dewey Yearbook Diagram movement * Rugg (child (statement of *Beauchamp (society working * Caswell centered) Framework centered) principles for curriculum) 17
  18. 18. H/O 2: page 97 18
  19. 19. Later DevelopmentsBeauchamp Smith Curriculum theory was related  3 principal tasks which conceptually to theory building in other domains of knowledge. philosophy can help Basic principles: curriculum theorists:  Careful and consistent use of 1. To formulate and justify technical terminology educational purposes  Analysis and classification of knowledge and conjecture 2. To select and organize  Use of predictive research to knowledge increase the number of firm 3. To deal with verbal traps generalizations, or laws, were cited as principles that would give better explanation for curriculum phenomena 19
  20. 20. 20H/O 1 – page 194 & Curriculum Theory Book page 70 1. - The four systems prevalent in schooling. 2. - The curriculum system using a general systems model characterized by the components of input, content and process, output and feedback.
  21. 21. Later DevelopmentBroudy, Smith & Burnett Maccia  Page 73, CT book Page 72, CT book  4 types of curriculum theory: Curriculum is depicted as 1. Curriculum theory (event theory) part of a total system of - Sorting out and characterizing of events and relating them influence directed at 2. Formal curriculum theory students. - Focussed on the structure of curriculum content 3. Valuational curriculum theory - Concerned with the issue of what instructional content is the most valuable to present 4. Praxiological curriculum theory - Speculation about appropriate curriculum means for reaching curriculum objectives 21
  22. 22. Later DevelopmentsJohnson’s Six-PointSchema for Curriculum• a curriculum is the outputof a curriculum developmentsystem• the curriculumdevelopment system is notcurriculum• curriculum as a structuredseries of intended learningoutcomes• curriculum is designed topromote and guideinstructional planning whichin turns guides instructionleading to learningoutcomes• page 74, CT book 22
  23. 23. Emerging Status of Curriculum Theory 1. Curriculum 2. Sources of 4. Issues in 5. Theory Curriculum 3. Curriculum Definition Design Issues Curriculum Implications Decisions Engineering a. Adult survey and job Any curriculumThe Character of the analysis (society a. Written theory should… curriculum field centered) a. Who will be document or not involved? a. Begin by answers questions like: b. Man’s accumulated b. The sphere defining its set of culture as a recognized b. Curriculum1. Is curriculum a (level, subjects) events source (culture Implementationconcept unique to centered) c. Contents / (problem) b. Make clear itsschooling? accepted values subject matter c. Curriculum2. Does curriculum c. The student (behavioral and sources forinclude instruction or evaluation 3 approaches: objectives or not?) making decisionsteaching? (problem) - Needs assessment c. Specify the - Identification and characteristics of description curriculum designThe Characteristics of developmental stages curriculum design of children and youth d. Describe the answers questions - The student tell you essential processes like: what they want as their for making curriculum (radical) curriculum1. Should a curriculumcontain a set of (students centered) decisions and thebehavioral or other interrelationshipskind of objectives? d. Past experiences in among those curriculum affairs2. Should a curriculum processesspecify instructional e. Values held by the e. Provide forplans and materials? decision makers continuous regeneration of f. Social and political authority curriculum decisions 23
  24. 24. Emerging Status of Curriculum Theory H/O 4Walker (2003) Vallance (1982) Providing a framework for  “to shift focus from the end analyzing current theoretical approaches than in pursuing the product (the curriculum fundamental issue of creating a curriculum theory theory) to the process by A good curriculum theory should which a theory is sought include: (the process of theorizing)”  Validity: provides meaningfulness, logical consistency & factual correctness  Theoretical power: contributes to basic understanding  Serviceability: helps resolve central curriculum problems  Morality: clarifies underlying values 24
  25. 25. Emerging Status of Curriculum Theory H/O 4 Descriptive Theorizers: Critical-ExploratoryPrescriptive Theorizers: Theorizers: Mapping the Procedures Understanding Curriculum Creating the Best of Curriculum in Terms of What Has Curricula Possible Development Been, Is and Might Be - Attempts to create - Attempts to identify how - Attempts to understand models or frameworks for curriculum development deficiencies in past practices of curriculum developments actually takes place, curriculum development and to that improve school especially in school replace them with more practise settings adequate practices (intellectual and social contexts) -Believe that finding the - To understand the various best way of designing steps and procedures in - Looks at curriculum in terms curricula will lead to the curriculum development of its diversities and continuities, emphasizing what best possible curricula for and the relationships curriculum has been, is, and schools among them might be - Famous theorists: - Famous theorists: - Famous theorists: Decker Walker & William Pinar & Ralph Tyler & Hilda Taba Joseph Schwab Elliot Eisner 25
  26. 26. H/O 5: page 257 26
  27. 27. The Nucleus of a Curriculum Theory• This chapter is a response to the critics of Beauchamp’s first twoeditions of the book.• Beauchamp stated his understandings and stand on what a curriculumtheory is (up to that point in time)• He considers curriculum as a field that is 2 dimensional: • one part is concerned with the curriculum design • The other part is concerned with curriculum engineering• He gave the definitions of key terms, set of propositions (which heassumes, postulates or generalize from research literature), andstatements for each propositions delineating its character or bothdimensions of the curriculum 27