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Completed comenius book

  1. 1. LIFELONG LEARNING PROGRAMME COMENIUS “Little Europeans Know Each Other” Comenius School Partnership 2011 - 2013 Turkey, France, Portugal, Italy, Poland, England
  2. 2. Contents Turkey France Portugal Italy Poland England 1. Education System 2. School Information 3. Activity Sheets Science Art Music Nature Physical Emotional
  3. 3. Turkey ELAZIĞ PRE-SCHOOL Anaokulu- Turkey
  4. 4. PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION IN TURKEY (Photos 1 and 2) In Turkey, pre-school education, which is optional, includes the education of children in the 3-5 years of age group, who are not at the age for obligatory primary education. Preschool education is given in kindergartens, preparatory classrooms, application classrooms, day nurseries, nursery schools, day-care homes, and child care homes by various ministries and institutions, and by the Ministry of National Education most of all. The children can benefit from these institutions for a full day or a half day. Families pay certain amount to have their children benefit from preschool education. The goal of preschool education is to help children develop physically, mentally and individually, and develop their ability to use language and prepare them for primary school. Where, and according to what priorities, the preschool educational institutions will be opened are determined with a regulation prepared by the Ministry of National Education. The Early Learning Goals of preschool education cover the main areas of education without being subject driven. These areas include;  Personal, social and emotional development  Language, literacy and communication  Mathematical development  Knowledge and understanding of the world  Physical development  Creative development  Self-Care The daily program includes learning activities that develop language and literacy skills, basic number concepts, simple science concepts, social skills, creative and problem solving skills, appreciation of music and movement and outdoor play. There are over one million pupils in pre-school education in 2013.
  5. 5. ELAZIĞ PRE-SCHOOL (Photos 3 and 4) Elazığ pre-school has in pre-school education in Elazığ city center since 2008. By the year 2013, there are 19 staff, includes three administrators, eleven teachers, one counselor teacher and two officers. Three, four and five years old, two hundred and fifty pupils have pre-school education in our school. The children benefit from the school for a full day and a half day. There are twelve classrooms and one computer room at the school. There is also one dining hall, one gym and a playground. We always try to develop and renewal education programs and activities for pupils. The pupils have dance, folk dances, chess, drama and art education except for the normal education program. Elazığ Nursery School has a wide experience of providing preschool education. It prepares children between the ages of 3 and 5 for primary education by teaching them to think, understand, communicate, share, cooperate and be creative. Apart from pre-school curriculum we try to develop our student’s basic skills with folk dances, basic computer usage, chess, foreign languages, creativity and innovation. Our aim is to raise intercultural competence of our teachers and pupils. We also would like our teachers and pupils to become more interested in other countries and cultures; to show more tolerance towards other cultures and people from other countries. Children are offered rich and varied learning opportunities, which provide a sound basis for confident and autonomous lifelong learning. We endeavor to provide education and safe environment in partnership with parents and families. We support the emotional, social, physical, and intellectual education of children through a system of integrated learning. We aim to ensure that each child achieves their own potential to become an independent, autonomous person who values and respects others.
  6. 6. SCIENCE ACTIVITY PLAN FOR PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION SUBJECTS COUNTRY / CITY TURKEY / ELAZIĞ SCHOOL ELAZIĞ ANAOKULU LEVEL / AGE GROUP 5 YEARS OLD THE NAME OF THE ACTIVITY COLOUR CHANGING CARNATION TOPIC / MAIN IDEA Growing Plants SUBJECT Science and Nature MATERIALS White carnations, plastic cups, Food coloring (red, blue, and green work well), a knife and water OBJECTIVES To observe how the plants drink water from the ground to their roots. The water travels up the stem of the plant into the leaves and flowers, where it makes food. When a flower is cut, it no longer has its roots, but the stem of the flower still drinks up the water and provides it to the leaves and flowers. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Observation, experiment, showing, question-answer ACTIVITY Fill each cup half full with water. • Add about 20-30 drops of food coloring to each cup of water. In this case, more food coloring is better! • Before placing any of the flowers in the colored water, trim the stem of each flower at an angle to create a fresh cut. • Place one freshly cut white carnation in each of the cups of colored water. Make some predictions: Which color will be soaked up first? How long will it take? • You’ll want to check back every few hours to see how things are progressing. It may take as much as 24 hours for the colored water to work its way up to the white petals. • At the conclusion of your experiment, remember to examine the whole plant carefully, including the stems, leaves, buds and petals, to find every trace of color. Assessment If the water a plant uses to grow was polluted, would that affect the plant? In what ways?
  7. 7. ART ACTIVITY PLAN FOR PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION SUBJECTS COUNTRY / CITY TURKEY / ELAZIĞ SCHOOL ELAZIĞ ANAOKULU LEVEL / AGE GROUP 5 YEARS OLD THE NAME OF THE ACTIVITY TITLE OF THE LESSON MAKE YOUR OWN PENHOLDER TOPIC / MAIN IDEA To use waste materials to make own penholder SUBJECT Art MATERIALS Play dough, waste rolls, other waste materials for decoration OBJECTIVES To help to develop small muscles, creativity, be aware of waste materials METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Showing and making, creativity ACTIVITY Each of the children has a waste roll, some play dough and waste materials fort he decoration of the penholders. First we show the to close one end of the roll with round cartoon. Then they cover the rolls with play dough. Finally we want children to decorate their penholders with different waste materials like buton, flake, bead, etc. Children are free to use materials and how to use it. They have their own penholders and take them to their house. Assessment Children like to make their own penholders and to decide how to decorate them.
  8. 8. MUSIC ACTIVITY PLAN FOR PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION SUBJECTS COUNTRY / CITY TURKEY / ELAZIĞ SCHOOL ELAZIĞ ANAOKULU LEVEL / AGE GROUP 5 YEARS OLD THE NAME OF THE ACTIVITY MAKE YOUR OWN RHYTHM INSTRUMENT AND PLAY IT TOPIC / MAIN IDEA To use waste materials to make own rhythm instrument and play it SUBJECT Music MATERIALS Waste bottles or chips boxes, pins, buton, beads, etc. OBJECTIVES Creativity, to make your own rhythm instrument, feel of rhythm and catch the rhythm of a music. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Showing and doing, Telling ACTIVITY Each of the children has waste materials to make their own rhythm instrument like chip boxes and plastic bottles. We make children free to choose the materials and show an example of rhythm instrument. Then we start to make the instrument. First each of the children fill in the bottles or boxes with buttons and beads. Then they cover it with colorful papers. They also drill them with pins to have more sound. They have a rhythm instrument which has s wave sound. We want each of the children to play their own rhythm instrument and listen to the others. Finally, we play a music they have already known and we want them toaccompany to the music. We also try it with different music that we guess they have not heard before. Assessment Children like to make their own rhythm instrument and to play it with accordance to the played music.
  9. 9. NATURE ACTIVITY PLAN FOR PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION SUBJECTS COUNTRY / CITY TURKEY / ELAZIĞ SCHOOL ELAZIĞ ANAOKULU LEVEL / AGE GROUP 5 YEARS OLD THE NAME OF THE ACTIVITY Soil Erosion Experiment TOPIC / MAIN IDEA To observe the soil erosion and how to restrain it SUBJECT Nature Education MATERIALS Two plastic boxes, hairdryer, soil with and without plant and water OBJECTIVES To learn the role of plant and trees on soil erosion METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Experiment and observation ACTIVITY We prepare two boxes of soil, one is planted and the other one is not planted. First we explain the soil erosion to children and show them soil erosion with water and hairdryer to express the flood effect and wind effect on non-planted soil. Children observe the soil erosion in non-planted soil and then they watch the same effects on planted soil. We want them to express what differences they have noticed. Assessment Pupils realized the effect of plants and trees on soil erosion.
  10. 10. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PLAN FOR PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION SUBJECTS COUNTRY / CITY TURKEY / ELAZIĞ SCHOOL ELAZIĞ ANAOKULU LEVEL / AGE GROUP 5 YEARS OLD THE NAME OF THE ACTIVITY GRABBING THE HANDKERCHIEF TOPIC / MAIN IDEA Encouraging physical and mental activities at the same time SUBJECT Physical Education (Games and Sports) MATERIALS A fabric handkerchief OBJECTIVES To learn to take part in a group, sharing and helping each other and to obey the rules. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES It is an outdoor game and it can be played with at least seven players at the ages of 5 to 13. ACTIVITY Grabbing the handkerchief is an enjoyable traditional game played in Anatolia for hundreds of years. What you need is speed and intelligence. We need two groups and a referee who holds handkerchief. Referee stands in the middle of the groups. Each group will stand in a line side by side. Players in group A stand approximately five or six steps far from the referee on the right. Players in group B stand the same distance away from the referee, on the left. Referee counts until three and starts the game. First players in each group run to catch the handkerchief when the referee starts the game. The aim is to catch the handkerchief and turn back to your group without being tagged by the rival player. At that time, the rival player tries to tag the player who carries the handkerchief. To win the game you should go back to your group without being tagged. If the rival player catches the handkerchief first, you should tag him/her by touching. The players who are tagged should leave the game. The group which has more players at the end of the game becomes winner. Assessment The pupils enjoyed the game very much.
  11. 11. EMOTIONAL ACTIVITY PLAN FOR PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION SUBJECTS COUNTRY / CITY TURKEY / ELAZIĞ SCHOOL ELAZIĞ ANAOKULU LEVEL / AGE GROUP 5 YEARS OLD THE NAME OF THE ACTIVITY SHARK ACTIVITY TOPIC / MAIN IDEA FRIENDSHIP SUBJECT EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE MATERIALS Coloured paperbards (blue for the ocean, brown for the island and black for the sharks . OBJECTIVES To obtain the behaviour like friendship and fellowship, to take responsibilities in the group. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Dramatization, observing and criticizing themselves ACTIVITY First we prepare the ocean and the small islands with coloured paperboards. We use blue paperbords for the ocean, brown paperbords fort he islands and maybe black paperboards for the sharks. The islands are getting smaller time by time so we make the Brown paperboards smaller stage by stage. There are sharks in the ocean and we try to help friends stay on the islands. We observe the children’s behaviour of being helpful, friendly, selfish and unselfish. We also observe leadership, taking responsibiities in a group and problem solving attitudes in the activity and take notes. The group stays on the island longer is the best friends. We take notes about how they behave in dangerous situation and how they behave in a group. In the end we talk about friendship and their behaviour. We want them to criticize themselves. Assessment Some students behaved really brave and took responsibilities in the group. Some of the pupils tried their best to keep their friends on the islands , by the time some were selfish and trying to stay on the island alone. Talking about friendship and criticizing themselves was really good.
  12. 12. France Ecole Maternelle Bourbon L’Archambault- France
  13. 13. The System of Pre-School Education The Ministry of National Education is responsible for pre-school education. The Municipality is responsible for the buildings and finances the material expenses and equipment. The Headmaster is a teacher in charge of children’s education, their safety, management and organization of work in the pre-school. The principal is not the superior of the other teachers at the school : the supervisor of all pre-school teachers is the Inspector of Education in the district. The teachers depend on the Ministry of Education and the territorial agents specialized in nursery schools (teacher’s assistant) on the town hall. Attendance at French nursery school is optional, childcare being compulsory from age 6. However, the ‘Maternelle’ School welcomes about 23% of the 2 year-old children, 95% of the 3 year-old children and almost all the children who are 4 or 5 years old. They are free and secular schools. There are usually three forms corresponding to the different age levels in the kindergarten : the first one for the children from 2 to 3 called ‘Toute Petite Section / Petite Section’, the second one for 4 year-old children called ‘Moyenne Section’ and the third one for the 5 year-old children called ‘Grande Section’. Children at the age of 6 have to go to primary school. Sharing out responsabilities :
  14. 14. Our building The kindergarten was built in 1970 and renovated five years ago. We take care of 69 children from the age of 2 to the age of 5. The building has one floor, three classrooms, one gymmasium and two rooms for additional activities (painting and mosaïcs, ICT), a library for young children, a dormitory, a little kitchen and a big playground. There are 3 teachers, 3 teacher’s assistants, one person involved in visual arts and an another one, in ICT skills.
  15. 15. *Observe the real situation: the living (animals/plants) and non living (minerals). *Handle: planting, caring for an animal, a plant. *Recognize the manifestations of animal and plant life. *Keep track of comments. Verbalize. *Experiment on plants (water, light, air). *Parallel experiments with a mineral and compare the effects. *Recognize different parts of a plant. *Discover the different parts of the body. *Accurate perception of the body (back, face, profile, posture, articulations). *Give a representation of the body. *Reconstruct the image of the human body, animals, plants from separate components. *Trace the chronology of the evolution (growth, reproduction) using sequential images and drawing. *Discover the concept of the life cycle. Distinguish the living from the nonliving.
  16. 16. *Leave a trace *Experiment with different tools, materials, techniques, supports, gestures *Express preferences *Verbalize the gesture *Comment on an artwork *Draw and paint on a vertical plane *Produce compositions flat, in relief, by volume *Occupy all the space *Make a choice of techniques for artistic creation *Draw identifiable elements of the real according to specific criteria *Act cooperatively in a situation of collective production *Be able to create and invent *Build aesthetic capacity through knowledge of some works of art, places (museums, ...) *Recognize images of different nature and origin *Compare images, trace their provenance (BD, albums, pictures, photos, ...)
  17. 17. *Identify and imitate the sounds of the familiar environment *Respond to a nursery rhyme, a song ( mime, finger plays) *Play with voice, make sounds with body *Memorize nursery rhymes, songs *Generate noise with various materials *Beat the rhythm of a nursery rhyme (with body, an instrument) *Reproduce a simple rhythm *Recognize the sound of different musical instruments *Say and interpret songs, rhymes, alone or with others *Play a musical instrument *Listen to various musical extracts *Identify the characteristics of a musical extract (rhythm, character, instrument) *Sing together, talk together *Develop their listening skills *Listen to musical extracts and give impressions *Coordinate spoken or sung text and musical accompaniment *Vary the body, vocal or instrumental responses (on the same music or different music) *Develop a simple graphical code and use it to represent the unfolding of a musical phrase
  18. 18. *Observe the real situation: the living (animals,plants) and nonliving (minerals). *Handle: planting, caring for an animal, a plant. *Recognize the manifestations of animal and plant life. *Keep track of comments. Verbalize. *Experiment on a plant (water, light, air). *Parallel experiments with a mineral and compare the effects. *Recognize different parts of a plant. *Discover the different parts of the body. *Accurate perception of the body (back, face, profile, posture, articulations). *Give a representation of the body. *Reconstruct the image of the human body, animals, plants from separate components. *Trace the chronology of the evolution (growth, reproduction) using sequential images and drawing. *Discover the concept of the life cycle. Distinguish the living from the nonliving.
  19. 19. * Run: fast, long, team (relay), in various areas, in a given direction, observing a trajectory, to catch, to escape, * Run and carry * Run and jump over obstacles * Running quickly responsive to a signal (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) * Bind / toggle different types of travel * Improve race: in time, distance * Skip: in against-down, in against-up, more and further, increasingly high, take a pulse on one foot, to catch, to cross,… * Launch various objects (heavy, light, hard, soft, big, small) * launch in different ways, in different directions * launch away, throw out, throw in * launch accurately to achieve a target * Move : - in forms of unusual actions challenging the balance (4 feet, backwards, rolling on the side, jumping on two feet, on one foot, swaying on his feet, climbing , ...) - with or on unstable machines (holders, trolleys, tricycles, bikes, roller blades / skates, ...) - along a path from drawings, photographs, objects, sound cues (orienteering) * Adapt its movements to different types of environment (water, snow, ice, sand) : discover these environments and feel comfortable - Dare go in the water, play, move from small to great depth, walking with a floating object / without floating object, lying with support / non-support with a floating object / without floating object, sitting on a floating object - Entering the water in different ways (by sliding, jumping, diving) - Gradually immerse in water (blow bubbles, open your eyes, pick up objects weighted squatting, swimming ) - Move a few meters deep, through the action of the arms and legs, with or without floating object * Traditional Games and team games: - Run to find a defined space: "Everyone in the house" - Run to save themselves and / or catch: "Loup y es-tu?", "Cat and Mouse" - Individually throwing balls, balloons, light objects on different targets: "Hunters and Rabbits" - Collectively launching a field to another: "Balls Hot" - With his team carry current objects from one point to another: "Movers" and without getting hit, "Hawks" * Oppose individually to a partner in a fighting game: for contact with each other, touching an opponent, move an opponent, prevent another child out of an area, whether rebalance * Baby Gym activity : beam, 2 parallel and inclined bar, horizontal bar, uneven bars , trampoline, floor gymnastics, performing acrobatics figures (in pairs, trinomial or five) -> psychomotor development, literacy and awareness of the body in
  20. 20. * Leaving your familiar environment to integrate a group * Adapting to the new environment * Agree to share brief moments * Accept the other children * Establish relationships with adults * Expressing needs * Identify his portmanteau, his photo, name * Recognize clothes * Be aware of hygiene (hand washing) * Establish relationships with other children * Identify different "play areas" in Class * Dressing alone keep his slippers ... * Get in row 2 by 2 ... * Know the name of the children in the class * Know the different adults in the school * Store the "play areas", small equipment (glue, scissors, markers, ...) * Share the games, equipment * Develop physiological or emotional needs * Respect other children * Participate in a collective activity (round, games ...) * Participate in the development of the rules of collective life (Charter) * Respect the rules of politeness * Assume responsibility for its scope * Play a game of society by actively participating and waiting his turn * Do not cheat * Explain a conflict * Helping a friend * Actively participate in the life of the class * To be autonomous in the activities of daily life * To be autonomous in its class work (installation, creation, storage) * Participate in the development project (in art) * Develop appropriate behavior without seeking adults, with relevance and wisely * Visit children of CP (primary school) * Accept and respect the security rules imposed by the adult
  21. 21. Portugal Agrupamento de Escolas Gil Paes- Portugal
  22. 22. Portugal Pre-school education system In the 80s of the last century pre-school education started to become relevant in Portugal, supported by new legislation and facilities created by the Ministry of Education. Later, in the 90s, pre-school was recognized as the first step of school life (step 0). Nevertheless it still remains non-compulsory to the present day. Pre-school education in Portugal is ministrated in public schools, cooperative schools (private owned but partially supported by the state) and private schools. Functioning In public schools, pre-school education comprehends two components: one educational, which is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, with a daily length of five hours and another of family support which is the responsibility of the municipalities, with a daily length that may vary from school to school (according to the family needs). The educational component is ministrated by pre-school teachers with a contractual link with the Ministry of Education. The family support component is assured by school staff (monitors or school servants), with contractual links with the municipalities and under the coordination of pre-school teachers. The educational component is free; the family support component is paid according to criteria set by the municipalities. The school year starts in September and ends in July. Throughout the school year there are three major breaks: Christmas, Carnival and Easter. Pedagogical aims • Arouse curiosity and critical thought; • Give the child moments of welfare and security, namely in the scope of the individual and collective health; • Proceed to screening of inadaptation, handicaps or precocities and promote a better guidance and routing of the child; • Promote the participation of the families in the educational process and set relations of effective collaboration with the community. Areas of contents  Personal and social formation area  Expression and communication area  Knowledge of the world area
  23. 23. Portugal Science Project-The effect on water under different temperatures The main objectives to achieve with this experiment were:  To foresee what happen to water under different temperatures  To observe what happen  To understand the experiment First, the group should foresee what is going to happen to the water left on the table, in the freeze or to the boiled water. Then after the experiment, children can observe what happened and they have to explain it and understand why that happened. In the end of the observation and the experiment, they systematized in graphs what they had observed. The activity step by step: 1. Filling 3 bottles up with water 2. Measuring the water temperature in the bottles 3. Leaving the water of the first bottle on the table 4. Pouring the water of the second bottle in the freezing tray and place it in the freezer 5. Boiling the water of the third bottle 6. After some time, observing what is happening 7. Explaining and understanding what happened to the water of the 3 bottles Presenting in graphs what happened with the help of the teacher
  24. 24. Portugal Art Project-Art Sketches   The main idea of the project was to create different products in a spontaneous and guided way. The most important objectives were:  To explore and handle different materials  To learn different areas  To develop creativity Several techniques were used such as:  Stamping  Molding  Painting  Drawing  Collage/gluing These art activities were developed throughout the school year in the art classes, in the several pre- school classrooms of our school. Some of these activities were suggested and guided by the teacher, while some others were spontaneous initiatives of the children. 
  25. 25. Portugal Nature/Environment Project -Nature/Environment in Portugal (eco-schools; School vegetable garden; 3R’s) The main objectives of this activity were:  To provide children some experiences so as to get to know how to protect nature  To develop the spirit of being environmentally friendly  To encourage the use of recycled materials  To stimulate the involvement of the parents The main idea of these activities was that every pre-school child participates and learns how to be environmentally friendly.  Eco-school: The programme ECO-SCHOOLS is an international programme for all teaching levels, in which we took part. Eco-Schools is a democratic and participatory programme that provides an excellent opportunity for pupils to experience active citizenship in their school. Students and staff can work together on such issues as reducing litter and waste and run the school in an environmentally conscious way. The themes to work on: water, energy, biodiversity, biological agriculture, forest and other general themes. After one year of implementing the Programme and reaching a high level of performance in complying with these seven elements, among other mandatory criteria, our School was then awarded the Green Flag and a certification.  Our vegetable garden: - In the backyard of our school we had a wild field that parents ploughed at the weekend so that seeds can be planted. - Then children, teachers, educators and assistants sowed and planted that field with potatoes, tomatoes, beans, broad beans, cabbages, peas, lettuce and strawberries. - Later a scarecrow was made of rags, wood and straw. - Teachers and children took care of the vegetable garden by watering it . - At last, the products were good to be harvested and eaten. With this vegetable garden children learned what organic food is and the advantages of not using chemicals that are harmful to the environment.  The 3R’s: recycling, reusing and reducing: It’s Carnival and parents were called and encouraged once again to participate in school activities. So, they helped to make the fancy dresses to commemorate Carnival. They used eco-friendly materials and reused coffee bags to make the fancy dresses. A parade was made and singing and dancing children showed them to the population.
  26. 26. Portugal - Physical Development Project In our school, pre-school children practice physical education once a week with the educator. The goals defined by the Ministry of Education are divided into 3 items: 1. Moving and balance: · Crawling · Rolling · Jumping · Doing flip-flaps 2. Skill and manipulation: · Throwing · Catching/Receiving · kicking 3. Games This way, taking into account these goals, we developed physical activities suitable to all ages (3, 4 and 5 years). The main aims of this activity were: - Encourage the practice of physical activity - Enhance global motor skills - Develop coordination and balance The activities were developed as follows: 1- Warming-up 2- Crawling 3- Jump over a superior plan with a balanced reception 4- Jump over obstacles 5- Doing flip-flaps ahead 6- Throwing the ball with one and with two hands/ manipulating bows 7- At the end, children did the a circuit with the whole activities done before. The activities were considered very significant and essential as they encourage the motor development of the children. They participated actively and the aims of the lesson were all achieved since they all were able to do the exercises.
  27. 27. Portugal - Emotional Intelligence in Pre-school LEARN HOW TO BE HAPPY The main idea of this class was explore the basical concepts on emotions and let the children express their own feelings and emotions according to some situation. The objectives were:  To Help the children to develop their emotional intelligence, which is the capacity to understand, to use and run their emotions and those of the others in a natural way.  To understand, evaluate and express emotions;  To understand emotions and the emotional knowledge;  To run emotions promoting and emotional and intellectual uprising. In order to achieve the objectives above, several methods and techniques were used to develop the activity:  Laughtherapy;  Breathing exercises;  Relaxing techniques;  Developing guided strategies for the maintaining of the emotional balance. This activity was first based on the book collection by Brian Moses: “I feel sad” / “I feel angry” / “I feel jealous” / “I feel scared”. The children listened to the stories and then it started the exploration of feelings and emotions. They were asked to make different facial expressions as they were happy, sad and angry. They were also asked to explain when they were happy, sad and angry and this way they explored arts, dram, the oral language and the written expression These activities helped children to understand and run better their emotions. They have also had some influence on children’s behaviour as their aggressiveness diminished and their interaction became better.
  28. 28. Italy PAOLA GUARNERI Palazzolo sullOglio BRESCIA - ITALY
  29. 29. Italian education system The educational system is divided into: • Pre-primay school (age 3-6 years - not obligatory, but attended by 99% of children); • First cycle that includes the primary and secondary school levels (age 6-14 years); • Second cycle that includes the system of high schools and the education system and vocational training (age 14-19). PRE – PRIMARY SCHOOL “PAOLA GUARNERI” Palazzolo sullOglio BRESCIA - ITALY
  30. 30. The pre-primary school begins September 5 and Ends on 30 June. It is open From 8:00 to 16:00 PEOPLE WORKING IN THE SCHOOL 10 Teachers: 2 teachers per section 1 support teacher 1 religion teacher 2 School employees 2 Cooks THE PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOL "PAOLA GUARNERI" 4 sections marked by a colour: RED YELLOW BLUE GREEN 113 childrens The institute of Palazzolo sull'Oglio consists of: • 4 pre-primary schools • 3 primary schools
  31. 31. Now we play with marseille soap and we discover that ... We coloured water with the tempera... …We put inside some white fabrics and ... Bubbles… Bubbles… Bubbles!!
  32. 32. In these laboratories, children experience different expressive and manipulative techniques with pictorial material and recycling such as paper.
  33. 33. , SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION OF SOUNDS WE LEARN SAME DANCES SUCCESSION RHYTHM AND GESTURES RECOGNITION OF TIMBRE SUCCESSION DISCRIMINATION OF DIFFERENT SOUNDS Listening to my body Perception of sound contrasts Silence - noise, soft - strong Graphical representation with arbitrary symbols of the sound-silence Succession of binary and ternary rhythms Listening and recognition of the timbre of instruments with the music Symbolic representation of sounds Succession rhythm and gestures Discrimination of different sounds We learn some dances
  34. 34. Children observe seeds of fruit cut in halves We also observe seeds with the zoom lens Seeding in the land of beans… Let’s start!
  35. 35. SHIATSU: We bring our weight on our friends body in the prone position and then supine, moving like cats. TWISTER GAME: After choosing the colors for hands and feet, children are placed on the colors of the carpet, according with the colors chosen.
  36. 36. Even neuroscience, today, submits that if we attempt to increase self-awareness, control our negative feeling, keep our optimism, increase the ability to be empathetic, take care for others, we cooperate ... in other words, if we pay more attention to our emotional intelligence, we can hope for a more peaceful future. Daniel Goleman The teacher’s job is to educate little children to use emotions in an intelligent and aware way, developing emotional skills that can be expressed in: •personal context (self-awareness', self- confidence, self-mastery …) •the social sphere (EMPATHY, SOCIAL ABILITY) Emotional Intelligence
  37. 37. Poland Polish Olympians Kindergarten No. 240
  38. 38. Education System in Poland Under Polish law the education system comprises pre-school institutions, primary schools, lower- junior schools and highschools. In the light of the existing law, institutions of higher education are excluded from the system as they form a separate higher education sector. Public kindergartens are administrated and financed by local governments – communes. A child aged 3 to 4 may receive pre-school education, which is not compulsory, but all 5 and 6 year- old children have to attend kindergartens. Moreover, children at the age of six may choose between a kindergarten or pre-school classes organized in primary schools. In September 2014 schools are going to be obligatory for children at the age of 6. Pre-school upbringing includes support to a child’s development and education starting from the age of 3 to the beginning of schooling process. The main aims of pre-school education are as follows: • supporting children in the development of their talents • building children’s system of values • shaping emotional resistance •developing social skills • creating conditions for playing and learning of children with different physical and intellectual abilities in one group • caring for children’s health • teaching and extending children’s knowledge. • introducing children into the world of esthetic values • shaping the sense of belonging in a community • providing better educational chances to children
  39. 39. Kindergarten number 240 named after Polish Olympic Competitors, Warsaw, Poland We are located in the capital of Poland –Warsaw, in the area dedicated to sport. The kindergarten was built in 1950. We take care of 100 children at the age from 3 to 6. The building has one floor, four teaching rooms, one gym and two rooms for additional activities (painting, dancing etc.) and a big garden. There are 10 teachers and 11 administration employees. Children can play and learn at the same time, using many educational toys. They can also use different corners like book, computer, kitchen or art where they can concentrate on what they enjoy doing most. Our pupils are very sporty and they win many medals and trophies. Oldest children can participate in sport camps. During sport camps children can try a lot of different activities e.g. climbing, walking on ropes, archery, surfing etc. We organize also sport picnics, during which parents and their children compete in many different disciplines. Everyone gets a prize. We organize group and individual classes for children with speech impediments, and poor hand-eye coordination. They learn through art, classes with a speech therapist and sensory integration.
  40. 40. Poland Science Activity DENSITY OF LIQUIDS – DIFFERENCES IN DENSITIES Objectives: showing how liquıd with different density mix Method: observatıon and experıments Materials: measuring cylinder, honey, water, oil, raspberry syrup, washing-up liquid Activity: - children indentify different liquids brought by the teacher: honey, water, raspberry syrup, oil and dish washing liquid; - children try to guess which liquid is the densest ; - the teacher pours the densest liquid (honey) into the measuring cylinder; - the teacher pours raspberry syrup into the measuring cylinder- children can observe that the two liquids do not mix but the syrup stays on the surface; - children try to explain why the liquids did not mix- together with the teacher they conclude that the reason of this is that syrup is less dense than honey; - the teacher pours the washing-up liquid into the measuring cylinder. One more time, children observe that the liquids do not mix; - children decide if they should pour water or oil next. They agree that oil is less dense than water because it stays on its surface; - a child pours water into the measuring cylinder; - a child pours oil into the measuring cylinder- children observe separate layers of liquids in the measuring cylinder; - together with the teacher, children summarize the experiment and information about density; - children get all the liquids and measuring cylinders to take home so that they can conduct similar experiments with their parents. Comments and suggestions: Thanks to the experiment children will became aware of the fact that liquids with different densities do not mix and the liquid which is less dense always stays on the top.
  41. 41. Poland Art Activity A BLOSSOMING TREE – MAKING A SPRING TREE Objectives: - preparing a model of a spring tree; - learning about different kinds of trees, leaves and flowers; - noticing the beauty of nature; - developing manual skills. Method: individual and group art activities Materials: newspapers, cardboard tubes, crepe paper, glue, color paper, hole-punchers, corrugating machine, brushes Activity: - preparing elements of the tree (trunk, branches, leaves and flowers) as demonstrated by the teacher; - joining the elements in order to make a complete model of a blossoming tree. Comments and suggestions: The activity can be a source of great fun for all children, including those who have problems with manual activities and don’t enjoy art classes. Thanks to this activity, children can become more aware of the nature which surrounds them and compare their trees with what they can see outside.
  42. 42. Poland Music Activity FLOWERS ON THE MEADOW – DRAWING WHILE LISTENING TO MUSIC Objectives: - developing listening and motor skills; - experiencing music; - promoting musical creativity in children; - stimulating children’s imaginative powers. Method: Education through movement (ETM) by D. Dziamska Materials: paper, crayons, oil pastels, CD, music by Carrantuohill “Irish Dreams” , “Speed Celts” Activity: - drawing in the air and next on a piece of paper to the rhythm of music (eg. waltz). Children start drawing from one point using one hand, then they use the other one, next they alternate the left and right hand, finishing drawing both hands; - to the rhythm of faster music children start drawing circles in the air, then they draw them on a piece of paper (one hand, the other hand, left, right alternately, both hands); - to the rhythm of even faster music children draw short lines around the circles forming flowers (one hand, the other hand, left, right alternately, both hands). Having finished their own piece of artwork, children walk around the table and rhythmically draw lines on their peers’ works; - to the rhythm of slow music children draw long and thick lines forming leaves (one hand, the other hand, left, right alternately, both hands); - having finished their drawings children swing to the rhythm of music holding their artworks; - children cut out their drawings and use them to create a meadow. Comments and suggestions: Children love drawing while listening to music. They are focused and they do it rhythmically. Some children may find it difficult to draw with their non dominant hand or both hands. Children enjoy working in a group. They also have fun whilst choosing colours. The activity can be done using Tux Paint software, which gives children a chance to work with a computer mouse.
  43. 43. Poland Nature Activity SNAILS Objectives: learning about snails and the role they play in the environment Method: observation, interview and search for answers to questions Materials: snails, trays with water, leaves and sand, books about snails, magnifying glass Activity: - children observe snails in the garden of the pre-school and share information about their characteristic features; - children observe how snails move on different surfaces: sand, leaves and water; - children discover that snails escape from water and are fastest on leaves. Moving on sand proves to be difficult because grains of sand stick to the snails’ bodies; - children feed the snails with leaves and grass; - children use a magnifying glass to examine the snails; - children learn about different types of snails and look for information about them in books; - children draw different kinds of snails. Comments and suggestions: Thanks to the activity, children have an opportunity to learn about snails and compare them with different animals. Children can learn to respect all animals and the environment.
  44. 44. Poland Physical Activity IN THE FOREST Objectives: - integrating children through various activities; - mastering team work and cooperation; - developing a sense of security, mutual trust, awareness of self and awareness of others; - boosting confidence both on a physical and emotional level. Method: Sherborne Developmental Movement Materials: Klanza sheet, music, CD player Activity: - running freely and listening to music, finding a partner when the music stops; - stretching in pairs; - building a tunnel and going through it; - moving a tree (one child stands still, the other is trying to move it); - massaging (Woodpecker healing a tree) - gentle scratching, pinching, kneading, stroking etc.; - rolling a tree trunk – one child lies on the floor and the other tries to roll it over, children take turns; - having fun in the forest – walking and running, trying to avoid obstacles, jumping over tree trunks; - dragging a tree trunk, a child lying on the floor; - playing with Klanza sheet - Wind and Tree (a child standing still in the middle of the sheet just like a tree, other children wave the sheet trying to knock the tree down); - massaging hands – after a day in the forest little woodcutters need to relax; - relaxing while listening to sounds of the forest. Breathing exercises. Listening to partner’s body. Comments and suggestions: The activity helps forming positive relationships, improves communication and children’s creative expression.
  45. 45. Poland Emotional Activity SPIDERWEB Objectives: -defining own feelings towards other children; - learning what others think about me; - discovering own strong and weak points. Method: active participation combined with talking. Materials: a ball of wool, chairs. Activity: - the children sit in chairs in a circle. The teacher demonstrates the technique of rolling a ball of wool and wrapping it around a chair leg; - the first child wraps the wool around a leg of his/her chair and throws the ball to a chosen child. Before that, he/she has to say honestly what he/she doesn’t like about the chosen child or what he/she would like to change in that person; - the child who caught the ball wraps the wool around his/ her chair and passes the wool to another chosen child; - the children create a web showing relationships within the group; - once all the children have had a go, they start throwing the ball of wool in the reverse order; - this time the child holding the ball has to say what he/she likes about the chosen child and why; - when all the wool is back on the ball, the children stand up, make a circle holding each other and say thank you to others for being honest. Comments and suggestions: The activity should be done in small groups (up to 10 children). Each child should get the ball of wool at least once.
  46. 46. United Kingdom Rubery Nursery School Birmingham, UK
  47. 47. Pre-school education in England Nursery education begins on the September after the child turns three years old. This education is not compulsory but recommended by government and free time places are given to all children. We have 80 places and this will cover 150 children attending on a part time basis. We are also able to offer full time places to some children who meet a criteria. This is how education follows after nursery provision. Infant education: 4 years to 7 years old Junior education: 7 years to 11 years old Secondary education: 11 to 16 years (compulsory) able to carry on to 18 years to complete A Level exams. Nursery Education is split into six key areas of development. Prime areas 1. Personal emotional and social development 2. Communication, and Language 3. Physical development Specific areas 4. Literacy 5. The world 6. Expressive arts and design. 7. Mathematics Each area is divided into age related bands starting from birth to 5 years old.
  48. 48. Rubery Nursery School Provides nursery education for over 100 3-4 year old children. Supports local families with health, well-being, and making a positive contribution. The Nursery operates Monday to Friday 9am to 3.15pm. Half the children attend all day Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday morning and the other half attend Wednesday afternoon, Thursday and Friday all day. We have some children who attend all week, full time and some parents pay to extend their free entitlement. We offer a breakfast club and afterschool club to assist those working parents. As we are on the same campus as an infant school, we welcome some of those children also. The staff team is built with • Head teacher • Deputy • 2 teachers • 6 teaching assistants • 4 lunchtime supervisors. The children are split into groups randomly when they start in September and in January. There are 6 groups Yellow, Red, Orange, Green, Blue and Purple. The Nursery is split into 4 areas:- Construction- large scale block play with ICT. Role play- open ended real life play with Book area. Creative- independent painting and malleable area. Garden- covers all areas of the curriculum with sand and water. Digging pit offers larger scale gross motor support. We offer a planned programme of activities to the children within our four teaching areas. We also offer the outside environment and the children can choose their preferred learning space. The children can access the Nursery and the Garden independently with free choice. We also have cultivated a natural environment situated next to our school on the land of the infant school we share the campus with. Over the last 6 years we have taken our nursery children to this space and have named it a ‘Forest School’. Here the children have the opportunity to explore a forest space safely and with the freedom to take risks and work together.
  49. 49. Science Activity Making Playdough We investigated the process of change through mixing and cooking and we explored different methods to investigate texture. The children used their senses to mix materials and observe liquids turning to solids. They followed a recipe and measured ingredients: 2 cups flour, 2 cups water, 1 cup salt, 2 tablespoons cooking oil, 2 teaspoons cream of tartar, Food colouring and essence (optional), bowl, tools for mixing Firstly we explored the ingredients and discussed the texture of the main items. Flour is dry, soft, powdery, and white. Water is wet, clear, cold/warm. We introduced the measuring items- spoons, cups, bowl, apron, oil, and cream of tartar, salt. We discussed with the children that different ways were going to be used to make playdough. Some will need to be cooked and others won’t. They made the different types of dough. We encouraged the children to use the measuring instruments independently, counting the number of cups they had added, discussing how many more they needed. The children observed what was happening to the mix as they add more things. They talked about how it feels to mix, and is it easy/hard to move the spoon in the mixture? Is the flour still dry? What does it smell like? We asked the children which ways of making/cooking the dough was best and why? The teachers highlighted the safety of using a cooker and the importance of adult help. The children experimented with different colours and essences to add to the mixture. This generated discussion and comparisons about smells and colours/colour mixing. Once the dough had been made the children could then compare the recipes and use the dough to stimulate role play. Dried peas, glitter, raisins, match sticks etc were be added.
  50. 50. Art Activity Making Faces The children were asked to do pictures of their faces. During this activity the children were able to explore and experiment with a wide range of resources and media, as well as providing an opportunity to share their thoughts, feelings and ideas .through the activity. The children selected their own size and colour of paper and used easels or table tops for their representations. They could choose from a variety of media which included paints, chalks, pastels and crayons. They looked at their faces in the mirror and decided what colours they needed to use. Billy chose brown for his hair and blue for his eyes. They talked about the ideas behind their creative processes and used their representations to communicate meaning, for instance they used blobs of paint and said “There’s my eyes”. As the children were painting they were encouraged to talk about their features and their different senses for – smelling, Looking in the mirror Copying their features
  51. 51. Music and Dance Activity We began this activity by having a visiting dancer give our children a workshop and then we took a group of children and parents to a local theatre to watch the dancer in her production, providing the children the chance to see a live performance. The children were able to make connections between artists/performers in their community and this was very inspirational. The performances were related to different ways of moving, direction and using props to tell a story about different types of weather. The props inspired the children to be creative and move in imaginative ways. Within the nursery we continued this theme for a number of weeks, with all the children having the chance to practice the moves they had been taught. Children that had visited the theatre modelled movements to the others. Outside in the garden we made instruments available alongside traditional music and other sounds, for instance a CD of rainforest sounds. Here the children were able to independently tune in to the songs and sounds they heard and express themselves using the instruments. We were able to see the progression of the children’s knowledge as the days went by and the impact the initial input of the dancer had on all the children.
  52. 52. Nature Activity Forest School By providing a child with the space and time to think in a natural environment, with open- ended child-led activities and a secure area, Forest School is an ideal learning environment for all. A Forest School Leader will introduce activities and then act as a facilitator in order for children to explore the area following their own interests. At Forest School the children develop: self-confidence, collaboration, exploration, independence, risk taking and physical skills. The Children develop their physical skills by balancing, stepping across the log circle, using branches to reach tops of trees, finding ways of going under, over and through obstacles. The Children work collaboratively to make dens in the forest using natural materials such as branches and tarpaulin. The forest school enables children co operate with each other and to form friendships whilst enjoying the beautiful environment. On rainy days the children sit and wallow in the mud. They are keen to explore the texture of the mud and experiment with different ways to mark make using sticks, leaves and also their wellies! The forest school enables children to form friendships with others whilst enjoying the beautiful environment. Children hunt for insects under the logs, leaf piles and on the trunks of trees. The children are taught to return the logs and to care and respect the homes of these creatures with which we share our forest school. They can explore for habitats using magnifying glasses and binoculars. The children are taught to return the log and to care and respect the homes of these creatures with which we share our forest school. Our forest is a wonderful place to encourage imaginative role play. Old logs become a buses and trains, and dens are made from branches and materials Sometimes we invite parents to come to forest school so they understand more about it and become very involved learning partners.
  53. 53. Physical Development Aspects of Physical Development Moving and Handling Children show god control and co ordination in large and small movements. They move confidently in a range of ways, safely negotiating space. They handle equipment and tools effectively, including pencils for writing. Within our setting we help to promote gross motor skills by Ball games to involve passing, catching, kicking and rolling,; exploring the trim trail; crawling and wriggling through tunnels; planting in the garden; ride-on toys with pedals; circle games such as ‘The farmers in his Den’; twirling streamers, parachutes and kites; running games such as catch and musical games for stopping and starting; jumping, hopping, changing direction play; hoops and target games We provide resources to promote fine motor skills, which include Scissors for cutting; puzzles for manipulating shapes that fit together; dressing up clothes for doing up simple fastenings; cooking for activities involving stirring, mixing, rolling; items for making collages, such as string, wool, tissue; pencils, pens paper for drawing; paintbrushes and rollers for mark making; a train set for building and manipulating the train around the track; play dough and other malleable materials for manipulation. Health and self-care Children know the importance for good health of physical exercise, and a healthy diet, and talk about ways to keep healthy and safe. They manage their own basic hygiene and personal needs successful, including dressing and going to the toilet. The skills required for self care are learned gradually. At Nursery the children are taught the importance of physical exercise and a healthy diet and talk about ways to keep healthy and safe. They manage their own basic hygiene and personal needs successfully, including dressing and going to the toilet. We encourage the children to recognise the changes that happen in their bodies when they rest and play and to understand why it is important to do both every day to stay healthy. We foster the love of lively energetic play in lots of physical activity, dance, fun and games
  54. 54. Personal, Social and Emotional Development Peer Massage This is an activity we do with the children at Nursery; the parents need to give consent before a child can take part. We show the children pictures of each massage move and demonstrate the move. The children then try out each move on each other, but firstly asking permission from their partner. There is never any pressure for each child to take part. Peer massage promotes positive relationships between the children. It promotes friendships and helps to create a calming effect within the classroom. Persona doll Personal, social and emotional development is one of our prime areas of learning. It’s split into 3 areas; making friendships, self-confidence and self-awareness and finally managing feelings and behaviour. We sometimes work in small groups where we use persona dolls to act out different scenarios. The children play an active part in this. Christopher is our most realistic looking doll; gradually the children gather and discover that Christopher has a plaster on his knee. The story develops and the children talk about different ways that he may have hurt his knee. They offer solutions and ideas of how to help Christopher. This is done in a non-threatening way, where the children have talked amongst themselves and with staff offering kindness and demonstrating empathy.