Gray Morris Mosby items and derived items © 2010 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Unit One: Chapter 2 Mosby items and derived items © 2010 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
<ul><li>After reviewing this chapter, you should be  </li></ul><ul><li>able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare the size of ...
<ul><li>Seen in  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>medical record, client record, charting, and medical/nursing literature </li></ul><...
<ul><li>A fraction is part of a whole number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>½  is a whole divided into two parts </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Fractions may be used on drug labels in addition to metric equivalent to help clarify  </li></ul><ul><li>and preve...
<ul><li>Proper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerator is less than denominator; the fraction has a value of less than 1  </li></u...
<ul><li>An improper fraction can be changed to a mixed number or whole number by dividing the numerator by the denominator...
<ul><li>Mixed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A whole number and a fraction; the value is greater than 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Whole numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have an expressed denominator of one (1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: ...
<ul><li>If the numerators are the same, the fraction with the smaller denominator has the larger value </li></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>A mixed number can be changed to an improper fraction by multiplying the whole number by the denominator, adding t...
<ul><li>The value of a number is unchanged when the numerator and denominator are multiplied or divided by same number </l...
<ul><li>LCD (lowest common denominator) is the smallest whole number that can be divided evenly by all the denominators in...
<ul><li>Should always be reduced to lowest terms </li></ul><ul><li>Numerator and denominator are each divided by the large...
<ul><li>With same denominator, add the numerators, then reduce to lowest terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></...
<ul><li>The rules for subtraction are the same as those for addition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If denominators are the  same ,...
<ul><li>Multiply numerators together </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply denominators together </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce if necessar...
<ul><li>Invert the second number (turn it upside down) and then multiply. Reduce if  necessary. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note...
<ul><li>When dividing mixed fractions, change the problem visually so that division steps are easily seen </li></ul>
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Fractions

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Fractions

  1. 1. Gray Morris Mosby items and derived items © 2010 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  2. 2. Unit One: Chapter 2 Mosby items and derived items © 2010 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  3. 3. <ul><li>After reviewing this chapter, you should be </li></ul><ul><li>able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare the size of fractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add fractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtract fractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide fractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiply fractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce fractions </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Seen in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>medical record, client record, charting, and medical/nursing literature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used in calculation types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apothecary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Household </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A fraction is part of a whole number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>½ is a whole divided into two parts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have a numerator & a denominator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Figure 2-2 Diagram representing fractions of a whole. Five parts shaded out of the six parts represent: </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Fractions may be used on drug labels in addition to metric equivalent to help clarify </li></ul><ul><li>and prevent errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohen, M. (2007). Medication Errors, 2 ed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2.5 mg (2½ mg) Coumadin on same label </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Proper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerator is less than denominator; the fraction has a value of less than 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerator is larger than, or equal, to denominator; the fraction has a value of 1 or greater than 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>An improper fraction can be changed to a mixed number or whole number by dividing the numerator by the denominator </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Mixed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A whole number and a fraction; the value is greater than 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerator, denominator, or both, are fractions; the value may be less than, greater than, or equal to 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Whole numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have an expressed denominator of one (1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>If the numerators are the same, the fraction with the smaller denominator has the larger value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the denominators are the same, the fraction with the larger numerator has the larger value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>A mixed number can be changed to an improper fraction by multiplying the whole number by the denominator, adding the numerator, and placing the sum over the denominator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The value of a number is unchanged when the numerator and denominator are multiplied or divided by same number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change a fraction to lowest terms by dividing numerator and denominator by the largest whole number that will divide into both evenly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>LCD (lowest common denominator) is the smallest whole number that can be divided evenly by all the denominators in the problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Should always be reduced to lowest terms </li></ul><ul><li>Numerator and denominator are each divided by the largest number by which they are both evenly divisible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>With same denominator, add the numerators, then reduce to lowest terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With different denominators, change fraction to equivalent denominators by using the LCD, then add numerators as described above </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The rules for subtraction are the same as those for addition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If denominators are the same , perform subtraction with the numerators, obtain the value, place it over the denominator, and reduce to lowest terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If denominators are different , find the lowest common denominator (LCD), change to equivalent fractions, subtract the numerators, and place that value over the common denominator. Reduce if necessary. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Multiply numerators together </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply denominators together </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce if necessary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Fractions can be reduced to lowest terms before multiplication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express whole numbers as fractions with a denominator of 1 to visually aid in multiplication </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Invert the second number (turn it upside down) and then multiply. Reduce if necessary. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Change mixed numbers to improper fractions before performing division steps </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>When dividing mixed fractions, change the problem visually so that division steps are easily seen </li></ul>

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