GeographyBihar is located in the Northern-Eastern part of thecountry between latitude 24°-20-10" N ~ 27°-31-15"N and longitude 82°-19-50" E ~ 88°-17-40" E. It isan entirely land–locked state, in Sub Tropical regionof Temperate zone. Bihar lies mid-way between thehumid West Bengal in the east and the sub humidUttar Pradesh in the west which provides it with atransitional position in respect of climate, economyand culture. It is bounded by Nepal in the north andby Jharkhand in the south. Bihar plain is divided intotwo unequal halves (North Bihar and South Bihar) bythe river Ganges which flows through the middle fromwest to east. Bihars land has average elevationabove sea level is 173 feet.
The state is divided into 9 divisions and 38 districts, for administrative purposes.
HistoryThe history of Bihar is one of the most varied in India.Ancient Bihar, known as Magadha, was the center ofpower, learning, and culture in India for 1000 years.Indias first empire, the Maurya empire as well as one ofthe worlds greatest pacifist religion, Buddhism arosefrom the region that now makes modern Bihar.Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Guptadynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under acentral rule. Its capital Patna, earlier known asPataliputra, was an important political, military, andeconomic center of Indian civilization during the ancientand classical periods of history. Many of the ancientIndian text, written outside of the religious epics, werewritten in ancient Bihar.
Abhijñānaśākuntala was the most prominent. One of the firstknown republics in the world, Licchavi, existed in the regionsince before the birth of Mahavira (c. 599 BC). The classicalGupta dynasty of Bihar, was known to have been a period ofgreat culture and learning inside India. The Gupta period isknown today as the Golden Age of India. The Pala Empire alsomade their capital at Pataliputra. After, Bihar played a verysmall role in Indian affairs, until the emergence of the Suridynasty during the Islamic period in the 1540s. After the fall ofthe Suri dynasty in 1556, Bihar again became a marginalplayer in India and was the staging post for the BengalPresidency from the 1750s and up to the war of 1857–58. On22 March 1912, Bihar was carved out as a separate proviencein the British Indian Empire. Since 1947, Bihar has been astate in the Indian Union.
CultureBesides usual rural handicrafts like hand-painted wall hangings,wooden stools, miniatures in paper and leaves, stone pottery,bamboo, leather goods and appliqué work, Bihar is famous for itsMadhubani paintings. These works of art often adorn city homesand are also exported. A strict monopoly of women of Mithila,Madhubani artists work with natural colors on paper and cloth,making works that narrate mythological and religious events.Ancient designs in bright colors can still be seen on the mud wallsin the districts of Saharsa, Muzaffarpur, Vaishali, Darbhanga,Samastipur, and Bhagalpur and of coursethe trade centre for this unique art.
CostumesWomen: The women wear saree, blouse and peticoat. Somemodern women also wear salwar kameej or jeans and top soon.Men: The men wear dhoti, kurta, nungi, ganji (banyan), ect.Are main costumes of men, but nowadays these are almostseen in villages.
FoodThe main food of Bihar are “litti, chokha,sattu, bhat (rice), dal and vegetable(tarkari in bhojpuri)”litti Dal, bhat andvegetable
Folk songs are mostly sung byBihari amateurs all over thestate. The Thumar orBarahmasa is sung by female ingroups when they are engagedin paddy plantation. Whengrinding corn in Jata or Chakki,they sing Jatusari. Sohar issung on the occasion of child-birth and Sumangali, whenmarriage rites are to conclude.
Bihar is one of the cultural states and is verypopular for its exquisite and unique culture. Danceand Music plays an important role in decorating it.Classical Dances are quite less in this state, butyou will find innumerable number of folk music anddance forms. The folk genre of dance includestribal dance, rituals, nature, and society. Thestraightforward people of this land use these formsof dances to express unhappiness or joy and thesedances are performed at the time of festivals themusical culture of Bihar is quite famous amongstthe industry and has been privileged to producelegends like The Mishras, the Malliks, and theBharat Ratna award winner Ustad Bismillah Khan.
PoliticsNitish Kumar is the present chief ministerof Bihar.Dnyandeo Yashwantrao Patil is thepresent governor of Bihar .Dnyandeo Yashwantrao PatilNitish Kumar