What Variables  Affect Web Credibility? A Report of Ongoing Research from Stanford’s Persuasive Technology Lab BJ Fogg (bj...
Overview <ul><li>Level 1  A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitions, basic issues </li></u...
Level 1  A First Look at Credibility <ul><li>Level 1  A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>defini...
Why does Web credibility matter? <ul><li>Web sites with optimal levels of credibility </li></ul>Creators <ul><li>What to b...
Why does Web credibility matter? Few have studied this (publicly) Web has  least  credible info of any medium Web has  mos...
What is “credibility”? <ul><li>Believability </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>A perception based on two factors* . ....
Highly credible web sites have. . .  <ul><li>High levels of perceived trustworthiness and expertise </li></ul>perceived  t...
One factor can damage credibility perceived  lack of   trustworthiness perceived  expertise perceived  lack of   credibili...
Some semantic issues <ul><li>“Credibility” and “Trust” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar terms but not the same construct </li...
Expertise & Trustworthiness  In these examples, what elements convey expertise? What elements convey trustworthiness?
Expertise & Trustworthiness In these examples, what elements convey expertise? What elements convey trustworthiness?
Level 2 Four Types of Credibility <ul><li>Level 1  A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitio...
Four Types of Credibility <ul><li>1. Presumed Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reputed Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>3. Su...
1. Presumed Credibility <ul><li>We believe because of general  assumptions  we hold. </li></ul>
1. Presumed Credibility <ul><li>We believe because of general  assumptions  we hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples* . . .  </...
2. Reputed credibility <ul><li>We believe because of a reference from a  third party . </li></ul>
2. Reputed credibility <ul><li>We believe because of a reference from a  third party . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples* . . . <...
3. Surface credibility <ul><li>We believe because of what we find on  simple inspection . </li></ul>
3. Surface credibility <ul><li>We believe because of what we find on  simple inspection . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples* . . ...
4. Experienced credibility <ul><li>We believe because of  past experience  with site. </li></ul>
4. Experienced credibility <ul><li>We believe because of  past experience  with site. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples* . . . </...
Why this framework is helpful <ul><li>Provides a set of terms for discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances both research & de...
Why this framework is helpful <ul><li>Provides a set of terms for discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances both research & de...
Four Types of Credibility  <ul><li>Presumed </li></ul><ul><li>Reputed </li></ul><ul><li>Surface </li></ul><ul><li>Experien...
Four Types of Credibility <ul><li>Presumed </li></ul><ul><li>Reputed </li></ul><ul><li>Surface </li></ul><ul><li>Experienc...
Level 3 Web Site Variables <ul><li>Level 1  A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitions, bas...
Level 3  Web Site Variables <ul><li>How to contain the many elements of a Web site? </li></ul><ul><li>We’ve created some f...
Framework for Web Site Elements <ul><li>Web Site  Provider </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Person or organization that offers th...
Web Credibility Grid Web Site Provider Web Site Content Web Site Design Presumed Credibility Reputed Credibility Surface C...
Web Credibility Grid Web Site Provider Web Site Content Web Site Design Presumed Credibility Reputed Credibility Surface C...
Web Credibility Grid Web Site Provider Web Site Content Web Site Design Presumed Credibility Reputed Credibility Surface C...
Small Survey on Web Credibility <ul><li>Pilot study on 45 variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaire, n = 25, with Nina...
Survey results were interesting * more credible less credible Was referred to you by a good friend Contains a link to a si...
Lab Experiment on Web Credibility <ul><li>Selected two Web credibility variables for Nina Kim’s thesis experiment </li></u...
Web credibility research Experimental Design <ul><li>Controlled lab study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2X2 mixed design, n = 38 <...
Web credibility research Sample Stimuli No typos Typos vs
Web credibility research Sample Stimuli No Ad Ad vs
Web credibility research Sample Stimuli Other sample pages
Web credibility research What did the data show? <ul><li>Typos  decreased  the credibility of page. </li></ul><ul><li>Ads ...
Level 4 Variables Outside the Web <ul><li>Level 1  A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitio...
Level 4: Variables Outside the Web <ul><li>Individual variables </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>user differences (age, exper...
Level 5 Three Moving Targets <ul><li>Level 1  A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitions, b...
Level 5: Three Moving Targets <ul><li>Three things are changing . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. People </li></ul></ul><...
Ongoing research efforts at PTL <ul><li>Research on web credibility perceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.webresearch....
In Review <ul><li>Level 1  A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitions, basic issues </li></...
What Variables  Affect Web Credibility? A Report of Ongoing Research from Stanford’s Persuasive Technology Lab BJ Fogg (bj...
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Web Credibility Variables Public

  1. 1. What Variables Affect Web Credibility? A Report of Ongoing Research from Stanford’s Persuasive Technology Lab BJ Fogg (bjfogg@stanford.edu) First presented at CSLI’s Industrial Affiliate Conference Stanford University, November 11, 1999
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Level 1 A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitions, basic issues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2 Four Types of Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>different kinds of credibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 3 Web Site Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>web elements and a framework </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 4 Variables Outside the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individuals, goals, and contexts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 5 Three Moving Targets </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>people, experience levels, and technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Plus two studies
  3. 3. Level 1 A First Look at Credibility <ul><li>Level 1 A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitions, basic issues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2 Four Types of Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>different kinds of credibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 3 Web Site Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>web elements and a framework </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 4 Variables Outside the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individuals, goals, and contexts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 5 Three Moving Targets </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>people, experience levels, and technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Plus two studies
  4. 4. Why does Web credibility matter? <ul><li>Web sites with optimal levels of credibility </li></ul>Creators <ul><li>What to believe </li></ul><ul><li>on the web </li></ul><ul><li>(aka “information quality”) </li></ul>Consumers <ul><li>A key factor in </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based persuasion </li></ul>PT Lab Answer #1
  5. 5. Why does Web credibility matter? Few have studied this (publicly) Web has least credible info of any medium Web has most credible info of any medium Web standards are taking shape now The Web is not going away any time soon Big money is at stake Web presence is vital for many companies Explosion of Web-based info & services Web users are vulnerable Answer #2
  6. 6. What is “credibility”? <ul><li>Believability </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>A perception based on two factors* . . . </li></ul>trustworthiness expertise honest truthful unbiased powerful intelligent knowledgeable experienced good *Some studies have shown three or more factors +
  7. 7. Highly credible web sites have. . . <ul><li>High levels of perceived trustworthiness and expertise </li></ul>perceived trustworthiness perceived expertise perceived credibility +
  8. 8. One factor can damage credibility perceived lack of trustworthiness perceived expertise perceived lack of credibility + perceived trustworthiness perceived lack of expertise perceived lack of credibility +
  9. 9. Some semantic issues <ul><li>“Credibility” and “Trust” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar terms but not the same construct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phrases that refer to credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“trust the information” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“accept the advice” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“believe the output” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Expertise & Trustworthiness In these examples, what elements convey expertise? What elements convey trustworthiness?
  11. 11. Expertise & Trustworthiness In these examples, what elements convey expertise? What elements convey trustworthiness?
  12. 12. Level 2 Four Types of Credibility <ul><li>Level 1 A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitions, basic issues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2 Four Types of Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>different kinds of credibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 3 Web Site Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>web elements and a framework </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 4 Variables Outside the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individuals, goals, and contexts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 5 Three Moving Targets </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>people, experience levels, and technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Plus two studies
  13. 13. Four Types of Credibility <ul><li>1. Presumed Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reputed Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>3. Surface Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>4. Experienced Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s helpful to distinguish different types of credibility. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But you won’t find these distinctions in the psychology literature. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 1. Presumed Credibility <ul><li>We believe because of general assumptions we hold. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 1. Presumed Credibility <ul><li>We believe because of general assumptions we hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples* . . . </li></ul>Increases credibility Decreases credibility Domain name has “.org” Lots of hits on web counter Info on the site is constantly updated Site has AOL domain name Very few hits on web counter Info on the site is rarely updated <ul><ul><li>*These are working hypotheses. To date, we’ve studied only some of these variables. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 2. Reputed credibility <ul><li>We believe because of a reference from a third party . </li></ul>
  17. 17. 2. Reputed credibility <ul><li>We believe because of a reference from a third party . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples* . . . </li></ul>Increases credibility Decreases credibility Your medical doctor referred you to this Web site. The site won an award. An authoritative Web site linked to this site. Your friend said the site was horrible. The newspaper said the site was down for three days. A political group you don’t like endorses the site. <ul><ul><li>*These are working hypotheses. To date, we’ve studied only some of these variables. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 3. Surface credibility <ul><li>We believe because of what we find on simple inspection . </li></ul>
  19. 19. 3. Surface credibility <ul><li>We believe because of what we find on simple inspection . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples* . . . </li></ul>Increases credibility Decreases credibility Site looks professional. Site is from an organization you recognize. You see that articles have citations. Site looks confusing. The organization has no presence outside the Web. The site uses many animated features. <ul><ul><li>*These are working hypotheses. To date, we’ve studied only some of these variables. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 4. Experienced credibility <ul><li>We believe because of past experience with site. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 4. Experienced credibility <ul><li>We believe because of past experience with site. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples* . . . </li></ul>Increases credibility Decreases credibility You get a quick response to a customer service question. You can navigate the site easily. You’ve found the content to be fair and balanced. The site has a broken link. The site takes a long time to download each page. You’ve seen factual errors on the site. <ul><ul><li>*These are working hypotheses. To date, we’ve studied only some of these variables. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Why this framework is helpful <ul><li>Provides a set of terms for discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances both research & design </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asking better questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing more possibilities </li></ul></ul></ul>Presumed Credibility Reputed Credibility Surface Credibility Experienced Credibility Trustworthiness Expertise
  23. 23. Why this framework is helpful <ul><li>Provides a set of terms for discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances both research & design </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asking better questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing more possibilities </li></ul></ul></ul>Presumed Credibility Reputed Credibility Surface Credibility Experienced Credibility Trustworthiness Expertise 
  24. 24. Four Types of Credibility <ul><li>Presumed </li></ul><ul><li>Reputed </li></ul><ul><li>Surface </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced </li></ul>Can you identify the different types of credibility in these examples?
  25. 25. Four Types of Credibility <ul><li>Presumed </li></ul><ul><li>Reputed </li></ul><ul><li>Surface </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced </li></ul>Can you identify the different types of credibility in these examples?
  26. 26. Level 3 Web Site Variables <ul><li>Level 1 A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitions, basic issues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2 Four Types of Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>different kinds of credibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 3 Web Site Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>web elements and a framework </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 4 Variables Outside the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individuals, goals, and contexts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 5 Three Moving Targets </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>people, experience levels, and technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Plus two studies
  27. 27. Level 3 Web Site Variables <ul><li>How to contain the many elements of a Web site? </li></ul><ul><li>We’ve created some frameworks </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll talk about one. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See www.webcredibility.org for others. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Framework for Web Site Elements <ul><li>Web Site Provider </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Person or organization that offers the site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., IBM, Kodak, Amazon </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Web Site Content </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functionality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Web site Design </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetic design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical design </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Web Credibility Grid Web Site Provider Web Site Content Web Site Design Presumed Credibility Reputed Credibility Surface Credibility Experienced Credibility <ul><li>information </li></ul><ul><li>functionality </li></ul><ul><li>aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>information </li></ul><ul><li>technical </li></ul>
  30. 30. Web Credibility Grid Web Site Provider Web Site Content Web Site Design Presumed Credibility Reputed Credibility Surface Credibility Experienced Credibility The provider is a nonprofit organization. The site was created by an outside design firm. The site has ads from reputable companies. Users are familiar with the provider outside of the Web context. The provider is recognized as an expert by others. The site’s content has always been accurate and unbiased. The site is easy to navigate. The site appears to have lots of relevant information. The content has been approved by an outside agency. The site won an award for technical achievement. The site has a pleasing visual design. Users with questions receive quick and helpful answers. Examples of elements that increase credibility* <ul><li>information </li></ul><ul><li>functionality </li></ul><ul><li>aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>information </li></ul><ul><li>technical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*These are working hypotheses. To date, we’ve studied only some of these variables. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Web Credibility Grid Web Site Provider Web Site Content Web Site Design Presumed Credibility Reputed Credibility Surface Credibility Experienced Credibility The site tries to recruit advertisers but has none so far. The site has no security protocols for transactions. The site shows only a few hits on their web counter. The site’s URL does not match the provider’s name. The provider was sued for patent infringement and lost. The site has typographical errors. The site has links to pages that no longer exist. The site seems to have more ads than information. The content got bad reviews from an outside agency. The site is reported to have copied the design of another site. The text font is either too large or small to read comfortably. The site doesn’t give contact information anywhere. Examples of elements that decrease credibility* <ul><li>aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>information </li></ul><ul><li>technical </li></ul><ul><li>information </li></ul><ul><li>functionality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*These are working hypotheses. To date, we’ve studied only some of these variables. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Small Survey on Web Credibility <ul><li>Pilot study on 45 variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaire, n = 25, with Nina Kim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: To select variables for experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample question: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Web site lists an author for each article. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>much much </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less more </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>credible credible </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Survey results were interesting * more credible less credible Was referred to you by a good friend Contains a link to a site you trust Contains an ad for IBM Contains many spelling and grammatical errors Was created with PageMill or FrontPage software Charges a monthly access fee Contains broken links Contains misleading ads Makes it difficult to distinguish ads from content Contains a typographical error Has “.com” in the domain Contains animation Has “.org” in the domain Lists an author for each article Lists a physical address for the page sponsor Is easy to navigate Provides quick response to a customer service question Presents information that may help its competitors Represents a company or organization you recognize *The sample size in this survey was too small to draw firm conclusions
  34. 34. Lab Experiment on Web Credibility <ul><li>Selected two Web credibility variables for Nina Kim’s thesis experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>typos </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Web credibility research Experimental Design <ul><li>Controlled lab study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2X2 mixed design, n = 38 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health information taken from Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>typos or no typos </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ads or no ads </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>questionnaire after viewing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Web credibility research Sample Stimuli No typos Typos vs
  37. 37. Web credibility research Sample Stimuli No Ad Ad vs
  38. 38. Web credibility research Sample Stimuli Other sample pages
  39. 39. Web credibility research What did the data show? <ul><li>Typos decreased the credibility of page. </li></ul><ul><li>Ads increased the credibility of page. </li></ul><ul><li>Both effects are stronger for vital info than for less vital info. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Level 4 Variables Outside the Web <ul><li>Level 1 A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitions, basic issues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2 Four Types of Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>different kinds of credibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 3 Web Site Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>web elements and a framework </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 4 Variables Outside the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individuals, goals, and contexts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 5 Three Moving Targets </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>people, experience levels, and technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Plus two studies
  41. 41. Level 4: Variables Outside the Web <ul><li>Individual variables </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>user differences (age, experience, personality, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal variables </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>information seeking on health </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>surveillance of current events </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>passing time, entertainment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Context variables </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>setting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>time factors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>technology factors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Level 5 Three Moving Targets <ul><li>Level 1 A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitions, basic issues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2 Four Types of Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>different kinds of credibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 3 Web Site Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>web elements and a framework </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 4 Variables Outside the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individuals, goals, and contexts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 5 Three Moving Targets </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>people, experience levels, and technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Plus two studies
  43. 43. Level 5: Three Moving Targets <ul><li>Three things are changing . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. People </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web user base will become more diversified. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Experience levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web users will become more savvy. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web technology and uses will change. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These moving targets mean . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions of Web credibility will shift over time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We need an ongoing effort to understand Web credibility. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Ongoing research efforts at PTL <ul><li>Research on web credibility perceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.webresearch.org </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Web credibility experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online and in the lab </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gathering other work on Web credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pointers at www.webcredibility.org </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. In Review <ul><li>Level 1 A First Look at Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitions, basic issues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2 Four Types of Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>different kinds of credibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 3 Web Site Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>web elements and a framework </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 4 Variables Outside the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individuals, goals, and contexts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 5 Three Moving Targets </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>people, experience levels, and technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Plus two studies
  46. 46. What Variables Affect Web Credibility? A Report of Ongoing Research from Stanford’s Persuasive Technology Lab BJ Fogg (bjfogg@stanford.edu) First presented at CSLI’s Industrial Affiliate Conference Stanford University, November 11, 1999

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