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  1. 1. 4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources  Renewable resources can be replenished over fairly short spans of time, such as months, years, or decades.  Nonrenewable resources take millions of years to form and accumulate. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
  2. 2. 4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources  Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons that may be used as fuel, including coal, oil, and natural gas. Fossil Fuels (nonrenewable)
  3. 3. 4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources <ul><li> Coal forms when heat and pressure transform plant material over millions of years. </li></ul><ul><li>Large coal deposits in US </li></ul><ul><li>Mining scars land and is dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>Burning causes air pollution – sulfur results in acid rain – CO2 a greenhouse gas </li></ul>Fossil Fuels
  4. 4. 4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources <ul><li> Petroleum (oil) and Natural Gas forms from plants and animals buried in ancient seas.(deposits are found on both land and under oceans) </li></ul><ul><li>Large deposits globally including US </li></ul>Fossil Fuels
  5. 5. 4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources Fossil Fuels
  6. 6. 4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources <ul><li>Petroleum (oil) and Natural Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Drilling can damage environment especially from tar sands and shale which requires large amounts of water </li></ul><ul><li>Burning releases CO2 </li></ul>Fossil Fuels
  7. 7. Anticlines Are Common Oil Traps
  8. 8. 4.2 Alternate Energy Sources  In nuclear fission, (not fusion) the nuclei of heavy atoms such as uranium-235 are bombarded with neutrons.  The uranium nuclei split into smaller nuclei and emit neutrons and heat energy. Alternative Energy Resources Nuclear Energy (nonrenewable)
  9. 9. Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant
  10. 10. 4.2 Alternate Energy Sources  Concerns remain about the use of nuclear energy safety. Accidents have occurred; radioactive material is dangerous and transport and disposal of material problematic. However it is mainly a nonpolluting method of generating electricity. Nuclear Energy (nonrenewable)
  11. 11. 4.2 Alternate Energy Sources 1. Solar energy’s “fuel” is free.  Solar energy has two advantages: 2. Solar energy is non-polluting.  Solar energy has some disadvantages: Solar Energy (renewable)
  12. 12. 4.2 Alternate Energy Sources  In the next 50 to 60 years, wind power could meet between 5 to 10 percent of the country’s demand for electricity. Wind Energy (renewable)
  13. 13. Wind Turbines
  14. 14. 4.2 Alternate Energy Sources  The strong water flow that results drives turbines and electric generators.  The water held in a reservoir behind a dam is a form of stored energy that can be released through the dam to produce electric power.  Hydroelectric power is the power generated by falling water. Hydroelectric Power
  15. 15. Glen Canyon Dam
  16. 16. 4.2 Alternate Energy Sources  Hot water is used directly for heating and to turn turbines that generate electric power.  Geothermal energy is harnessed by tapping natural underground reservoirs of steam and hot water. Geothermal Energy
  17. 17. The Geysers Is the World’s Largest Electrical Geothermal Facility
  18. 18. 4.2 Alternate Energy Sources  Tidal power is harnessed by constructing a dam across the mouth of a bay or an estuary in coastal areas.  The strong in-and-out flow of tidal water drives turbines and electric generators. Tidal Power
  19. 19. Tidal Dams
  20. 20. 4.2 Historical Use of Energy
  21. 21. 4.2 Electrification of America  1750-1850 Industrial revolution (steam power, coal mining, iron, gas lights, cotton spinning)  1930-1950 Rural electrification of America.  Early 1900’s to about 1930 cities “wired” for electricity .  1879 Edison invents the light bulb.  1888 Tesla joins Westinghouse develops AC motor and power transmission system Timeline
  22. 22. 4.2 Historical Use of Energy
  23. 23. 4.2 Automobiles in America  1930 many people rode horses and use mass transit by 1950 most middle class owned a car .  1903 Ford Motor Company incorporated.  1928 campaign slogan “A chicken in every pot and a car in every garage”.
  24. 24. 4.2 Historical Use of Energy
  25. 25. 4.2 World Population <ul><li>1804 --- 1 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>1927 --- 2 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>1961 --- 3 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>1974 --- 4 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>1987 --- 5 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>1999 --- 6 Billion </li></ul>
  26. 26. 4.2 Florida Sources of Energy
  27. 27. 4.2 Florida Energy  FL has only minor gas/oil reserves  Solar, nuclear, biomass and wind options .  FL energy consumption among highest states in country (residential/transportation highest, industry low)  Possible large oil deposits off west coast  Ethanol from citrus peel waste?
  28. 28. Saving Energy