Brain	
  Training:	
  A	
  Mul.faceted	
  Approach	
  to	
  
Maintaining	
  Brain	
  Health	
  and	
  Quality	
  of	
  Lif...
Today’s	
  Presenta.on	
  
•  We	
  will	
  take	
  a	
  very	
  holis.c	
  and	
  interconnected	
  approach,	
  discussi...
A	
  Holis.c	
  Approach	
  
Besides	
  age,	
  what	
  determines	
  whether	
  or	
  not	
  we	
  have	
  good	
  memory...
Hope	
  from	
  Neuroscien.fic	
  Research	
  



• 	
  Older	
  adults	
  grow	
  new	
  brain	
  cells	
  or	
  
neurons,...
Hope	
  from	
  Neuroscien.fic	
  Research	
  


      •  Older	
  adults	
  can	
  make	
  new	
  connec.ons	
  and	
  rew...
Empirical	
  Evidence	
  for	
  Memory	
  
                 Enhancement	
  
•  Lachman	
  et	
  al.	
  (2010)	
  found,	
 ...
Empirical	
  Evidence	
  for	
  Memory	
  
              Enhancement	
  

•  Lupton	
  et	
  al.,	
  (2009)	
  found	
  th...
Recent	
  Scien.fic	
  Findings	
  
•  January,	
  2006	
  -­‐-­‐	
  Reduced	
  volume,	
  or	
  atrophy,	
  
   in	
  part...
Empirical	
  Evidence	
  for	
  Memory	
  
               Enhancement	
  
•  Verghese	
  et	
  al.	
  (2003)	
  published	...
Empirical	
  Evidence	
  for	
  Memory	
  
                 Enhancement	
  
•  The	
  par.cipants	
  who	
  did	
  the	
  ...
Empirical	
  Evidence	
  for	
  Memory	
  
               Enhancement	
  

•  Par.cipants	
  in	
  7	
  different	
  commun...
Memory	
  Ability	
  Increased	
  aier	
  Three	
  Months	
  of	
  
      Cogni.ve	
  Enhancement	
  Training	
  


      ...
Cogni.ve	
  Enhancement	
  Training	
  Led	
  to	
  an	
  Increase	
  in	
  
               Perceived	
  Memory	
  Ability...
Empirical	
  Evidence	
  for	
  Memory	
  
              Enhancement	
  
•  “If	
  older	
  adults	
  can	
  maintain	
  t...
Cogni.ve	
  S.mula.on	
  
•    1.	
  Read	
  a	
  book	
  
•    2.	
  Order	
  a	
  subscrip.on	
  to	
  a	
  newspaper	
 ...
Cogni.ve	
  S.mula.on	
  
•    8.	
  Go	
  to	
  a	
  spor.ng	
  event	
  
•    9.	
  Try	
  to	
  develop	
  a	
  new	
  ...
Cogni.ve	
  S.mula.on	
  
•    15.	
  Volunteer	
  
•    16.	
  Write	
  a	
  leOer	
  
•    17.	
  Join	
  a	
  book	
  c...
Cogni.ve	
  S.mula.on	
  
•    23.	
  Play	
  (new?)	
  board	
  games	
  
•    24.	
  Visit	
  museums	
  
•    25.	
  El...
Cogni.ve	
  S.mula.on	
  
•    32.	
  Buy	
  furniture	
  that	
  needs	
  assembly	
  
•    33.	
  Get	
  involved	
  in	...
Cogni.ve	
  S.mula.on	
  
•    39.	
  AOend	
  medical	
  lectures	
  at	
  hospitals	
  
•    40.	
  Knipng	
  
•    41.	...
Cogni.ve	
  S.mula.on	
  
•         48.	
  Thinking	
  cards,	
  mental	
  fitness	
  cards	
  	
  
     	
           	
  8...
Cognitive Stimulation




     © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham
         All Rights Reserved
Cognitive Stimulation




     © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham
         All Rights Reserved
Cogni.ve	
  S.mula.on	
  
•  50.	
  Sudoku




                   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham
                       All Ri...
5

5
    1
        9
Cogni.ve	
  S.mula.on	
  
•  51.	
  Word	
  Finds	





                             © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham
          ...
© 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham
    All Rights Reserved
Cogni.ve	
  S.mula.on	
  
•  52.	
  Wii	





                         © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham
                        ...
Cogni.ve	
  S.mula.on	
  
•  53.	
  Nintendo	
  DS	
  (or	
  DS	
  Lite)




                                © 2010, Dr. R...
Cogni.ve	
  S.mula.on	
  
•  54.	
  Par.cipate	
  in	
  the	
  many	
  ac.vi.es	
  available	
  at	
  Laurel	
  
   Parc,	...
Exercise	
  and	
  Cogni.on	
  
•  Colcombe	
  and	
  Kramer	
  (2003)	
  reported	
  the	
  
   results	
  of	
  an	
  18...
Exercise	
  and	
  Cogni.on	
  
•  Kramer	
  et	
  al.	
  (2001)	
  found	
  that	
  par.cipa.ng	
  in	
  a	
  six	
  
   ...
Exercise	
  and	
  Cogni.on	
  
•  Scarmeas	
  et	
  al.,	
  (2009)	
  found	
  that	
  older	
  adults	
  (mean	
  age	
 ...
What	
  type	
  of	
  exercise	
  is	
  best?	
  
•  A	
  mixture	
  of	
  aerobic	
  and	
  strength	
  (or	
  resistance...
Exercise	
  and	
  Cogni.on	
  
•  “One	
  of	
  the	
  mechanisms	
  by	
  which	
  physical	
  ac.vity	
  may	
  be	
  
...
Get	
  Going	
  
•  It	
  is	
  oien	
  challenging	
  for	
  people	
  make	
  las.ng	
  
   changes	
  to	
  their	
  ac...
20	
  Health	
  Benefits	
  Associated	
  with	
  
            Physical	
  Exercise	
  
   1. 	
  Reduces	
  the	
  risk	
 ...
20	
  Health	
  Benefits	
  Associated	
  with	
  
            Physical	
  Exercise	
  
   11.	
  Helps	
  older	
  adults	...
Benefit	
  #20	
  
•  Physical	
  Exercise	
  Improves	
  Cogni.ve	
  Ability!	
  




                        © 2010, Dr. ...
Ways	
  to	
  increase	
  overall	
  physical	
  
               ac.vity	
  levels
 1. 	
  Take	
  the	
  stairs	
  instea...
Nutri.on	
  
•  “The	
  only	
  way	
  to	
  keep	
  your	
  health	
  is	
  to	
  eat	
  
   what	
  you	
  don’t	
  want...
Nutri.on	
  and	
  Cogni.on	
  
•  Fats	
  
•  An.oxidants	
  




                     © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham
       ...
“Good	
  Fat”	
  
•  Omega-­‐3	
  faOy	
  acids	
  or	
  “good	
  fat”	
  has	
  been	
  linked	
  to	
  
   improved	
  c...
Research	
  
•  Research	
  has	
  found	
  a	
  posi.ve	
  correla.on	
  
   between	
  Omega-­‐3	
  faOy	
  acids	
  lev...
The	
  American	
  Journal	
  of	
  Clinical	
  
             Nutri.on	
  (2009)	
  

Albanese	
  et	
  al.,	
  (2009)	
  ...
Research	
  
•  Recent	
  research	
  has	
  also	
  shown	
  that	
  fish	
  oil	
  
   tablets	
  can	
  decrease	
  the	...
Research	
  
•  The	
  omega-­‐3	
  faOy	
  acids	
  might	
  reduce	
  
   inflamma.on	
  in	
  the	
  brain.	
  Inflamma.o...
Myelin	
  Increase	
  the	
  Speed	
  and	
  Efficiency	
  of	
  
             Neuronal	
  Transmission	
  




            ...
Good Fats (High in Omega-3) 	

	

•    Fish	
  
•    Nuts	
  
•    Canola	
  Oil	
  
•    Flax	
  Seed	
  Oil	
  
•    Gre...
An.oxidants	
  
•  Over	
  .me,	
  our	
  brain	
  cells	
  experience	
  wear	
  and	
  
   tear	
  from	
  various	
  ox...
Antioxidants




 © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham
     All Rights Reserved
The	
  Top	
  An.oxidant	
  Fruits	
  and	
  
                           Vegetables*	
  
•    Food	
       	
  An.oxidant	...
The	
  Top	
  An.oxidant	
  Fruits	
  and	
  
                      Vegetables*	
  

•    Food	
             	
  An.oxidan...
Ques.on	
  
•  We	
  have	
  discussed	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  factors	
  
   influence	
  whether	
  we	
  will	
  experie...
Reducing	
  Risk	
  for	
  	
  
                          Gene.cally	
  Prone	
  
•  People	
  who	
  are	
  at	
  a	
  in...
The	
  Importance	
  of	
  Social	
  Support	
  
•  Virtually	
  all	
  older	
  adults	
  have	
  experienced	
  
   disr...
Emo.onal	
  and	
  Social	
  Losses	
  
•    Death	
  of	
  a	
  spouse	
  
•    Death	
  of	
  close	
  life-­‐long	
  fr...
Why	
  does	
  social	
  support	
  and	
  mood	
  
                       maOer?	
  
•  Depression	
  is	
  less	
  likel...
Why	
  does	
  social	
  support	
  and	
  mood	
  
                     maOer?	
  
•  We	
  must	
  do	
  what	
  we	
  c...
Why	
  does	
  social	
  support	
  and	
  mood	
  
                       maOer?	
  
•    Depression/Despair/Hopelessness...
Cogni.ve	
  Enhancement	
  Training	
  Led	
  to	
  Increased	
  Social	
  
                       Support	
  


         ...
Cogni.ve	
  Enhancement	
  Training	
  Led	
  to	
  Increased	
  Social	
  
                       Support	
  


         ...
Cogni.ve	
  Enhancement	
  Training	
  Led	
  to	
  Decreased	
  
                    Loneliness	
  


                   ...
Social	
  Engagement	
  is	
  S.mula.ng	
  
•  July,	
  2008	
  -­‐	
  Berkman	
  and	
  colleagues	
  reported	
  
   find...
Social	
  Engagement	
  is	
  S.mula.ng	
  
“The	
  working	
  hypothesis	
  is	
  that	
  social	
  engagement	
  is	
  w...
Summary	
  
•  Par.cipa.on	
  in	
  cogni.vely	
  s.mula.ng	
  ac.vi.es	
  is	
  associated	
  
   with	
  decreased	
  li...
Train	
  Your	
  Brain:	
  How	
  to	
  Maximize	
  
 Memory	
  Ability	
  in	
  Older	
  Adulthood	
  
Train	
  Your	
  B...
Contact	
  Informa.on	
  
Dr.	
  Rob	
  Winningham	
  
Associate	
  Professor	
  and	
  Chair	
  
Western	
  Oregon	
  Uni...
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This presentation contains the latest research on how older adults can improve their memory ability through lifestyle changes.

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Use It Talk 2010 Publish

  1. 1. Brain  Training:  A  Mul.faceted  Approach  to   Maintaining  Brain  Health  and  Quality  of  Life   Dr.  Rob  Winningham   Western  Oregon  University   Psychology  Division © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. Today’s  Presenta.on   •  We  will  take  a  very  holis.c  and  interconnected  approach,  discussing   a  myriad  of  factors  that  affect  cogni.on  as  we  age  (e.g.,  cogni.ve   exercise,  physical  exercise,  and  nutri.on).   •  We  will  discuss  numerous  and  prac.cal  ways  older  adults  can   maintain  their  cogni.ve  and  social  well-­‐being.   •  BoOom  line  is  that  numerous  behavioral  and  lifestyle  interven.ons   seem  to  have  a  significant  impact  on  the  likelihood  of  developing   demen.a.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. A  Holis.c  Approach   Besides  age,  what  determines  whether  or  not  we  have  good  memory  abili.es  in  older   adulthood?   •  Gene.cs  (50%)   •  Cogni.ve  s.mula.on   •  Other  health  condi.ons   •  Stress   •  Good  sleep   •  Social  support  and  engagement   •  Proper  nutri.on   •  Adequate  physical  exercise   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. Hope  from  Neuroscien.fic  Research   •   Older  adults  grow  new  brain  cells  or   neurons,  by  a  process  known  as   neurogenesis.     •   Neurogenesis  occurs  in  the  adult   hippocampus,  olfactory  bulb,  striatum  and   possibly  in  other  parts  if  the  brain.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. Hope  from  Neuroscien.fic  Research   •  Older  adults  can  make  new  connec.ons  and  rewire   their  brains.     •  The  organiza.on  and  connec.on  among  neurons  is   more  important  than  the  number  of  neurons.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. Empirical  Evidence  for  Memory   Enhancement   •  Lachman  et  al.  (2010)  found,  as  many  other  researchers  have,   that  older  adults  with  more  educa.on  are  less  likely  to  have   memory  problems.   •  But  there  is  good  news:  "Among  individuals  with  low   educa4on,  those  who  engaged  in  reading,  wri4ng,  a7ending   lectures,  doing  word  games  or  puzzles  once  or  week  or  more   had  memory  scores  similar  to  people  with  more  educa4on,"   said  Lachman. © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Empirical  Evidence  for  Memory   Enhancement   •  Lupton  et  al.,  (2009)  found  that  the  later   people  re.red  the  less  likely  they  were  to  get   demen.a  and  if  they  did  it  was  at  a  later  age.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. Recent  Scien.fic  Findings   •  January,  2006  -­‐-­‐  Reduced  volume,  or  atrophy,   in  parts  of  the  brain  known  as  the  amygdala   and  hippocampus  may  predict  which   cogni.vely  healthy  elderly  people  will  develop   demen.a  over  a  six-­‐year  period,  according  to   a  study  in  the  January  issue  of  Archives  of   General  Psychiatry  by  Tom  den  Heijer  et  al.     © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. Empirical  Evidence  for  Memory   Enhancement   •  Verghese  et  al.  (2003)  published  an  ar.cle  in   New  England  Journal  of  Medicine  about  the   rela.onship  between  cogni.ve  ac.vi.es  and   likelihood  of  developing  demen.a.   –  Followed  people  for  21  years   –  Measured  ac.vity  levels  and  demen.a   –  Compared  top  third  to  boOom  third   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. Empirical  Evidence  for  Memory   Enhancement   •  The  par.cipants  who  did  the  most  ac.vi.es  were  63%  less   likely  to  develop  demen.a,  as  compared  to  those  who  did  the   least.   •  For  every  addi.onal  ac.vity  someone  did  on  a  weekly  basis,   there  was  a  7%  reduc.on  in  the  likelihood  of  developing   demen.a.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  11. 11. Empirical  Evidence  for  Memory   Enhancement   •  Par.cipants  in  7  different  communi.es  were  tested  on  many   different  memory  and  mental  tests.    Then  1/2  of  the   par.cipants  engaged  in  the  cogni.ve  enhancement  program   and  the  other  1/2  (the  control  group)  did  not.    Three  months   later  all  par.cipants  were  retested  on  the  same  tests.     Changes  over  the  three  months  were  analyzed.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. Memory  Ability  Increased  aier  Three  Months  of   Cogni.ve  Enhancement  Training   RiverMead Behavioral Memory Test (Extended) 70 65 Score on RBMT-E 60 Cognitive Enhancement 55 Control Group 50 45 40 Time 1 Time 2 Time of Testing © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. Cogni.ve  Enhancement  Training  Led  to  an  Increase  in   Perceived  Memory  Ability   Perceived Memory Ability (Confidence) 50 Score on MIA-Perceived Memory 48 46 44 42 Cognitive Enhancement 40 Control Group 38 36 34 32 30 Time 1 Time 2 © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham Time All Rights Reserved of Testing
  14. 14. Empirical  Evidence  for  Memory   Enhancement   •  “If  older  adults  can  maintain  their  cogni.ve  ability,  they   will  require  less  care  and  possibly  delay  or  even  eliminate   the  need  to  go  to  a  nursing  home.  Cogni.vely  s.mula.ng   ac.vi.es  may  also  postpone  symptoms  of  demen.a,  which   could  also  delay  the  need  for  more  intensive  care.”      Dr.  Winningham,  Journal  of  Mental  Health  and  Aging   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. Cogni.ve  S.mula.on   •  1.  Read  a  book   •  2.  Order  a  subscrip.on  to  a  newspaper   •  3.  Do  crossword  puzzles   •  4.  Take  a  class  at  Center  50+   •  5.  Join  a  club  or  other  organiza.on   •  6.  Visit  with  friends   •  7.  Take  a  class  at  a  community  college © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  16. 16. Cogni.ve  S.mula.on   •  8.  Go  to  a  spor.ng  event   •  9.  Try  to  develop  a  new  hobby   •  10.  Take  different  routes  to  frequent  des.na.ons   •  11.  Go  to  a  different  grocery  store   •  12.  Take  a  trip  to  a  new  place   •  13.  Go  dancing  or  take  a  dance  class   •  14.  Begin  using  email © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  17. 17. Cogni.ve  S.mula.on   •  15.  Volunteer   •  16.  Write  a  leOer   •  17.  Join  a  book  club   •  18.  Try  learning  a  foreign  language   •  19.  Part  .me  job   •  20.  Gardening  -­‐  consider  becoming  a  master  gardener   •  21.  Read  new  magazines   •  22.  Listen  to  the  radio   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  18. 18. Cogni.ve  S.mula.on   •  23.  Play  (new?)  board  games   •  24.  Visit  museums   •  25.  ElderHostel   •  26.  Join  Facebook     •  27.  Memorize  a  new  song  or  piece  of  music   •  28.  Try  using  the  bus   •  29.  Cook  new  recipes   •  30.  Sewing   •  31.  Join  a  chorus  or  local  orchestra   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  19. 19. Cogni.ve  S.mula.on   •  32.  Buy  furniture  that  needs  assembly   •  33.  Get  involved  in  poli.cs     •  34.  Program  your  VCR  and  other  electronic  devices   •  35.  Learn  to  juggle   •  36.  Begin  journaling   •  37.  Complete  Puzzles   •  38.  Toastmasters © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  20. 20. Cogni.ve  S.mula.on   •  39.  AOend  medical  lectures  at  hospitals   •  40.  Knipng   •  41.  Counted  cross  s.tch  embroidery   •  42.  Try  using  the  self-­‐scan  checkout  at  the  grocery  store     •  43.  Par.cipate  in  a  play   •  44.  Jigsaw  puzzles   •  45.  Volunteer  at  a  church  (e.g.,  teach  Sunday  school  classes  or   organize  volunteer  efforts)   •  46.  Board  games  (e.g.,  see  www.rehabgames.biz)   •  47.  Learn  American  Sign  Language © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  21. 21. Cogni.ve  S.mula.on   •  48.  Thinking  cards,  mental  fitness  cards        800-­‐327-­‐4269     •  49.  Daily  Emails   –  Spanish  Word  of  the  Day  hOp://www.studyspanish.com/dailyword/   –  Investors  Terms  of  the  Day  hOp://www.investorglossary.com/   –  Health  Tip  of  the  Day  hOp://www.realage.com/news_features/.p.aspx   –  Health  Tip  of  the  Day/Dr  Weil  hOp://www.drweil.com/u/Home/index.html   –  Jig  saw  puzzle  hOp://daily.webshots.com/html/sw_jigsaw.html   –  Jig  saw  puzzle  hOp://www.jigzone.com/   –  Cross  word  puzzles   •  hOp://www.bestcrosswords.com/bestcrosswords/Home.page   –  Wordsmith  -­‐  English  Word  of  the  Day   •  hOp://www.wordsmith.org/   –  Dic.onary.com  Word  of  the  Day   •  hOp://www.dic.onary.com/wordoiheday/ © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  22. 22. Cognitive Stimulation © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  23. 23. Cognitive Stimulation © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  24. 24. Cogni.ve  S.mula.on   •  50.  Sudoku © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  25. 25. 5 5 1 9
  26. 26. Cogni.ve  S.mula.on   •  51.  Word  Finds © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  27. 27. © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  28. 28. Cogni.ve  S.mula.on   •  52.  Wii © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  29. 29. Cogni.ve  S.mula.on   •  53.  Nintendo  DS  (or  DS  Lite) © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  30. 30. Cogni.ve  S.mula.on   •  54.  Par.cipate  in  the  many  ac.vi.es  available  at  Laurel   Parc,  including  the  Use  It  or  Lose  It  class. © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  31. 31. Exercise  and  Cogni.on   •  Colcombe  and  Kramer  (2003)  reported  the   results  of  an  18-­‐study  meta-­‐analyses  on  the   effects  of  exercise  on  cogni.on.   •  They  found  that,  on  average,  exercise   programs  lead  to  a  .5  standard  devia.on   increase  in  cogni.ve  abili.es  (e.g.,  I.Q.  of  100   versus  108).   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  32. 32. Exercise  and  Cogni.on   •  Kramer  et  al.  (2001)  found  that  par.cipa.ng  in  a  six   month  walking  program  led  to  increased  aOen.on  in   60-­‐75  year  old  adults.   •  Colcombe  &  Kramer  (2003)  found  that  execu.ve   func.oning  improved  more  than  straight  memory   func.oning.   •  The  ability  to  pay  aOen.on  to  relevant  s.muli  is   correlated  with  cogni.ve  ability  in  older  adults.    It   appears  that  exercise  affects  this  ability.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  33. 33. Exercise  and  Cogni.on   •  Scarmeas  et  al.,  (2009)  found  that  older  adults  (mean  age   77  years)  who  were  in  the  top  third  in  terms  of  gepng   physical  exercise  were  61%  less  likely  to  get  demen.a   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  34. 34. What  type  of  exercise  is  best?   •  A  mixture  of  aerobic  and  strength  (or  resistance)  training   •  Liu-­‐Ambrose  et  al.  (2010)  reported  that  either  once-­‐a-­‐week  or   twice-­‐a-­‐week  resistance  training  sessions  for  12  months  led  to   improvements  in  older  adults’  cogni.on  and  aOen.on.   –  11%  improvement  for  once-­‐a-­‐week   –  13%  improvement  for  twice-­‐a-­‐week   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  35. 35. Exercise  and  Cogni.on   •  “One  of  the  mechanisms  by  which  physical  ac.vity  may  be   beneficial  for  cogni.on  is  that  physical  ac.vity  s.mulates  trophic   factors  and  neuronal  growth,  possibly  providing  reserve  against   later  cogni.ve  decline  and  demen.a.”    (Dik  et  al.,  2003,  p.  643)   •  Physical  exercise  may  also  increase  cerebral  blood  flow.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  36. 36. Get  Going   •  It  is  oien  challenging  for  people  make  las.ng   changes  to  their  ac.vity  levels  but  consider   the  plethora  of  benefits.     •  Keep  the  benefits  in  mind…   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  37. 37. 20  Health  Benefits  Associated  with   Physical  Exercise   1.  Reduces  the  risk  of  dying  prematurely.   2.  Reduces  the  risk  of  dying  from  heart  disease.   3.  Reduces  the  risk  of  developing  diabetes.   4.  Reduces  the  risk  of  developing  high  blood  pressure.   5.  Helps  reduce  blood  pressure  in  people  who  already  have  high  blood  pressure.   6.  Reduces  the  risk  of  developing  colon  cancer.   7.  Reduces  feelings  of  depression.   8.  Reduces  feelings  of  anxiety.   9.  Helps  control  weight.   10.  Helps  build  and  maintain  healthy  bones,  muscles,  and  joints. © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  38. 38. 20  Health  Benefits  Associated  with   Physical  Exercise   11.  Helps  older  adults  become  stronger  and  beOer  able  to  move  about  without  falling.     12.  Promotes  psychological  well-­‐being.   13.  Reduces  stress.   14.  Reduces  chance  of  demen.a.   15.  Increases  neural  plas.city.   16.  Faster  wound  healing  and  less  permanent  damage  aier  brain  injury.   17.  Reduces  nico.ne  craving  for  people  who  are  trying  to  quit  smoking.   18.  Increases  speed  of  reflex  and  improves  balance  for  those  who  have  experienced  a   stroke.   19.  Helps  older  adults  maintain  their  driving  ability. © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  39. 39. Benefit  #20   •  Physical  Exercise  Improves  Cogni.ve  Ability!   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  40. 40. Ways  to  increase  overall  physical   ac.vity  levels 1.  Take  the  stairs  instead  of  the  elevator.   2.  When  at  an  airport,  walk  instead  of  using  the  moving  walkways.   3.  Try  to  take  a  30-­‐minute  walk  daily.   4.  Plant  a  garden.   5.  Walk  or  ride  a  bicycle  to  run  errands,  if  possible.   6.  Join  a  gym.   7.  If  you  already  have  a  gym  membership,  schedule  some  .me  with  a  personal  trainer   to  change  your  workout.   8.  Swim.   9.  Ask  a  friend  or  spouse  to  exercise  with  you.   10.  Buy  an  MP3  player  and  put  audio  books  or  interes.ng  podcasts  on  it  so  your   workout  goes  quicker  (10%  more  calories  burned) © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  41. 41. Nutri.on   •  “The  only  way  to  keep  your  health  is  to  eat   what  you  don’t  want,  drink  what  you  don’t   like,  and  do  what  you  rather  not”  -­‐  Mark  Twain   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  42. 42. Nutri.on  and  Cogni.on   •  Fats   •  An.oxidants   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  43. 43. “Good  Fat”   •  Omega-­‐3  faOy  acids  or  “good  fat”  has  been  linked  to   improved  cogni.ve  func.oning  in  older  adults.   •  Fish,  nuts,  olive  oil,  canola  oil,  and  green  leafy  vegetables   are  high  in  Omega-­‐3  faOy  lipids.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  44. 44. Research   •  Research  has  found  a  posi.ve  correla.on   between  Omega-­‐3  faOy  acids  levels  (e.g.,     DHA)  and  cogni.ve  func.oning  in  older  adults.   •  Individuals  with  demen.a  oien  have  lower   levels  of  DHA  than  non-­‐demented  controls.   •  The  more  fish  people  eat,  the  less  likely  they   are  to  show  signs  of  Alzheimer’s  Disease.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  45. 45. The  American  Journal  of  Clinical   Nutri.on  (2009)   Albanese  et  al.,  (2009)  studied  15,000  people   in  La.n  America  and  Asia  found  that  those   who  ate  fish  nearly  every  day  were  20%   less  likely  to  get  demen.a  as  compared  to   those  who  ate  it  only  a  few  .mes  a  week.   Those  that  ate  fish  a  few  .mes  per  week   were  20%  less  likely  to  get  demen.a  than   those  who  rarely  ate  fish.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  46. 46. Research   •  Recent  research  has  also  shown  that  fish  oil   tablets  can  decrease  the  number  of  depressive   symptoms  in  people  diagnosed  with  major   depression.  Some  studies  have  found  that  fish   oil  tablets  are  as  effec.ve  as  modern   an.depressants.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  47. 47. Research   •  The  omega-­‐3  faOy  acids  might  reduce   inflamma.on  in  the  brain.  Inflamma.on  might   be  one  of  the  causes  of  Alzheimer’s  disease.   •  It  also  may  be  that  myelina.on  of  the  axon  is   affected  by  our  dietary  intake  of  fat.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  48. 48. Myelin  Increase  the  Speed  and  Efficiency  of   Neuronal  Transmission   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  49. 49. Good Fats (High in Omega-3) •  Fish   •  Nuts   •  Canola  Oil   •  Flax  Seed  Oil   •  Green  Leafy  Vegetables   •  Olive  Oil © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  50. 50. An.oxidants   •  Over  .me,  our  brain  cells  experience  wear  and   tear  from  various  oxidants  known  as  free   radicals  (as  well  as  cell  division).   •  Our  bodies  use  an.oxidants  to  combat  the   effects  of  free  radicals.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  51. 51. Antioxidants © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  52. 52. The  Top  An.oxidant  Fruits  and   Vegetables*   •  Food    An.oxidant  Power**         •  Prunes      5770   •  Raisins      2830   •  Blueberries    2400   •  Blackberries    2040   •  Cranberries    1750   •  Strawberries    1540   •  Spinach      1260   •  Raspberries    1230   •  Brussels  Sprouts  980   •  Plums        950 © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  53. 53. The  Top  An.oxidant  Fruits  and   Vegetables*   •  Food    An.oxidant  Power**         •  Broccoli  Florets  890   •  Beets      840   •  Avocados      780   •  Oranges      750   •  Red  Grapes    740   •  Red  Bell  Peppers  710   •  Cherries      670   •  Kiwis        600   •  *  -­‐  Based  on  Small  (2002),  p.  141-­‐142   •  **  -­‐  Oxygen  Radical  Absorbency  Capacity  (ORAC)  per  3.5  ounces © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  54. 54. Ques.on   •  We  have  discussed  a  number  of  factors   influence  whether  we  will  experience   cogni.ve  impairment  or  demen.a.  Of  all  the   factors  we  know  about,  what  do  you  think  has   the  greatest  influence  (besides  age)?       •  Gene.cs   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  55. 55. Reducing  Risk  for     Gene.cally  Prone   •  People  who  are  at  a  increased  gene.c  risk  for  demen.a  (they   have  the  ApoE-­‐E4  gene)  can  reduce  the  risk  of  demen.a  more   than  others  if  they  remove  reduce  saturated  fat  intake.   •  And,  although  physical  ac.vity  reduces  everyone’s  risk  of   demen.a,  it  reduces  it  more  for  those  who  have  the  ApoE-­‐E4   gene.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  56. 56. The  Importance  of  Social  Support   •  Virtually  all  older  adults  have  experienced   disrup.on  of  their  social  support  networks.   •  These  disrup.ons  are  oien  ignored  and  can   lead  to  a  myriad  of  mental  health  problems.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  57. 57. Emo.onal  and  Social  Losses   •  Death  of  a  spouse   •  Death  of  close  life-­‐long  friends   •  Health  problems  may  affect  socializa.on   •  Inability  to  drive   •  Move  away  from  friends   •  Less  likely  to  have  social  contact  through  work   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  58. 58. Why  does  social  support  and  mood   maOer?   •  Depression  is  less  likely  among  people  who  have  strong  social   networks.   •  Depression  is  also  associated  with  cogni.ve  impairment.   •  Loneliness  is  also  related  to  a  number  of  nega.ve  health  outcomes,   including  increased  chance  of  demen.a  (Luanaigh  &  Lawlor,  2008)   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  59. 59. Why  does  social  support  and  mood   maOer?   •  We  must  do  what  we  can  to  decrease   perceived  loneliness  among  older  adults.   •  Wilson  et  al.  (2007)  followed  over  800  older   adults  for  four  years.  The  most  lonely  (top   10%)  were  more  than  twice  as  likely  to   develop  demen.a  in  the  next  four  years.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  60. 60. Why  does  social  support  and  mood   maOer?   •  Depression/Despair/Hopelessness   •  Cardiovascular  Health   •  Immune  Func.oning   •  Cogni.ve  Maintenance   •  Cancer  Prognosis   •  Life  expectancy   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  61. 61. Cogni.ve  Enhancement  Training  Led  to  Increased  Social   Support   The Effects of a Cognitive Enhancement Program on Social Support Appraisals 77 76 75 Score on SS-A 74 Cognitive 73 Enhancement 72 Control Group 71 70 69 68 Time 1 Time 2 Time of Testing © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  62. 62. Cogni.ve  Enhancement  Training  Led  to  Increased  Social   Support   The Effects of a Cognitive Enhancement Program on Social Support Behaviors 132 130 128 Score on SS-B 126 Cognitive 124 Enhancement 122 Control Group 120 118 116 114 Time 1 Time 2 Time of Testing © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  63. 63. Cogni.ve  Enhancement  Training  Led  to  Decreased   Loneliness   The Effects of a Cognitive Enhancement Program on Loneliness 35 34 UCLA Loneliness Scale 33 Cognitive 32 Enhancement 31 Control Group 30 29 28 Time 1 Time 2 Time of Testing © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  64. 64. Social  Engagement  is  S.mula.ng   •  July,  2008  -­‐  Berkman  and  colleagues  reported   findings  that  showed  older  adults  who  are   most  socially  engaged  have  the  least  memory   problems.   –  Researchers  controlled  for  age,  health,  and  gender   –  Those  with  the  least  formal  educa.on  had  the   greatest  gains  from  social  engagement   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  65. 65. Social  Engagement  is  S.mula.ng   “The  working  hypothesis  is  that  social  engagement  is  what   makes  you  mentally  engaged,'’  said  Lisa  F.  Berkman,  the   study’s  senior  author  and  director  of  the  Harvard  Center  for   Popula.on  and  Development  Studies.  “You  can’t  sit  and   withdraw  if  you’re  constantly  talking  and  working  on  things   and  figuring  out  problems  in  your  daily  life.  It’s  not  just   comple.ng  a  crossword  puzzle,  it’s  living  your  life.'’   From:  hOp://well.blogs.ny.mes.com/2008/06/04/socializing-­‐appears-­‐to-­‐delay-­‐memory-­‐problems/   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  66. 66. Summary   •  Par.cipa.on  in  cogni.vely  s.mula.ng  ac.vi.es  is  associated   with  decreased  likelihood  of  developing  demen.a.   •  Cogni.vely  s.mula.ng  ac.vi.es  may  delay  the  need  for  more   intensive  care  (e.g.,  ALF,  skilled  nursing  or  nursing  home).   •  Proper  food  and  exercise  is  good  for  the  brain  and  memory.   •  Social  support  and  social  engagement  is  important  for   physical,  cogni.ve  and  mental  health.   © 2010, Dr. Rob Winningham All Rights Reserved
  67. 67. Train  Your  Brain:  How  to  Maximize   Memory  Ability  in  Older  Adulthood   Train  Your  Brain  was  wriOen  to  provide  older  adults,   and  the  people  who  work  with  them,  with   prac.cal  and  scien.fically  based  sugges.ons  and   interven.ons  on  how  to  maintain  and  even   improve  memory  ability.  Most  chapters  begin   with  research  summaries,  followed  by  prac.cal   sugges.ons  for  taking  advantage  of  the  iden.fied   factors  that  affect  memory.  This  book  is  an   excellent  resource  for  anyone  interested  in   maintaining  memory  ability.  
  68. 68. Contact  Informa.on   Dr.  Rob  Winningham   Associate  Professor  and  Chair   Western  Oregon  University   345  N.  Monmouth  Ave   Monmouth,  OR  97361   Email:  winninr@wou.edu   Phone:  (503)  838-­‐8297    

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