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The Nature of Chemical Hazards &
Implications of GHS Applied to Industry
7.5 Hour

University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ),
School of Public Health (SPH)
Office of Public Health Practice (OPHP)
http://ophp.umdnj.edu
Copyright © 2013
UMDNJ School of Public Health
All rights reserved
Federal Disclaimer

This material was produced under grant number
SH-23527-12-60-F-34 from the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does
not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S.
Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names,
commercial products, or organizations imply
endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Today’s Goals & Objectives
Introduction
The two primary goals of this training :
1.Introduce the newly revised Hazard Communication Standard (HCS)
aligning it with the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification
and Labeling of Chemicals.

2.Provide a basic awareness training emphasizing the nature of
chemicals.

Note: The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is now aligned with the
Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals
(GHS).
Section One: Rights and Responsibilities
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970: “General Duty Clause”
5. General Duties
(a)Each employer
(1) shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of
employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are
likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees;

(2) shall comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated
under this Act.
(b) Each employee shall comply with occupational safety and health
standards and all rules, regulations, and orders issued pursuant to this Act
which are applicable to his own actions and conduct.
Section One: Rights and Responsibilities
Mandatory Training
OSHA’s Hazard Communication requirements are Identical in:
General Industry,
Construction,
Maritime industries.
It is found in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 29 §1910.1200 and
has specific mandatory language that spells out required employee training in
the workplace:

Employers shall provide effective information and training to employees
at the time of initial assignment,
For new chemical hazards (not previously trained)

Note: Information and training may be designed to cover categories of
hazards (e.g., flammability, carcinogenicity) or specific chemicals. Chemicalspecific information must always be available through labels and safety data
sheets.
Section One: Rights and Responsibilities
Mandatory Training Must Include
1. Methods and observations to detect the presence or release of a hazardous
chemicals (such as monitoring, visual appearance, odors of hazardous
chemicals when being released, etc.); 1910.1200(h)(3)(i)
2. The physical, health, simple asphyxiation, combustible dust, and
pyrophoric gas hazards, as well as hazards not otherwise classified, of the
chemicals in the work area; 1910.1200(h)(3)(ii)
3. Protective measures, including specific procedures the employer has
implemented to protect employees from exposure to hazardous chemicals,
such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and personal
protective equipment. 1910.1200(h)(3)(iii)
4. Details about the employer’s hazard communication program, including an
explanation of the labels, the safety data sheet, including the order of
information and how employees can obtain and use the appropriate hazard
information. 1910.1200(h)(3)(iv)
Section One: Rights and Responsibilities

A Right to Be Heard: Your Rights as a Whistleblower
OSHA's Whistleblower Protection Program enforces the whistleblower provisions
of more than twenty whistleblower statutes. Rights afforded by these
whistleblower acts include, but are not limited to, worker participation in safety and
health activities, reporting a work related injury, illness or fatality, or reporting a
violation of the statutes.
Protection from discrimination means that an employer cannot retaliate by taking
"adverse action" against workers, such as:
Firing or laying off
Blacklisting
Demoting
Denying overtime or promotion
Disciplining
Denial of benefits

Failure to hire or rehire
Intimidation
Making threats
Reassignment affecting prospects for
promotion
Reducing pay or hours
Section One: Rights and Responsibilities

Limited Right to Refuse to Work
Employees have a limited right under the OSH Act to refuse to do a job because
conditions are hazardous.
You may do so under the OSH Act only when:
1. You believe that you face death or serious injury (and the situation is so clearly
hazardous that any reasonable person would believe the same thing);
2. You have tried to get your employer to correct the condition, and there is no
other way to do the job safely; and
3. The situation is so urgent that you do not have time to eliminate the hazard
through regulatory channels such as calling OSHA.
Regardless of the unsafe condition, you are not protected if you simply walk off
the job
Section One: Rights and Responsibilities

Right to Know vs. Right to Understand
Activity One: Critical Assessment:
Can you remember receiving right-to-know training yourself?
What did you learned?
Who performed the training?
Where in the workplace are your certifications?
Where can you find chemical hazard information?
Do you feel your training was effective, why or why not?
Section One: Rights and Responsibilities
Key elements of an Effective
Hazard Communication Program
Company Policy
Container Labeling (HCS 2012 Compliant)
Safety Data Sheet (HCS 2012 Compliant)
Employee Training and Information
Procedures and Communication for Non Routine Tasks
Procedures and Communication for third party
contractors
Hazardous Materials Inventory/Lists
Chemicals in Unlabeled Pipes
Program documentation and availability
Periodic regular program maintenance
Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication
The GHS provides a standardized approach, including
detailed criteria for determining what hazardous effects a
chemical poses, as well as standardized label elements
assigned by hazard class and category
OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) requires the
development and dissemination of such information:
Chemical manufacturers and importers are required to
evaluate the hazards of the chemicals they produce or
import, and prepare labels and safety data sheets to convey
the hazard information to their downstream customers;
All employers with hazardous chemicals in their workplaces
must have labels and safety data sheets for their exposed
workers, and train them to handle the chemicals
appropriately.
Reasons For A GHS

• Growing international trade
• Different requirements for labeling of
chemicals
• Different classifications of identical
products in different countries
• Need for an international safety standard
GHS History

• The ILO (International Labor Organization)
developed and adopted a convention and
recommendation on Safety in the Use of
Chemicals at Work in 1989-90
• The OECD (Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development) helped classify
health and environmental hazards
• The UN Sub-Committee of Experts on the
Transport of Dangerous Goods (UNSCETDG)
GHS History

• The United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED)
first proposed GHS in 1992
• This goal later endorsed by several
international organizations
• More than a decade of work has gone into
the new global system
GHS History – The UN Mandate
“A globally-harmonized hazard classification and
compatible labeling system, including material safety
data sheets and easily understandable symbols, should
be available, if feasible, by the year 2000.”

The Purple Book
Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication
Major changes to the Hazard Communication Standard
Hazard classification: Provides specific criteria for classification of health and
physical hazards, as well as classification of mixtures. The revised HCS has
specific criteria for each health and physical hazard, along with detailed
instructions for hazard evaluation and determinations as to whether mixtures or
substances are covered. It also establishes both hazard classes and hazard
categories—for most of the effects; the classes are divided into categories that
reflect the relative severity of the effect. The current HCS does not include
categories so this new approach provides additional information that can be
related to the appropriate response to address the hazard.
Labels: Chemical manufacturers and importers will be required to provide a label
that includes a harmonized signal word, pictogram, and hazard statement for each
hazard class and category.
Precautionary statements must also be provided.
Safety Data Sheets: Will now have a specified 16-section format.
Information and training: Employers are required to train workers by December
1, 2013 on the new labels elements and safety data sheets format to facilitate
recognition and understanding
Harmonization Principles

•
•
•
•
•

Comprehensibility is # 1
Maintain current Worker/User protection
Cover all chemical Uses & Modes
All existing systems must change
May use a step-by-step “Building Block”
approach
• Classifications will be Hazards-based, not
Risk-based
Hazard Vs. Risk Basis
Hazards represent intrinsic danger or ability of
chemicals to cause adverse effects
Hazards are there despite quantity or use
Risk is the probability of adverse effects
occurring
Risk may change depending on use and
application of chemicals
End Here

Start Here

Chemical
Product
Lifecycle
Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication
Unchanged Parts of the Hazard Communication Standard
The revised Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is a modification to the
existing standard. The parts of the standard that did not relate to the GHS (such as
the basic framework, scope, and exemptions) remained largely unchanged.
There have been some modifications to terminology in order to align the revised
HCS with language used in the GHS. For example, the term "hazard
determination" has been changed to "hazard classification" and "material safety
data sheet" was changed to "safety data sheet."
In regards to labeling, the current standard provides employers with flexibility
regarding the type of system to be used in their workplaces and OSHA has
retained that flexibility in the revised Hazard Communication Standard (HCS).
Employers may choose to label workplace containers either with the same label
that would be on shipped containers for the chemical under the revised rule, or
with label alternatives that meet the requirements for the standard. Alternative
labeling systems such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 704
Hazard Rating and the Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS) are
permitted for workplace containers. However, the information supplied on these
labels must be consistent with the revised HCS, e.g., no conflicting hazard
warnings or pictograms.
Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication
Effective Dates to Remember:
Benefits Of The GHS
• Enhances human health,
safety and environmental
protection
• Promotes sound
management of chemicals
worldwide
• Reduces barriers and
Facilitates Trade
• Reduces costs involved in
developing, manufacturing,
distributing, and transporting
hazardous chemicals
Governments Benefit

• Fewer chemical accidents and incidents
• Lower health care costs
• Improved protection of workers and public
from chemical hazards
• Reduce costs and ease coordination for
legislation, implementation and
monitoring,
• Supports improved inter-agency
coordination and cooperation
Companies & Workers Benefit

• Safer work environment and transport of
chemicals
• Improved employee relations
• Increased compliance with HazCom regs
• Minimizing labor and costs
• Fewer accidents and illnesses
• Improved corporate image and credibility
Stakeholders
•
•
•
•

A multitude of countries
International organizations
Stakeholder organizations
Domestic Manufacturers
& Importers
Stakeholders & Other interested Parties

•
•
•
•

Chemical Manufacturers
Users/Consumers
Trade Associations
Federal, State and Local
Government
• Emergency Responders







Transporters
Unions
Consultants
Individuals
and Others
Interagency Working Group On
Harmonization

• Formed by 4 key independent regulatory
authorities in the US:
– OSHA
– DOT
– EPA (FIFRA) Federal Insecticide
Fungicide and Rodenticide Act
– CPSC
• …Also FDA and Commerce
Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication

By the Numbers: Anticipated Statistical Shifts, Costs
and Benefits
Workers affected by HCS: Over 40 million workers
Affected Industries: Over 5 million workplaces
Total cost, an estimated $201 million a year on an annualized
basis for the entire United States, is the sum of four major
cost elements.
Prevent 43 fatalities
Prevent 585 injuries and illnesses annually.
Prevent 318 non-lost-workday injuries and illnesses.
Prevent 203 lost-workday injuries and illnesses.
Prevent 64 chronic illnesses annually.
Generate net monetized benefits of $556 million annually,
Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication
Practical Advantages of Global Harmonized System (GHS) to Industry
 
More efficient dissemination of information: Since SDS are arranged in uniform order, 
an employer can choose to training by categories comparing “apples to apples” and 
more effectively train right-to-know details. Easier means of training results in more 
compliance and less exposures in the workplace. Categorical training modules by 
similar hazard groupings, hence flammables, corrosives, caustics with each grouping 
side-by-side.
Hazard grouping of category matrix: An inventory of chemical product SDS’s can 
translate to an employer creating a cross-matrix according to hazards that shortens 
retrieval and response times.
International uniformity allows companies that work in the global economy to work with 
less lose of vital information due to errors in translation. 
Easier selection of hazards controls such as personal protection equipment. 
Readily understandable: Since pictograms, once familiarized, are so much easier to 
recognize at a glance than various texts and non-uniform symbols, employees can have 
faster warnings. 
Global Harmonization Standard Changes to OSHA HACOM Rule
Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication
Hazard Communication
Standard Pictogram
As of June 1, 2015, the 
Hazard Communication 
Standard (HCS) will 
require pictograms on 
labels to alert users of 
the chemical hazards to 
which they may be 
exposed. Each 
pictogram consists of a 
symbol on a white 
background framed 
within a red border and 
represents a distinct 
hazard(s). The pictogram 
on the label is 
determined by the 
chemical hazard 
classification. 
Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication
Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication
Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication
Section Three: Job Hazard Analysis
Job Hazard Analysis
Safety Process
Assess
Plan and Control (hierarchy of controls)
Train
Implement 
Monitor 
Re-Assess
Routes of Entry (Exposure)
Absorption 
Ingestion
Inhalation
Injection 
(The front door into your home)
Introduction to
Hazard Communication
Rights & Responsibilities
Globally Harmonized System of Classification
and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS)

Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication

Flammability

Permissible
Exposure
Limits

Caustics and

Oxygen and

Corrosives

Oxidizers

Health

Reactivity

Storage

Applications to
Various Industries

Construction

Green
Industry

Hair Salons

Healthcare

Dry Cleaning

Landscaping
Simple Job Safety Analysis and the
Application of Controls
A Job Safety Analysis (JSA) or Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) is a
technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards
before they occur. It focuses on the relationship between the
worker, the task, the tools, the work environment and the necessary
steps to control a hazard. 

Job Steps

Break tasks
down to
smaller subtasks.

Hazards/
Potential
Accidents
List all possible
associated
hazards
preferably in
an order of
severity

Control
Measures

Means of Implementation

Use the Hierarchy of Should set out steps and procedures
Controls
that are easy to understand.
1. Elimination
And explain the proper use of
2. Prevent
the equipment and requisite
3. Protect
training and administration.
4. Mitigate
Critical Thinking
(Good-Better-Best)
No matter how large or how small a task or job you can apply
a logical thought process. It’s universal!
1. ELIMINATE: Simply ELIMINATE the hazard.
2. PREVENTION: prevent accident or exposure from
occurring.
3. PROTECTION: Mitigate or Minimize effects of hazards i.e.
– Job Rotation
– Scheduling
– Personal Protective Equipment (Mitigation) PPE
– Work Practices, Training
– Specialized Training
Routes of exposure
Inhalation The most common type of 
exposure occurs when you breathe a 
substance into the lungs. The lungs consist 
of branching airways (called bronchi) with 
clusters of tiny air sacs (called alveoli) at 
the ends of the airways. The alveoli absorb 
oxygen and other chemicals into the 
bloodstream.
Sometimes a chemical is present in the air 
as small particles (dust or mist). Some of 
these particles, depending on their size, 
may be deposited in the bronchi and/or 
alveoli. Many of them may be coughed out, 
but others may stay in the lungs and may 
cause lung damage. Some particles may 
dissolve and be absorbed into the blood 
stream, and have effects elsewhere in the 
body 
Personal Protective Equipment

Particulate
Respirators

Combination
Respirators

40

Gas & Vapor
Respirators
Routes of exposure
Skin Contact The skin is a protective barrier that helps keep foreign
chemicals out of the body. However, some chemicals can easily pass
through the skin and enter the bloodstream. If the skin is cut or
cracked, chemicals can penetrate through the skin more easily. Also,
some caustic substances, like strong acids and alkalis, can
chemically burn the skin. Others can irritate the skin. Many
chemicals, particularly organic solvents, dissolve the oils in the skin,
leaving it dry, cracked, and susceptible to infection and absorption of
other chemicals.
Routes of exposure
Eye Contact Some 
chemicals may burn or irritate 
the eye. Occasionally they 
may be absorbed through the 
eye and enter the 
bloodstream. The eyes are 
easily harmed by chemicals, 
so any eye contact with 
chemicals should be taken as 
a serious incident. 
Routes of exposure
Ingestion The least common 
source of exposure in the 
workplace is swallowing 
chemicals. Chemicals can be 
ingested if they are left on 
hands, clothing or beard, or 
accidentally contaminate 
food, drinks or cigarettes. 
Chemicals present in the 
workplace as dust, for 
example, metal dusts such as 
lead or cadmium, are easily 
ingested
Routes of exposure

Remember: Your front door could be a Route of Entry for bringing 
contaminants home from work and exposing family members 
The GHS Elements

Classification Criteria
– Health and Environmental Hazards
– Physical Hazards
– Mixtures

Hazard Communication
– Labels
– Safety Data Sheets
Health & Environmental Hazards
Acute Toxicity
Skin Corrosion/Irritation
Serious Eye Damage/Eye Irritation
Respiratory or Skin Sensitization
Germ Cell Mutagenicity
Carcinogenicity
Reproductive Toxicity
Target Organ Systemic Toxicity – Single and 
Repeated Dose
Hazardous to the Aquatic Environment (Not OSHA)
Physical Hazards
Explosives
Flammability – gases, aerosols, liquids, solids
Oxidizers – liquid, solid, gases
Self-Reactive 
Pyrophoric – liquids, solids
Self-Heating
Organic Peroxides
Corrosive to Metals
Gases Under Pressure
Water-Activated Flammable Gases
Comprehensibility

Guiding principles:





Information should be conveyed in more 
than one way.
The comprehensibility of the components of 
the system should take account of existing 
studies and evidence gained from testing.
The phrases used to indicate the degree 
(severity) of hazard should be consistent 
across different hazard types.
Key Label Elements
Product identifier
Supplier identifier
Chemical identity
Hazard pictograms*
Signal words*
Hazard statements*
Precautionary information
*Standardized
  Transport Pictograms
  GHS Pictograms

!
Signal Words

           “Danger” or “Warning”

Used to emphasize hazard and 
discriminate between levels of 
hazard.
Hazard Statements
 A single harmonized hazard statement for 
each level of hazard within each hazard 
class
 Example:  Flammable liquids
•
•
•
•

Category 1: Extremely flammable liquid and vapour
Category 2: Highly flammable liquid and vapour
Category 3: Flammable liquid and vapour
Category 4: Combustible liquid
Precautionary Information




GHS label should include appropriate 
precautionary information. 
The GHS document includes examples of 
precautionary statements which can be used.
The intent is to harmonize precautionary 
statements in the future.
Role of the SDS in the GHS

The SDS should provide comprehensive 
information about a chemical substance or 
mixture.
 Primary Use:  The Workplace
 Employers and workers use the SDS as a 
source of information about hazards and to 
obtain advice on safety precautions.

SDS Format:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

16 headings

Identification
Hazard(s) identification
Composition/information on ingredients
First-aid measures
Fire-fighting measures
Accidental release measures
Handling and storage
Exposure control/personal protection
Format:

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

16 headings (cont.)

Physical and chemical properties
Stability and reactivity
Toxicological information
Ecological information
Disposal considerations
Transport information
Regulatory information
Other information
Confidential Business Information

National authorities should establish
appropriate mechanisms for CBI protection.
CBI will not be harmonized under the GHS.
 The provisions for CBI protection should not
compromise the health and safety of users.
 CBI claims should be limited to the names of
chemicals and their concentrations in mixtures.
 Mechanisms should be established for
disclosure in emergency and non-emergency
situations.

Key GHS Words

• Pictogram: Symbols comprehensible worldwide
• Signal Words: Also indicates degree of danger but
gets user attention
• Hazard Statement: Phrases to summarize product
hazards on labels and SDSs
GHS Point Of Use Exemptions

•
•
•
•

Pharmaceuticals
Food Additives
Cosmetics
Pesticide Residues in food
Hazard Classification
and Hazard
Categories
Chemical Hazards

• Chemicals can pose a danger for human
health and the environment from:
- Production
- Handling
- Storage
- Transportation
- Use
- Disposal
Basic Hazard Categories Under
GHS
• Physical, e.g., fire/explosion, corrosion
- Use standard tests (e.g., FP), Structure
Activity Relationships & Expert Judgment
• Health Effects - Chronic & Acute
- Tox testing, LD50, human data, calculations
• Environmental - Aquatic environment, i.e.,
Marine pollutants (Not OSHA Regulated)
Worldwide Classification Frequently Different
Example: Chemical w/ LD 50 = 260 mg/kg
GHS Categories Based On Severity

5 Categories
- Category 1 = Most Hazardous
- Category 5 = Least Hazardous
Not all Categories are regulated in all
modes
Example: GHS Hazard Categories For
ETHANOL

•
•
•
•
•

Acute Toxicity (oral): Category 5
Eye Irritation: Category 2A
Flammable Liquid: Category 2
Respiratory Irritation: Category 3
Skin Corrosion/ Irritation: Category 3
Pictograms
GHS Pictograms
Description

Exploding
Bomb

Pictogram

Hazard class and hazard
category:
Unstable explosives
Explosives of Divisions 1.1,
1.2, 1.3, 1.4
Self reactive substances and
mixtures, Types A,B
Organic peroxides, Types A,
B
GHS Pictograms
Description

Flame

Pictogram

Hazard class and hazard category:

Flammable gases, category 1
Flammable aerosols, categories 1,2
Flammable liquids, categories 1,2,3
Flammable solids, categories 1,2
Self-reactive substances and mixtures,
Types B,C,D,E,F
Pyrophoric liquids, category 1
Pyrophoric solids, category 1
Self-heating substances and mixtures,
categories 1,2
Substances and mixtures, which in
contact with water,
emit flammable gases, categories 1,2,3
Organic peroxides, Types B,C,D,E,F
GHS Pictograms
Description

Flame Over Circle

Pictogram

Hazard class and hazard
category:

Oxidizing gases,
category 1
Oxidizing liquids,
categories 1,2,3
GHS Pictograms

Description

Gas Cylinder

Pictogram

Hazard class and hazard
category:

Gases under pressure:
- Compressed gases
- Liquefied gases
- Refrigerated liquefied
- gases Dissolved gases
GHS Pictograms

Description

Corrosion

Pictogram

Hazard class and hazard
category:

Corrosive to metals,
category 1
Skin corrosion, categories
1A,1B,1C
Serious eye damage,
category 1
GHS Pictograms

Description

Pictogram

Hazard class and hazard
category:

Acute toxicity (oral,
dermal, inhalation),
categories 1,2,3

Skull and
Crossbones
GHS Pictograms
Description

Exclamation Mark

Pictogram

Hazard class and hazard
category:

Acute toxicity (oral,
dermal, inhalation),
category 4
Skin irritation, category 2
Eye irritation, category 2
Skin sensitization,
category 1
Specific Target Organ
Toxicity – Single
exposure, category 3
GHS Pictograms
Description

Health Hazard

Pictogram

Hazard class and hazard category:

Respiratory sensitization, category 1
Germ cell mutagenicity, categories
1A,1B,2
Carcinogenicity, categories 1A,1B,2
Reproductive toxicity, categories
1A,1B,2
Specific Target Organ Toxicity –
Single exposure, categories 1,2
Specific Target Organ Toxicity –
Repeated exposure, categories 1,2
Aspiration Hazard, category 1
Current North American Labels

• US Workforce labels follow:
- OSHA
- ANSI
- NJ Right to Know Law
- CA Proposition 65
• Canada Workforce labels follow WHMIS
• Lots of differences among these
Six Elements Of The GHS Label

•
•
•
•
•
•

Product Identifier
Supplier Identification
Chemical Identification
Hazard Pictograms
Signal Words
Hazard Statements describing nature of
hazards
GHS Label For Acetone
GHS Label For
Epichlorohydrin

Epichlohydrin
1-Chloro-2,3epoxypropane
CAS No. 106-89-8
UN No. 2023

Top Half
Of Label

Hazard
Hazard statements:
・ Toxic if swallowed
・ Toxic in contact with skin
・ Fatal if inhaled
・ May cause an allergic skin reaction.
・ May cause genetic defects.
・ May cause cancer
・ Cause severe skin burns and eye damage
・ Cause serious eye irritation
・ Toxic to aquatic life
GHS Label For Epichlorohydrin
Bottom
Half Of
Label

Precautionary statements:
・ Keep out of reach of children.
・ Keep container tightly closed.
・ Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and
   understood.
・ Wear eye/face protection.
・ Wear protective gloves/clothing.
・ Wear respiratory protection, as specified by the manufacturer.
・ Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapors/spray.
・ Use appropriate ventilation.
・ Wash thoroughly after handling.
United Nations Co., Ltd.
1-1, Peace Avenue
Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. 41 22 917 00 00        Fax. 41 22 917 00 00
GHS Label Placement

GHS label
Pictogram
is optional,
if shipping
label has
hazard
symbol
GHS Label Placement For Combination
Packages

Put 6
Units
in box
No GHS Label on Outer
Package if Danger is
noted by diamond label(s)

GHS Single
Package Label
Safety Data Sheets
Safety Data Sheets Under GHS

Section 1. Identification
Section 2. Hazard(s) classification & labeling
statements
Section 3. Composition/information on ingredients
Section 4. First-aid measures
Section 5. Fire-fighting measures
Section 6. Accidental release measures
Section 7. Handling and storage
Section 8. Exposure controls/personal protection
Safety Data Sheets Under GHS

Section 9. Phys and Chem Properties/Measurements
Section 10. Stability & reactivity (Heat, water,
incompatibles)
Section 11. Toxicological information (Health info)
Section 12. Ecological information (Environ effects)
Section 13. Disposal considerations
Section 14. Transport info (49CFR, Can DGR...)
Section 15. Regulatory info (CA Prop 65, NJRTK…)
Section 16. Other info (Preparer, Contact #, Date…)
Confidential Business
Information
• GHS will not address confidentiality exemptions
• But end-users’ health & safety must not be compromised
by CBI
• Non-disclosure claims limited to chemical names &
concentrations in mixtures
• Need mechanism for disclosure in emergencies
• Each country must determine requirements for protecting
CBI, OSHA, therefore, will likely still allow Safety Data
Sheets to show Trade Secret Registry Numbers (TSRNs)
in the hazardous ingredients section
Section Four: Nature of Chemical Hazards
“INFORMATION IS OUR BEST DEFENSE”
Section Four: Nature of Chemical Hazards
”
The Nature of Chemical Hazards
The Nature of Flammables
The Nature of Reactive agents
Corrosives and Caustics
The Nature and Effects of oxygen
The Nature and Effects of temperature pressure
Specific gravity and relative vapor density
Toxins, Carcinogens, Mutagens and Teratogens
Section Four: Nature of Chemical Hazards
“INFORMATION IS OUR BEST DEFENSE”
•
•
•
•

Air borne: dusts fumes smoke aerosols mists gases vapors
Flammables and Combustibles
Oxygen
Health Hazards?
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

Latency Period
Acute and Chronic
Local and Systemic
Asphyxiants
Nuisance dusts
Biological Toxins (considered hazardus)
Carcinogens
Mutagens
Teratogens
Section Four: Nature of Chemical Hazards
”

Chemicals
States of Matter
The Environment
Temperature
Pressure/altitude
Oxygen
Flammability
Reactivity
Acids and Bases
Basic Chemistry
Dr. William Haddon Jr. a physician with degrees from the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard Medical School and
Harvard School of Public Health and the first director of the National
Highway Traffic Safety Administration, proposed a general idea that
accidents and injuries involve the transfer of energy.
The Energy Release Theory, poses that objects, events, or
environments interaction with people cause harm.
Many sources of energy are obvious to us such as the moving parts of
a machine, motor vehicles, projectiles, gravity, or even wind and
weather systems yet we often overlook the tremendous energy
found in chemicals simply because we cannot see the energy.
Example: Energy in Chemicals
None Electrolytes Sugar
Strong Electrolytes Salt
Weak Electrolytes Vinegar
Global Harmonization Standard Changes to OSHA HACOM Rule
Elements –Compounds- Molecules – Mass and
Energy
Molecules
States of Matter
The Nature of Corrosives and Caustics
Acids and Bases
Affects of Pressure /Attitude & Temperature
Affects of Pressure /Attitude & Temperature

Boiling Points: As a liquid is heated, its vapor pressure increases until
the vapor pressure equals the pressure of the gas above I The
temperature of a boiling liquid remains constant, even when more heat
is added yet the liquid change state into a vapor. Pressure (altitude)
and temperature can affect the states of matter.
The Nature and Effects of Oxygen
Oxygen is essential to life. Its normal concentration in the air we
breathe is approximately 21 % (20.9%)
OSHA 19.5 % to 23.5 %
We can breathe in a 50-60% oxygen enriched atmosphere for several
hours under medical care (oxygen therapy)
Oxygen is not flammable but supports combustion.
Most materials burn fiercely sometimes explosively in oxygen.
As the oxygen concentration in air increases, the potential
fire risk increases. Oxygen enrichment cannot be detected by the human senses
At concentrations above 23.5 % in air, the situation becomes dangerous due to the increased fire
hazard.
Oxygen is colourless, tasteless and has no odour.
Oxygen is heavier than air, oxygen can accumulate in low lying areas. such as pits or underground
rooms especially in cases of liquid spillage.
3 Means of losing oxygen
–

Displacement

–

Consomption

–

Reaction
Properties of oxygen
Oxygen supports life and Combustion
(19.5 % - 23.5%)
It is not flammable but
supports combustion.

Oxygen is essential to life
Its normal concentration in the air we
breathe is approximately 21 %
We can breathe in a 50-60% oxygen
enriched atmosphere for several
hours under medical care
(oxygen therapy)
But it is dangerous to do so
without knowing the associated
risks due to oxygen enrichment !

Most materials burn fiercely
sometimes explosively in
oxygen !
As the oxygen concentration
in air increases, the potential
fire risk increases.
At concentrations above 23.5 % in
air, the situation becomes
dangerous due to the
increased fire hazard.
Properties of oxygen
Oxygen is heavier than air
Being heavier than air, oxygen
can accumulate in low lying
areas !
such as pits or underground
rooms,
especially in cases of liquid
spillage.
Ign
itio
rce
ou
ns

Co
Ma mb
te ust
ria ib
le
l

The Fire Triangle

Oxygen

When one of the 3 elements is missing,
a fire cannot occur!
Explosion Pressure

Flammable Range

LEL

UEL
Vapor/Gas Concentration in Air (%)
Oxidizing Agents
An oxidizing agent is a chemical substance that reacts with another chemical called the reactant and results in the
removal electrons. This reaction is referred to as a redox chemical reaction and can in some oxidizers release a great
deal of chemical energy, which has the potential to cause injury, illness and damage.
Common Oxidizing Agents
Oxygen (O2)
Ozone (O3)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other inorganic peroxides
Fluorine (F2), chlorine (Cl2), and other halogens
Hexavalent chromium compounds such as chromic and dichromic acids and chromium trioxide, pyridinium
chlorochromate (PCC), and chromate/dichromate compounds
Permanganate compounds such as KMnO 4
Sodium perborate
Nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrate compounds
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
Peroxydisulfuric acid (H2S2O8)
Peroxymonosulfuric acid (H2SO5)
Chlorite, chlorate, perchlorate, and other analogous halogen compounds
Hypochlorite and other hypohalite compounds, including household bleach (NaClO)
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
Silver oxide (Ag2O)
Osmium tetroxide (OsO4)
Compatibility of Mixtures and Substances

Only certain materials are suitable for use in oxygen service
Most materials - including metals - will burn in oxygen enriched
atmospheres
Equipment and material contaminated with oil or grease can ignite
easily and burn with explosive violence in oxygen enriched
atmospheres
Never use oil or grease to lubricate oxygen equipment!
Specific gravity and relative vapor density
Specific gravity and vapor density comparative measurements based on the
respective relative weight of a liquid and a gas or vapor compared to water or
air. This “weight” of water or air is an arbitrary value of one (1). If a gas has a
vapor density of less than one it will generally rise in air. If the vapor density is
greater than one the gas will generally sink in air. Propane for example has a
vapor density of 1.554, so it will sink in air, the vapor density of helium is 0.145
so it is significantly lighter than air so it will rise. Acetone is twice as heavy as air
so its vapor density is 2. Mercury vapor is nearly seven times heavier the air.
As you would imagine, the density of a chemical has great safety and health
implications for example storage of chemicals especially flammables, oxidizers
or other highly reactive chemicals that can displace air, possibly presenting
hazard to employees.
Specific gravity and relative vapor density

Helium

Carbon Dioxide

Molecular Weight 4g

Molecular Weight 44g
Toxins Carcinogens, Mutagens and Teratogens
Section Five: Debriefing Workshop
As is proper with any form of training or education,
there should be a means of evaluating the
experience and assessing its effectiveness. Let us
take a few moments and talk about what this
program has achieved and where it can be made
better. Also, let’s take notes so we can look back on
our notes say in the months to come and see if, at
all, has this training and what we accomplished
today had some longer-term effect on our workplace.

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Global Harmonization Standard Changes to OSHA HACOM Rule

  • 1. The Nature of Chemical Hazards & Implications of GHS Applied to Industry 7.5 Hour University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), School of Public Health (SPH) Office of Public Health Practice (OPHP) http://ophp.umdnj.edu Copyright © 2013 UMDNJ School of Public Health All rights reserved
  • 2. Federal Disclaimer This material was produced under grant number SH-23527-12-60-F-34 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  • 3. Today’s Goals & Objectives Introduction The two primary goals of this training : 1.Introduce the newly revised Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) aligning it with the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals. 2.Provide a basic awareness training emphasizing the nature of chemicals. Note: The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is now aligned with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS).
  • 4. Section One: Rights and Responsibilities The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970: “General Duty Clause” 5. General Duties (a)Each employer (1) shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees; (2) shall comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this Act. (b) Each employee shall comply with occupational safety and health standards and all rules, regulations, and orders issued pursuant to this Act which are applicable to his own actions and conduct.
  • 5. Section One: Rights and Responsibilities Mandatory Training OSHA’s Hazard Communication requirements are Identical in: General Industry, Construction, Maritime industries. It is found in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 29 §1910.1200 and has specific mandatory language that spells out required employee training in the workplace: Employers shall provide effective information and training to employees at the time of initial assignment, For new chemical hazards (not previously trained) Note: Information and training may be designed to cover categories of hazards (e.g., flammability, carcinogenicity) or specific chemicals. Chemicalspecific information must always be available through labels and safety data sheets.
  • 6. Section One: Rights and Responsibilities Mandatory Training Must Include 1. Methods and observations to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemicals (such as monitoring, visual appearance, odors of hazardous chemicals when being released, etc.); 1910.1200(h)(3)(i) 2. The physical, health, simple asphyxiation, combustible dust, and pyrophoric gas hazards, as well as hazards not otherwise classified, of the chemicals in the work area; 1910.1200(h)(3)(ii) 3. Protective measures, including specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to hazardous chemicals, such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and personal protective equipment. 1910.1200(h)(3)(iii) 4. Details about the employer’s hazard communication program, including an explanation of the labels, the safety data sheet, including the order of information and how employees can obtain and use the appropriate hazard information. 1910.1200(h)(3)(iv)
  • 7. Section One: Rights and Responsibilities A Right to Be Heard: Your Rights as a Whistleblower OSHA's Whistleblower Protection Program enforces the whistleblower provisions of more than twenty whistleblower statutes. Rights afforded by these whistleblower acts include, but are not limited to, worker participation in safety and health activities, reporting a work related injury, illness or fatality, or reporting a violation of the statutes. Protection from discrimination means that an employer cannot retaliate by taking "adverse action" against workers, such as: Firing or laying off Blacklisting Demoting Denying overtime or promotion Disciplining Denial of benefits Failure to hire or rehire Intimidation Making threats Reassignment affecting prospects for promotion Reducing pay or hours
  • 8. Section One: Rights and Responsibilities Limited Right to Refuse to Work Employees have a limited right under the OSH Act to refuse to do a job because conditions are hazardous. You may do so under the OSH Act only when: 1. You believe that you face death or serious injury (and the situation is so clearly hazardous that any reasonable person would believe the same thing); 2. You have tried to get your employer to correct the condition, and there is no other way to do the job safely; and 3. The situation is so urgent that you do not have time to eliminate the hazard through regulatory channels such as calling OSHA. Regardless of the unsafe condition, you are not protected if you simply walk off the job
  • 9. Section One: Rights and Responsibilities Right to Know vs. Right to Understand Activity One: Critical Assessment: Can you remember receiving right-to-know training yourself? What did you learned? Who performed the training? Where in the workplace are your certifications? Where can you find chemical hazard information? Do you feel your training was effective, why or why not?
  • 10. Section One: Rights and Responsibilities Key elements of an Effective Hazard Communication Program Company Policy Container Labeling (HCS 2012 Compliant) Safety Data Sheet (HCS 2012 Compliant) Employee Training and Information Procedures and Communication for Non Routine Tasks Procedures and Communication for third party contractors Hazardous Materials Inventory/Lists Chemicals in Unlabeled Pipes Program documentation and availability Periodic regular program maintenance
  • 11. Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication The GHS provides a standardized approach, including detailed criteria for determining what hazardous effects a chemical poses, as well as standardized label elements assigned by hazard class and category OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) requires the development and dissemination of such information: Chemical manufacturers and importers are required to evaluate the hazards of the chemicals they produce or import, and prepare labels and safety data sheets to convey the hazard information to their downstream customers; All employers with hazardous chemicals in their workplaces must have labels and safety data sheets for their exposed workers, and train them to handle the chemicals appropriately.
  • 12. Reasons For A GHS • Growing international trade • Different requirements for labeling of chemicals • Different classifications of identical products in different countries • Need for an international safety standard
  • 13. GHS History • The ILO (International Labor Organization) developed and adopted a convention and recommendation on Safety in the Use of Chemicals at Work in 1989-90 • The OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) helped classify health and environmental hazards • The UN Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UNSCETDG)
  • 14. GHS History • The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) first proposed GHS in 1992 • This goal later endorsed by several international organizations • More than a decade of work has gone into the new global system
  • 15. GHS History – The UN Mandate “A globally-harmonized hazard classification and compatible labeling system, including material safety data sheets and easily understandable symbols, should be available, if feasible, by the year 2000.” The Purple Book
  • 16. Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication Major changes to the Hazard Communication Standard Hazard classification: Provides specific criteria for classification of health and physical hazards, as well as classification of mixtures. The revised HCS has specific criteria for each health and physical hazard, along with detailed instructions for hazard evaluation and determinations as to whether mixtures or substances are covered. It also establishes both hazard classes and hazard categories—for most of the effects; the classes are divided into categories that reflect the relative severity of the effect. The current HCS does not include categories so this new approach provides additional information that can be related to the appropriate response to address the hazard. Labels: Chemical manufacturers and importers will be required to provide a label that includes a harmonized signal word, pictogram, and hazard statement for each hazard class and category. Precautionary statements must also be provided. Safety Data Sheets: Will now have a specified 16-section format. Information and training: Employers are required to train workers by December 1, 2013 on the new labels elements and safety data sheets format to facilitate recognition and understanding
  • 17. Harmonization Principles • • • • • Comprehensibility is # 1 Maintain current Worker/User protection Cover all chemical Uses & Modes All existing systems must change May use a step-by-step “Building Block” approach • Classifications will be Hazards-based, not Risk-based
  • 18. Hazard Vs. Risk Basis Hazards represent intrinsic danger or ability of chemicals to cause adverse effects Hazards are there despite quantity or use Risk is the probability of adverse effects occurring Risk may change depending on use and application of chemicals
  • 20. Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication Unchanged Parts of the Hazard Communication Standard The revised Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is a modification to the existing standard. The parts of the standard that did not relate to the GHS (such as the basic framework, scope, and exemptions) remained largely unchanged. There have been some modifications to terminology in order to align the revised HCS with language used in the GHS. For example, the term "hazard determination" has been changed to "hazard classification" and "material safety data sheet" was changed to "safety data sheet." In regards to labeling, the current standard provides employers with flexibility regarding the type of system to be used in their workplaces and OSHA has retained that flexibility in the revised Hazard Communication Standard (HCS). Employers may choose to label workplace containers either with the same label that would be on shipped containers for the chemical under the revised rule, or with label alternatives that meet the requirements for the standard. Alternative labeling systems such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 704 Hazard Rating and the Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS) are permitted for workplace containers. However, the information supplied on these labels must be consistent with the revised HCS, e.g., no conflicting hazard warnings or pictograms.
  • 21. Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication Effective Dates to Remember:
  • 22. Benefits Of The GHS • Enhances human health, safety and environmental protection • Promotes sound management of chemicals worldwide • Reduces barriers and Facilitates Trade • Reduces costs involved in developing, manufacturing, distributing, and transporting hazardous chemicals
  • 23. Governments Benefit • Fewer chemical accidents and incidents • Lower health care costs • Improved protection of workers and public from chemical hazards • Reduce costs and ease coordination for legislation, implementation and monitoring, • Supports improved inter-agency coordination and cooperation
  • 24. Companies & Workers Benefit • Safer work environment and transport of chemicals • Improved employee relations • Increased compliance with HazCom regs • Minimizing labor and costs • Fewer accidents and illnesses • Improved corporate image and credibility
  • 25. Stakeholders • • • • A multitude of countries International organizations Stakeholder organizations Domestic Manufacturers & Importers
  • 26. Stakeholders & Other interested Parties • • • • Chemical Manufacturers Users/Consumers Trade Associations Federal, State and Local Government • Emergency Responders      Transporters Unions Consultants Individuals and Others
  • 27. Interagency Working Group On Harmonization • Formed by 4 key independent regulatory authorities in the US: – OSHA – DOT – EPA (FIFRA) Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act – CPSC • …Also FDA and Commerce
  • 28. Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication By the Numbers: Anticipated Statistical Shifts, Costs and Benefits Workers affected by HCS: Over 40 million workers Affected Industries: Over 5 million workplaces Total cost, an estimated $201 million a year on an annualized basis for the entire United States, is the sum of four major cost elements. Prevent 43 fatalities Prevent 585 injuries and illnesses annually. Prevent 318 non-lost-workday injuries and illnesses. Prevent 203 lost-workday injuries and illnesses. Prevent 64 chronic illnesses annually. Generate net monetized benefits of $556 million annually,
  • 29. Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication Practical Advantages of Global Harmonized System (GHS) to Industry   More efficient dissemination of information: Since SDS are arranged in uniform order,  an employer can choose to training by categories comparing “apples to apples” and  more effectively train right-to-know details. Easier means of training results in more  compliance and less exposures in the workplace. Categorical training modules by  similar hazard groupings, hence flammables, corrosives, caustics with each grouping  side-by-side. Hazard grouping of category matrix: An inventory of chemical product SDS’s can  translate to an employer creating a cross-matrix according to hazards that shortens  retrieval and response times. International uniformity allows companies that work in the global economy to work with  less lose of vital information due to errors in translation.  Easier selection of hazards controls such as personal protection equipment.  Readily understandable: Since pictograms, once familiarized, are so much easier to  recognize at a glance than various texts and non-uniform symbols, employees can have  faster warnings. 
  • 31. Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication Hazard Communication Standard Pictogram As of June 1, 2015, the  Hazard Communication  Standard (HCS) will  require pictograms on  labels to alert users of  the chemical hazards to  which they may be  exposed. Each  pictogram consists of a  symbol on a white  background framed  within a red border and  represents a distinct  hazard(s). The pictogram  on the label is  determined by the  chemical hazard  classification. 
  • 32. Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication
  • 33. Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication
  • 34. Section Two: Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication
  • 35. Section Three: Job Hazard Analysis Job Hazard Analysis Safety Process Assess Plan and Control (hierarchy of controls) Train Implement  Monitor  Re-Assess Routes of Entry (Exposure) Absorption  Ingestion Inhalation Injection  (The front door into your home)
  • 36. Introduction to Hazard Communication Rights & Responsibilities Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) Global Harmonization and Hazard Communication Flammability Permissible Exposure Limits Caustics and Oxygen and Corrosives Oxidizers Health Reactivity Storage Applications to Various Industries Construction Green Industry Hair Salons Healthcare Dry Cleaning Landscaping
  • 37. Simple Job Safety Analysis and the Application of Controls A Job Safety Analysis (JSA) or Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) is a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur. It focuses on the relationship between the worker, the task, the tools, the work environment and the necessary steps to control a hazard.  Job Steps Break tasks down to smaller subtasks. Hazards/ Potential Accidents List all possible associated hazards preferably in an order of severity Control Measures Means of Implementation Use the Hierarchy of Should set out steps and procedures Controls that are easy to understand. 1. Elimination And explain the proper use of 2. Prevent the equipment and requisite 3. Protect training and administration. 4. Mitigate
  • 38. Critical Thinking (Good-Better-Best) No matter how large or how small a task or job you can apply a logical thought process. It’s universal! 1. ELIMINATE: Simply ELIMINATE the hazard. 2. PREVENTION: prevent accident or exposure from occurring. 3. PROTECTION: Mitigate or Minimize effects of hazards i.e. – Job Rotation – Scheduling – Personal Protective Equipment (Mitigation) PPE – Work Practices, Training – Specialized Training
  • 39. Routes of exposure Inhalation The most common type of  exposure occurs when you breathe a  substance into the lungs. The lungs consist  of branching airways (called bronchi) with  clusters of tiny air sacs (called alveoli) at  the ends of the airways. The alveoli absorb  oxygen and other chemicals into the  bloodstream. Sometimes a chemical is present in the air  as small particles (dust or mist). Some of  these particles, depending on their size,  may be deposited in the bronchi and/or  alveoli. Many of them may be coughed out,  but others may stay in the lungs and may  cause lung damage. Some particles may  dissolve and be absorbed into the blood  stream, and have effects elsewhere in the  body 
  • 41. Routes of exposure Skin Contact The skin is a protective barrier that helps keep foreign chemicals out of the body. However, some chemicals can easily pass through the skin and enter the bloodstream. If the skin is cut or cracked, chemicals can penetrate through the skin more easily. Also, some caustic substances, like strong acids and alkalis, can chemically burn the skin. Others can irritate the skin. Many chemicals, particularly organic solvents, dissolve the oils in the skin, leaving it dry, cracked, and susceptible to infection and absorption of other chemicals.
  • 42. Routes of exposure Eye Contact Some  chemicals may burn or irritate  the eye. Occasionally they  may be absorbed through the  eye and enter the  bloodstream. The eyes are  easily harmed by chemicals,  so any eye contact with  chemicals should be taken as  a serious incident. 
  • 43. Routes of exposure Ingestion The least common  source of exposure in the  workplace is swallowing  chemicals. Chemicals can be  ingested if they are left on  hands, clothing or beard, or  accidentally contaminate  food, drinks or cigarettes.  Chemicals present in the  workplace as dust, for  example, metal dusts such as  lead or cadmium, are easily  ingested
  • 45. The GHS Elements Classification Criteria – Health and Environmental Hazards – Physical Hazards – Mixtures Hazard Communication – Labels – Safety Data Sheets
  • 46. Health & Environmental Hazards Acute Toxicity Skin Corrosion/Irritation Serious Eye Damage/Eye Irritation Respiratory or Skin Sensitization Germ Cell Mutagenicity Carcinogenicity Reproductive Toxicity Target Organ Systemic Toxicity – Single and  Repeated Dose Hazardous to the Aquatic Environment (Not OSHA)
  • 53. Hazard Statements  A single harmonized hazard statement for  each level of hazard within each hazard  class  Example:  Flammable liquids • • • • Category 1: Extremely flammable liquid and vapour Category 2: Highly flammable liquid and vapour Category 3: Flammable liquid and vapour Category 4: Combustible liquid
  • 55. Role of the SDS in the GHS The SDS should provide comprehensive  information about a chemical substance or  mixture.  Primary Use:  The Workplace  Employers and workers use the SDS as a  source of information about hazards and to  obtain advice on safety precautions. 
  • 57. Format: 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 16 headings (cont.) Physical and chemical properties Stability and reactivity Toxicological information Ecological information Disposal considerations Transport information Regulatory information Other information
  • 58. Confidential Business Information National authorities should establish appropriate mechanisms for CBI protection. CBI will not be harmonized under the GHS.  The provisions for CBI protection should not compromise the health and safety of users.  CBI claims should be limited to the names of chemicals and their concentrations in mixtures.  Mechanisms should be established for disclosure in emergency and non-emergency situations. 
  • 59. Key GHS Words • Pictogram: Symbols comprehensible worldwide • Signal Words: Also indicates degree of danger but gets user attention • Hazard Statement: Phrases to summarize product hazards on labels and SDSs
  • 60. GHS Point Of Use Exemptions • • • • Pharmaceuticals Food Additives Cosmetics Pesticide Residues in food
  • 62. Chemical Hazards • Chemicals can pose a danger for human health and the environment from: - Production - Handling - Storage - Transportation - Use - Disposal
  • 63. Basic Hazard Categories Under GHS • Physical, e.g., fire/explosion, corrosion - Use standard tests (e.g., FP), Structure Activity Relationships & Expert Judgment • Health Effects - Chronic & Acute - Tox testing, LD50, human data, calculations • Environmental - Aquatic environment, i.e., Marine pollutants (Not OSHA Regulated)
  • 64. Worldwide Classification Frequently Different Example: Chemical w/ LD 50 = 260 mg/kg
  • 65. GHS Categories Based On Severity 5 Categories - Category 1 = Most Hazardous - Category 5 = Least Hazardous Not all Categories are regulated in all modes
  • 66. Example: GHS Hazard Categories For ETHANOL • • • • • Acute Toxicity (oral): Category 5 Eye Irritation: Category 2A Flammable Liquid: Category 2 Respiratory Irritation: Category 3 Skin Corrosion/ Irritation: Category 3
  • 68. GHS Pictograms Description Exploding Bomb Pictogram Hazard class and hazard category: Unstable explosives Explosives of Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 Self reactive substances and mixtures, Types A,B Organic peroxides, Types A, B
  • 69. GHS Pictograms Description Flame Pictogram Hazard class and hazard category: Flammable gases, category 1 Flammable aerosols, categories 1,2 Flammable liquids, categories 1,2,3 Flammable solids, categories 1,2 Self-reactive substances and mixtures, Types B,C,D,E,F Pyrophoric liquids, category 1 Pyrophoric solids, category 1 Self-heating substances and mixtures, categories 1,2 Substances and mixtures, which in contact with water, emit flammable gases, categories 1,2,3 Organic peroxides, Types B,C,D,E,F
  • 70. GHS Pictograms Description Flame Over Circle Pictogram Hazard class and hazard category: Oxidizing gases, category 1 Oxidizing liquids, categories 1,2,3
  • 71. GHS Pictograms Description Gas Cylinder Pictogram Hazard class and hazard category: Gases under pressure: - Compressed gases - Liquefied gases - Refrigerated liquefied - gases Dissolved gases
  • 72. GHS Pictograms Description Corrosion Pictogram Hazard class and hazard category: Corrosive to metals, category 1 Skin corrosion, categories 1A,1B,1C Serious eye damage, category 1
  • 73. GHS Pictograms Description Pictogram Hazard class and hazard category: Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation), categories 1,2,3 Skull and Crossbones
  • 74. GHS Pictograms Description Exclamation Mark Pictogram Hazard class and hazard category: Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation), category 4 Skin irritation, category 2 Eye irritation, category 2 Skin sensitization, category 1 Specific Target Organ Toxicity – Single exposure, category 3
  • 75. GHS Pictograms Description Health Hazard Pictogram Hazard class and hazard category: Respiratory sensitization, category 1 Germ cell mutagenicity, categories 1A,1B,2 Carcinogenicity, categories 1A,1B,2 Reproductive toxicity, categories 1A,1B,2 Specific Target Organ Toxicity – Single exposure, categories 1,2 Specific Target Organ Toxicity – Repeated exposure, categories 1,2 Aspiration Hazard, category 1
  • 76. Current North American Labels • US Workforce labels follow: - OSHA - ANSI - NJ Right to Know Law - CA Proposition 65 • Canada Workforce labels follow WHMIS • Lots of differences among these
  • 77. Six Elements Of The GHS Label • • • • • • Product Identifier Supplier Identification Chemical Identification Hazard Pictograms Signal Words Hazard Statements describing nature of hazards
  • 78. GHS Label For Acetone
  • 79. GHS Label For Epichlorohydrin Epichlohydrin 1-Chloro-2,3epoxypropane CAS No. 106-89-8 UN No. 2023 Top Half Of Label Hazard Hazard statements: ・ Toxic if swallowed ・ Toxic in contact with skin ・ Fatal if inhaled ・ May cause an allergic skin reaction. ・ May cause genetic defects. ・ May cause cancer ・ Cause severe skin burns and eye damage ・ Cause serious eye irritation ・ Toxic to aquatic life
  • 80. GHS Label For Epichlorohydrin Bottom Half Of Label Precautionary statements: ・ Keep out of reach of children. ・ Keep container tightly closed. ・ Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and    understood. ・ Wear eye/face protection. ・ Wear protective gloves/clothing. ・ Wear respiratory protection, as specified by the manufacturer. ・ Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapors/spray. ・ Use appropriate ventilation. ・ Wash thoroughly after handling. United Nations Co., Ltd. 1-1, Peace Avenue Geneva, Switzerland Tel. 41 22 917 00 00        Fax. 41 22 917 00 00
  • 81. GHS Label Placement GHS label Pictogram is optional, if shipping label has hazard symbol
  • 82. GHS Label Placement For Combination Packages Put 6 Units in box No GHS Label on Outer Package if Danger is noted by diamond label(s) GHS Single Package Label
  • 84. Safety Data Sheets Under GHS Section 1. Identification Section 2. Hazard(s) classification & labeling statements Section 3. Composition/information on ingredients Section 4. First-aid measures Section 5. Fire-fighting measures Section 6. Accidental release measures Section 7. Handling and storage Section 8. Exposure controls/personal protection
  • 85. Safety Data Sheets Under GHS Section 9. Phys and Chem Properties/Measurements Section 10. Stability & reactivity (Heat, water, incompatibles) Section 11. Toxicological information (Health info) Section 12. Ecological information (Environ effects) Section 13. Disposal considerations Section 14. Transport info (49CFR, Can DGR...) Section 15. Regulatory info (CA Prop 65, NJRTK…) Section 16. Other info (Preparer, Contact #, Date…)
  • 86. Confidential Business Information • GHS will not address confidentiality exemptions • But end-users’ health & safety must not be compromised by CBI • Non-disclosure claims limited to chemical names & concentrations in mixtures • Need mechanism for disclosure in emergencies • Each country must determine requirements for protecting CBI, OSHA, therefore, will likely still allow Safety Data Sheets to show Trade Secret Registry Numbers (TSRNs) in the hazardous ingredients section
  • 87. Section Four: Nature of Chemical Hazards “INFORMATION IS OUR BEST DEFENSE”
  • 88. Section Four: Nature of Chemical Hazards ” The Nature of Chemical Hazards The Nature of Flammables The Nature of Reactive agents Corrosives and Caustics The Nature and Effects of oxygen The Nature and Effects of temperature pressure Specific gravity and relative vapor density Toxins, Carcinogens, Mutagens and Teratogens
  • 89. Section Four: Nature of Chemical Hazards “INFORMATION IS OUR BEST DEFENSE” • • • • Air borne: dusts fumes smoke aerosols mists gases vapors Flammables and Combustibles Oxygen Health Hazards? – – – – – – – – – Latency Period Acute and Chronic Local and Systemic Asphyxiants Nuisance dusts Biological Toxins (considered hazardus) Carcinogens Mutagens Teratogens
  • 90. Section Four: Nature of Chemical Hazards ” Chemicals States of Matter The Environment Temperature Pressure/altitude Oxygen Flammability Reactivity Acids and Bases
  • 91. Basic Chemistry Dr. William Haddon Jr. a physician with degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard Medical School and Harvard School of Public Health and the first director of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, proposed a general idea that accidents and injuries involve the transfer of energy. The Energy Release Theory, poses that objects, events, or environments interaction with people cause harm. Many sources of energy are obvious to us such as the moving parts of a machine, motor vehicles, projectiles, gravity, or even wind and weather systems yet we often overlook the tremendous energy found in chemicals simply because we cannot see the energy. Example: Energy in Chemicals None Electrolytes Sugar Strong Electrolytes Salt Weak Electrolytes Vinegar
  • 93. Elements –Compounds- Molecules – Mass and Energy
  • 96. The Nature of Corrosives and Caustics Acids and Bases
  • 97. Affects of Pressure /Attitude & Temperature
  • 98. Affects of Pressure /Attitude & Temperature Boiling Points: As a liquid is heated, its vapor pressure increases until the vapor pressure equals the pressure of the gas above I The temperature of a boiling liquid remains constant, even when more heat is added yet the liquid change state into a vapor. Pressure (altitude) and temperature can affect the states of matter.
  • 99. The Nature and Effects of Oxygen Oxygen is essential to life. Its normal concentration in the air we breathe is approximately 21 % (20.9%) OSHA 19.5 % to 23.5 % We can breathe in a 50-60% oxygen enriched atmosphere for several hours under medical care (oxygen therapy) Oxygen is not flammable but supports combustion. Most materials burn fiercely sometimes explosively in oxygen. As the oxygen concentration in air increases, the potential fire risk increases. Oxygen enrichment cannot be detected by the human senses At concentrations above 23.5 % in air, the situation becomes dangerous due to the increased fire hazard. Oxygen is colourless, tasteless and has no odour. Oxygen is heavier than air, oxygen can accumulate in low lying areas. such as pits or underground rooms especially in cases of liquid spillage. 3 Means of losing oxygen – Displacement – Consomption – Reaction
  • 100. Properties of oxygen Oxygen supports life and Combustion (19.5 % - 23.5%) It is not flammable but supports combustion. Oxygen is essential to life Its normal concentration in the air we breathe is approximately 21 % We can breathe in a 50-60% oxygen enriched atmosphere for several hours under medical care (oxygen therapy) But it is dangerous to do so without knowing the associated risks due to oxygen enrichment ! Most materials burn fiercely sometimes explosively in oxygen ! As the oxygen concentration in air increases, the potential fire risk increases. At concentrations above 23.5 % in air, the situation becomes dangerous due to the increased fire hazard.
  • 101. Properties of oxygen Oxygen is heavier than air Being heavier than air, oxygen can accumulate in low lying areas ! such as pits or underground rooms, especially in cases of liquid spillage.
  • 102. Ign itio rce ou ns Co Ma mb te ust ria ib le l The Fire Triangle Oxygen When one of the 3 elements is missing, a fire cannot occur!
  • 104. Oxidizing Agents An oxidizing agent is a chemical substance that reacts with another chemical called the reactant and results in the removal electrons. This reaction is referred to as a redox chemical reaction and can in some oxidizers release a great deal of chemical energy, which has the potential to cause injury, illness and damage. Common Oxidizing Agents Oxygen (O2) Ozone (O3) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other inorganic peroxides Fluorine (F2), chlorine (Cl2), and other halogens Hexavalent chromium compounds such as chromic and dichromic acids and chromium trioxide, pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC), and chromate/dichromate compounds Permanganate compounds such as KMnO 4 Sodium perborate Nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrate compounds Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) Peroxydisulfuric acid (H2S2O8) Peroxymonosulfuric acid (H2SO5) Chlorite, chlorate, perchlorate, and other analogous halogen compounds Hypochlorite and other hypohalite compounds, including household bleach (NaClO) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Silver oxide (Ag2O) Osmium tetroxide (OsO4)
  • 105. Compatibility of Mixtures and Substances Only certain materials are suitable for use in oxygen service Most materials - including metals - will burn in oxygen enriched atmospheres Equipment and material contaminated with oil or grease can ignite easily and burn with explosive violence in oxygen enriched atmospheres Never use oil or grease to lubricate oxygen equipment!
  • 106. Specific gravity and relative vapor density Specific gravity and vapor density comparative measurements based on the respective relative weight of a liquid and a gas or vapor compared to water or air. This “weight” of water or air is an arbitrary value of one (1). If a gas has a vapor density of less than one it will generally rise in air. If the vapor density is greater than one the gas will generally sink in air. Propane for example has a vapor density of 1.554, so it will sink in air, the vapor density of helium is 0.145 so it is significantly lighter than air so it will rise. Acetone is twice as heavy as air so its vapor density is 2. Mercury vapor is nearly seven times heavier the air. As you would imagine, the density of a chemical has great safety and health implications for example storage of chemicals especially flammables, oxidizers or other highly reactive chemicals that can displace air, possibly presenting hazard to employees.
  • 107. Specific gravity and relative vapor density Helium Carbon Dioxide Molecular Weight 4g Molecular Weight 44g
  • 108. Toxins Carcinogens, Mutagens and Teratogens
  • 109. Section Five: Debriefing Workshop As is proper with any form of training or education, there should be a means of evaluating the experience and assessing its effectiveness. Let us take a few moments and talk about what this program has achieved and where it can be made better. Also, let’s take notes so we can look back on our notes say in the months to come and see if, at all, has this training and what we accomplished today had some longer-term effect on our workplace.

Editor's Notes

  1. The International Labor Organization recognized the need for worldwide safety conventions for the use of hazardous chemicals. They studied the tasks required to achieve harmonization and, thus paved the way for the development of a Globally Harmonized System. The other organizations listed on this slide, like the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, served as additional technical focal points for development of GHS.
  2. This statement was made in 1992. The United Nations really thought a GHS could be put in place worldwide within the following 8 years. But like so many projected timelines involving more than one entity, this implementation schedule has been delayed considerably.
  3. The GHS classification and communication requirements can be thought of as a collection of building blocks. Countries may first implement the portions of GHS that makes the most sense to them or is more easily adopted. Then they can add additional GHS elements and ease into global harmonization. Once GHS is implemented, it will allow all chemical workers and users to more easily understand the hazards of chemical products.
  4. GHS uses Classification of Hazards and not Risks to communicate the dangers of chemical products. None-the-less the GHS Purple Book includes a discussion of an example of how risk-based labeling could be considered for chronic health effects of consumer products in consumer use settings.
  5. The need for GHS labels and Safety Data Sheets will vary by the stage the chemical is in during its lifecycle. There may be no label and SDS requirements for materials in the R&D or production stages, but there will be for transporting, selling and using them. The lifecycle events in this Figure for pharmaceuticals, food additives, cosmetics and pesticide residues in food will not require labels and SDSs when used, but they will be needed for possible workplace exposures and when being transported. Critical information for pharmaceutical use by humans or animals is provided by in-package inserts, not by HazCom systems.
  6. The results of GHS will be improved worker safety, environmental protection and easier international trade. With one harmonized system, the costs associated with R&D, production, distribution and transportation of hazardous materials is expected to go down in each country and internationally.
  7. Through GHS, governments can avoid duplication of effort in creating national systems. They can also reduce the costs of enforcement and improve communication on chemical issues both in their own countries and internationally.
  8. As you can see, companies are likely to benefit from GHS in a number of ways including clear ways to expand the use of health and safety training programs.
  9. GHS will impact and benefit all stakeholders, whether in the manufacturing and distribution sectors, or those who importer and export chemical products. This will be so for not only the major countries of the world but also for developing nations as well.
  10. This is a partial list of stakeholders and people or organizations who are interested in the finalization of GHS, as it will likely impact them in many ways, most especially, financially. Aside from the initial costs of implementation and ultimate cost savings expected from GHS, it will foster a cottage industry for consultants and trainers to assist companies that choose to outsource services for determining GHS classification and authoring SDSs & labels.
  11. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, The Department of Transportation, The Environmental Protection Agency (through the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act) and the Consumer Products Safety Commission have been working together to help implement GHS. OSHA has already started actions toward changing their Hazard Communication Standard, 29CFR1910.1200, to synchronize better with the United Nations initiative on a Globally Harmonized System. Other federal agencies like the Department of Commerce and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) got involved. The DOT already harmonized much of its hazardous materials regulations to be consistent with the UN’s classification and labeling recommendations for transportation of dangerous goods. The EPA is also working on harmonizing their pesticide requirements with GHS, and the CPSC is looking for ways to do the same.
  12. White board exercise. Define Competent Person (someone who has knowledge of safety and health procedures, experience in the task at hand, and authority to take corrective action-give examples of corrective action. Define a Qualified Person as someone who has knowledge and experience but no authority.
  13. Focal Point: UN Committee of Experts on Transport of Dangerous Goods, in cooperation with the ILO.
  14. These are some of the major concepts used throughout the GHS.
  15. As noted earlier, these items are not covered by GHS at the point of use, but are covered where there is the potential for worker exposure as well as in transportation.
  16. The OSHA concept of chemical hazards, namely flammability, corrosivity, reactivity and toxicity are expanded in the GHS and covered under Physical hazards and Health hazards.
  17. Under GHS, classification of hazards is broken down to 3 main types, Physical, Health and Environmental. They are determined by the use of available data, testing, comparison to other materials with similar composition (structure activity relationships) and reliance on the judgment of highly knowledgeable people.
  18. The EU classification for acute toxicity was 200 mg/kg (oral), while some Canadian systems defined acute toxicity as 500 mg/kg. As a result all chemicals between 200 and 500 mg/kg would therefore be labelled differently. As you can see from this table, some countries classify the example material as “toxic” while others classify it as “not dangerous” or “non-toxic”. GHS will allow all countries to define hazardous materials by the same set of classifications.
  19. Under GHS, not all Hazard Categories are applied universally to Health, Safety and Transportation concerns. Many Category 4 materials are regulated for health & safety but not for transportation.
  20. If you are determining the hazards of a common chemical, like ethyl alcohol (ethanol), you would consider its acute toxicity, flammability, ability to irritate skin, eyes and respiratory tract. And based on the degree of severity ethanol poses for these things, you can assign a Hazard Category to each of them. Here we see that ethanol is very flammable (Category 2), but is not acutely toxic (Category 5). In other words, ethyl alcohol burns readily but will usually only make you drunk and not kill you on ingestion.
  21. The use of Pictograms is important to GHS, so let’s look at them in some detail.
  22. The “exploding bomb” symbol in the GHS Pictogram is nothing new. This symbol has been used for many years in Hazardous Materials Transportation hazard class labels and placards. Two significant differences between GHS Pictograms and DOT labels an placards are the absence of text and their size. The Pictograms may be sized to fit any label or SDS. DOT hazard class labels must always be approximately 4 inches on each side and placards have to be about 11 inches on a side. The Hazard Class is from Transportation regulations and the Hazard Category is from GHS
  23. The “Flame” symbol in the GHS Pictogram is very recognizable from transportation hazard class 3, flammable liquids. [Read some of the hazard classes and hazard categories from the slide.]
  24. Likewise, the “Flaming O” symbol has been borrowed from transportation hazard class 2, oxygen, and class 5, oxidizers.
  25. The gas cylinder symbol is borrowed from transportation labels/placards for division 2.2, non-flammable, non-toxic gases. [Read some of the hazard classes and hazard categories from the slide.]
  26. The symbol of chemicals corroding metal and destroying skin on a hand is one of the most recognized symbols found on shipping labels on containers in laboratories and manufacturing sites alike.
  27. The skull and crossbones symbol has been used to denote poisons or toxic materials for a very long time and is yet another highly recognizable symbols to chemical workers and people in all walks of life.
  28. While the Skull and Crossbones pictogram symbolizes Categories 1, 2 and 3 Acute Toxicity, the Exclamation Point is to be used for Category 4 acute toxicity, as well as, Skin and Eye irritation, Skin sensitization, and specific target organ toxicity.
  29. As you can see from this slide, the “Man Who Swallowed A Star” symbol is to be used for Respiratory sensitization, Germ cell Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, Reproductive toxicity, and Aspiration hazard, etc. [Read some of the hazard classes and hazard categories from the slide.]
  30. Labeling for hazard identification by private sector and public sector workers is covered by the federal government and various states. In addition, labeling of hazards in our Northern neighbor, Canada, is regulated by their specific law, the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. None of these requirements are exactly alike – yet!
  31. Of the 6 GHS labeling requirements shown here, the last 3 all have standardized styles or text. Regardless of a country’s language, the Pictograms will always be the same and the Signal Words and Hazard Statements will always have the same text.
  32. This is an example of a GHS label for the commonly used solvent, acetone. You will notice the name, Signal Word (Danger), Pictograms, Hazard Statements, Precautionary Statements and supplier information are shown. Where you place the Pictogram on the label is optional.
  33. The same key labeling elements are shown on a GHS label for the highly toxic chemical, epichlorohydrin. The top part of the label in on this slide and the next slide shows the bottom part of the label.
  34. Single containers or packages must have the GHS label on them. If the package also serves as a shipping container, there must also be a hazard class shipping label affixed to it as well. In this case, because the hazard class label has a hazard symbol already on it, the use of a GHS Pictogram on the GHS label is optional.
  35. For combination packages, that is, where hazardous materials containers are placed in an outer packaging, the GHS label is required on all inner containers but not on the outer package, providing the transportation labels display the hazards of the product.
  36. GHS requires a 16-section Safety Data Sheet that will include more extensive information than what OSHA and Canada's Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) currently require.
  37. You will note that the required information in Sections 2 and 3 are the reverse of our typical OSHA required Material Safety Data Sheets. We show the hazardous materials composition in Section 2 and the Hazard warnings in Section 3. Because OSHA does not presently require a standard format for MSDSs, it is completely acceptable to switch Sections right now, if you want to. However, most workers trained in the Haz Com Standard know to look at Section 2 for the hazardous ingredients. This potential confusion should not last long, if they actually read the whole MSDS.
  38. While the typical OSHA MSDSs have the date of issue at the top of the first page, many MSDSs have been written where the date is either at the bottom of all pages or just the last page. Again, workers and handlers of hazardous chemical materials should read MSDSs in their entirety, so where the date appears should not cause any confusion.
  39. GHS does not cover proprietary information exemptions. That is going to be left up to each country to deal with. OSHA, therefore, will likely still allow Safety Data Sheets to show Trade Secret Registry Numbers (TSRNs) in the hazardous ingredients section.
  40. This presentation is designed to assist trainers conducting OSHA 10-hour General Industry outreach training for workers. Since workers are the target audience, this presentation emphasizes hazard identification, avoidance, and control – not standards. No attempt has been made to treat the topic exhaustively. It is essential that trainers tailor their presentations to the needs and understanding of their audience. This presentation is not a substitute for any of the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or for any standards issued by the U.S. Department of Labor. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Labor.
  41. These boundary-line mixtures of vapor with air are known as the lower and upper flammable or explosive limits (LEL or UEL) respectively, and they are usually expressed in terms of percentage by volume of vapor in air.