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- 1. Mr Yeo<br />Ms Rita<br />Students<br />1. Gave irresponsible suggestion<br />3.Changed teaching plan to please others<br />2. Imposed personal view<br />4.Pitched at wrong teaching level<br />5.Unprepared for class<br />6. Inflexible to changes during lesson<br />8. Changed answer reflectively(Joel)<br />7.Gawked at student (Joel) for wrong answer<br />9.Could not elaborate answer(Aisha)<br />10. Didn’t scaffolding the lesson<br />12. Attributed faults<br />11.Attributed faults<br />
- 2. Miss Rita<br />Mr Yeo<br />PROBLEM 1<br />He did not find out the context and situation before making suggestions <br />Theories<br />Deductive Reasoning [Piaget]<br />Heard & Presume that class should be of higher learning abilities <br />Attribution theory [Weiner 1979] <br />accused Ms Rita for not letting him know that the class has no prior knowledge.<br />Selective Attention<br />He’s engaging in selective attention, advising Ms Rita generally, without finding out the specific situation [Santrock, 273].<br />1. Gave irresponsible suggestion<br />2. Imposed personal view<br />12. Attributed faults<br />
- 3. Miss Rita<br />Mr Yeo<br />PROBLEM 1<br />He did not find out the context and situation before making suggestions <br />Theories<br />ZPD [Vygotsky]<br />His proposed teaching strategies did not take into account the students’ ZPDs<br />Solution<br />He should have added a disclaimer to his suggestions that these strategies might have worked for his previous classes, but different classes have different ZPDs.<br />1. Gave irresponsible suggestion<br />2. Imposed personal view<br />12. Attributed faults<br />
- 4. Miss Rita<br />Mr Yeo<br />PROBLEM 2<br />Imposes his view on others : “must” <br />Establishes himself as an expert – narcissistic, too full of himself<br />Overconfidence Bias [Kahneman & Tversky 1995]; Overconfidence in his own experience, trying to prove that he’s better than her<br />1. Gave irresponsible suggestion<br />2. Imposed personal view<br />12. Attributed faults<br />
- 5. Miss Rita<br />Mr Yeo<br />PROBLEM 2<br />Imposes his view on others : “must” <br />Establishes himself as an expert – narcissistic, too full of himself<br />Theories<br />Performance Orientation<br />losing means losing face and reputation <br />[Dweck1990]<br />Develop a fixed mindset that he is always right [Dweck 2006]<br />Criticizing<br />one of the barriers to effective verbal communication [Gordon 1970]<br />1. Gave irresponsible suggestion<br />2. Imposed personal view<br />12. Attributed faults<br />
- 6. Miss Rita<br />Mr Yeo<br />PROBLEM 2<br />Imposes his view on others : “must” <br />Establishes himself as an expert – narcissistic, too full of himself<br />Theories<br />Overcontrol<br />Dictating Ms Rita what she should do thus destroying her natural curiosity of exploration [Teresa Amabile 1993]<br />1. Gave irresponsible suggestion<br />2. Imposed personal view<br />12. Attributed faults<br />
- 7. Miss Rita<br />Mr Yeo<br />PROBLEM 2<br />Imposes his view on others : “must” <br />Establishes himself as an expert – narcissistic, too full of himself<br />Solution<br />He needs to engage executive attention, involve error planning and monitoring progress on tasks [Santrock, 273].<br />1. Gave irresponsible suggestion<br />2. Imposed personal view<br />12. Attributed faults<br />
- 8. Mr Yeo<br />PROBLEM 1<br />Insecure – too eager to please her peers, try too hard to make herself look good – emotionally driven <br />Theories<br />Extrinsic motivation<br />She wants to look good in front of her peers, and thus she takes their advice without much thought. <br />Reduced intrinsic motivation<br />The overbearing Mr Yeo ‘forces’ suggestions for Ms Rita, causing her to lose some sense of self-determination,<br />“but I wonder whether the activities will help”. <br />This reduces her intrinsic motivation and sense of personal responsibility [Santrock 2008]<br />Miss <br />Rita<br />3.Changed teaching plan to please others<br />
- 9. Mr Yeo<br />PROBLEM 1<br />Insecure – too eager to please her peers, try too hard to make herself look good <br />Theories<br />Theory of neurotic need:<br />The need for affection and approval; pleasing others and being liked by them [Horney 1942]<br />Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development(Kohlberg, 1971): <br />Universal Stage Model of Moral Maturity Level: Stage 3/Halo Level (Gd boy/Girl Morality / Seeking for other’s Approval)<br />Miss <br />Rita<br />3.Changed teaching plan to please others<br />
- 10. Mr Yeo<br />PROBLEM 1<br />Insecure – too eager to please her peers, try too hard to make herself look good <br />Solution<br />She needs more critical thinking before applying their suggestions.<br />Miss <br />Rita<br />3.Changed teaching plan to please others<br />
- 11. Students<br />PROBLEM 2<br />She assumes that all the student have prior knowledge <br />Theories<br />Schema theory<br />According to the schema theory [Tan, 291], students require prior knowledge to learn <br />Solution<br />Do an online questionnaire to determine prior knowledge<br />Miss <br />Rita<br />4.Pitched at wrong teaching level<br />6. Inflexible to changes during lesson<br />8.Gawked at student (Joel) for wrong answer<br />10. Didn’t scaffolding the lesson<br />11.Attributed faults<br />
- 12. Students<br />PROBLEM 3<br />She is not pitching her lesson at the right level <br />high expectations<br />Theories<br />ZPD [Vygotsky]<br />She has pitched her lesson outside of their zone of proximal development [Vygotsky], making it very difficult for them to learn anything. <br />Miss <br />Rita<br />4.Pitched at wrong teaching level<br />6. Inflexible to changes during lesson<br />8.Gawked at student (Joel) for wrong answer<br />10. Didn’t scaffolding the lesson<br />11.Attributed faults<br />
- 13. Students<br />PROBLEM 3<br />She is not pitching her lesson at the right level <br />high expectations<br />Solution<br />After she has assessed their prior knowledge (e.g. by using an online questionnaire), she can pitch the lesson within their zone of proximal development.<br />Use hypothetical deductive theory to teach [Santrock, 46]. <br />Inquiry-based learning: even if the student doesn’t know the answer, Ms Rita can lead them to the solution.<br />Miss <br />Rita<br />4.Pitched at wrong teaching level<br />6. Inflexible to changes during lesson<br />8.Gawked at student (Joel) for wrong answer<br />10. Didn’t scaffolding the lesson<br />11.Attributed faults<br />
- 14. Students<br />PROBLEM 4<br />She finds fault with external factors<br />Theories<br />Shifting Locus of Control[Tan, 2011: 335] <br />She attributes fault to external factors, and shifts the locus of control [Tan, 2011: 335] away from herself towards her students <br />(caused by failure-avoidance [Covington 1984]). <br />This will reduce the incentive for her to put in more effort, as she would think that her work would go to waste with such poor students anyway<br />Miss <br />Rita<br />4.Pitched at wrong teaching level<br />6. Inflexible to changes during lesson<br />8.Gawked at student (Joel) for wrong answer<br />10. Didn’t scaffolding the lesson<br />11.Attributed faults<br />
- 15. Students<br />PROBLEM 5<br />Inflexible to changes during lesson - Pre-conceived notions of what was going to happen in class<br />Theories<br />Egocentrism [Tan, 2011: 82]<br />She thinks that her lesson is very good, thus expects her students to see it in a similar light (repeated root cause)<br />Perfectionist<br />She thinks that mistakes are unacceptable, and always expects nothing but the best results. Hence she takes the failures of her students to answer to heart and is personally affected [Santrock]<br />Miss <br />Rita<br />4.Pitched at wrong teaching level<br />6. Inflexible to changes during lesson<br />8.Gawked at student (Joel) for wrong answer<br />10. Didn’t scaffolding the lesson<br />11.Attributed faults<br />
- 16. Students<br />PROBLEM 5<br />Inflexible to changes during lesson - Pre-conceived notions of what was going to happen in class<br />Theories<br />Splintered development [Santrock, 33]<br />Good at preparation but bad with dealing with unexpected situations<br />Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory [Santrock, 74]<br />Ms Rita has turned the classroom into a negative learning environment<br />Miss <br />Rita<br />4.Pitched at wrong teaching level<br />6. Inflexible to changes during lesson<br />8.Gawked at student (Joel) for wrong answer<br />10. Didn’t scaffolding the lesson<br />11.Attributed faults<br />
- 17. Students<br />PROBLEM 5<br />Inflexible to changes during lesson - Pre-conceived notions of what was going to happen in class<br />Solution<br />She needs to understand Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, which states that the environment can influence the link between the teacher and students, <br />and be careful not to make the classroom a hostile environment. <br />Miss <br />Rita<br />4.Pitched at wrong teaching level<br />6. Inflexible to changes during lesson<br />8.Gawked at student (Joel) for wrong answer<br />10. Didn’t scaffolding the lesson<br />11.Attributed faults<br />
- 18. Students<br />PROBLEM 6<br />She gawked at Joel when he gave the wrong answer<br />Theories<br />Moralizing [check Santrock pg522]<br />Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory [Santrock, 74]<br />Ms Rita has turned the classroom into a negative learning environment<br />Pavlov<br />students will come to associate classroom with criticism [Santrock, 234]<br />Miss <br />Rita<br />4.Pitched at wrong teaching level<br />6. Inflexible to changes during lesson<br />8.Gawked at student (Joel) for wrong answer<br />10. Didn’t scaffolding the lesson<br />11.Attributed faults<br />
- 19. Students<br />PROBLEM 6<br />She gawked at Joel when he gave the wrong answer<br />Solution<br />She should choose effective reinforcements (both positive and negative) instead of punishments [Premack principle, Santrock, 239], to encourage student participation.<br />She needs to understand Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, which states that the environment can influence the link between the teacher and students, and be careful not to make the classroom a hostile environment. <br />(Same as the previous problem)<br />Miss <br />Rita<br />4.Pitched at wrong teaching level<br />6. Inflexible to changes during lesson<br />8.Gawked at student (Joel) for wrong answer<br />10. Didn’t scaffolding the lesson<br />11.Attributed faults<br />
- 20. Miss <br />Rita<br />PROBLEM 1<br />Joel is not prepared for class<br />Theories<br />Expectation value theory [Feather 1982]<br />He doesn’t see any reason to prepare for Ms Rita’s class<br />5.Unprepared for class<br />7. Changed answer reflectively(Joel)<br />9.Could not elaborate answer(Aisha)<br />Students<br />
- 21. Miss <br />Rita<br />PROBLEM 1<br />Joel is not prepared for class<br />Solution<br />Ms Rita should give them a pre-activity to do. This gives them a reason to read up beforehand, and raise their awareness and knowledge prior to the lesson <br />5.Unprepared for class<br />7. Changed answer reflectively(Joel)<br />PROBLEM 2<br />She assumes that all the student have prior knowledge <br />9.Could not elaborate answer(Aisha)<br />Students<br />
- 22. Miss <br />Rita<br />PROBLEM 2<br />Joel changed his answer according to teacher’s reaction <br /> <br />His answer was “Tsunamis are caused by high atmospheric pressure!” When I gawked at him in disbelief, he quickly changed his answer to “No, its low atmospheric pressure.”<br />5.Unprepared for class<br />7. Changed answer reflectively(Joel)<br />9.Could not elaborate answer(Aisha)<br />Students<br />
- 23. Miss <br />Rita<br />PROBLEM 2<br />Joel changed his answer according to teacher’s reaction <br /> <br />Theories<br />Deductive thinking<br />“if its not high, it should be low”<br />Demoralisation<br />He was demoralized by Ms Rita’s gawking<br />5.Unprepared for class<br />7. Changed answer reflectively(Joel)<br />9.Could not elaborate answer(Aisha)<br />Students<br />
- 24. Miss <br />Rita<br />PROBLEM 2<br />Joel changed his answer according to teacher’s reaction <br /> <br />Theories<br />Piaget Concrete Operational Stage<br />As Singapore does not experience tsunamis, Tsunami remains an abstract idea in the students. <br />Recent estimates upwards of 75% of children are still primarily concrete thinkers at 12, 13, 14 (Pg 89 of Tan.), <br />so the class may not be able understand abstract ideas that well<br />5.Unprepared for class<br />7. Changed answer reflectively(Joel)<br />9.Could not elaborate answer(Aisha)<br />Students<br />
- 25. Miss <br />Rita<br />PROBLEM 2<br />Joel changed his answer according to teacher’s reaction <br /> <br />Solution<br />Bronfenbrenner’secological systems theory, She needs to be careful not to make the classroom a hostile environment. <br />She should choose effective reinforcements (both positive and negative) instead of punishments<br />5.Unprepared for class<br />7. Changed answer reflectively(Joel)<br />PROBLEM 5<br />Inflexible to changes during lesson<br />PROBLEM 6<br />She gawked at Joel when he gave the wrong answer<br />9.Could not elaborate answer(Aisha)<br />Students<br />
- 26. References<br />Books and Journals<br />Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. New York: Springer.<br />Santrock, John W. (2008). Educational Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill.<br />Kahneman,D,, & Tversky, A. (1995). Conflict resolution: A cognitive perspective. In K. Arrow, R. H. Mnookin, L. Ross, A. Tversky, & R. Wilson (Eds.), Barriers to conflict resolution. New York: Norton<br />Dweck, C. D. (2006). Mindset. New York: Random House<br />Dweck, C. S., & Elliott, E. (1983) Achievement motivation. In P. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of a child psychology (4th ed., Vol.4). New York : Wiley.<br />Gordon, T. (1970). Parent effectiveness training. New York: McGraw Hill.<br />Amabile, T. M., and E. Tighe. (1993). Questions of Creativity. In Creativity. Vol. 4, edited by J. Brockman. The Reality Club. New York: Simon & Schuster.<br />Tan, OonSeng, D. Parsons, Richard, Hinson, Stephanie Lewis, Sardo-brown, Deborah. (2011). Educational Psychology: A Practitioner-Researcher Approach (An Asian Edition) Second Edition. Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd<br />Horney, K. (1942). Self Analysis. New York: Norton.<br />Covington, M. V. , & Omelich, C. L. (1984). Task Oriented versus competitive learning structures: Motivational and performance consequences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 1038-1050.<br />Feather, N. T. (1982). Expectations and Actions: Expectancy-value Models in Psychology. Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ.<br />

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