Feedstuffs Swine Sheep Powerpoint


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Feedstuffs Swine Sheep Powerpoint

  1. 1. Feedstuffs<br />Large Animal Nutrition<br />Swine, Sheep and Goats<br />
  2. 2. Feedstuffs<br />Feedstuffs- any component of a diet ( ration) that serves some useful function<br />Functions:<br />Provide source of nutrients and energy<br />Combined to produce rations<br />Modify characteristics of diet<br />Functions<br />Provide one of more nutrients<br />Modify characteristics of diet<br />
  3. 3. International Feed ID System<br />System for classifying feedstuffs based on descriptive characteristics<br />Based on the primary nutrient provided by the feedstuff<br />Each feedstuff is assigned an International Feed Number ( IFN)<br />
  4. 4. There are 8 international Feedstuff classes<br />1. Dry Roughages<br />2. Pasture Range and Grasses<br />3. Ensiled Roughages<br />4. High Energy Concentrates<br />5. Protein Sources<br />6. Minerals<br />7. Vitamins<br />8. Additives<br />
  5. 5. 1. Dry Roughages<br />Characteristics:<br />Bulky feed that has low weight per unit of volume<br />High crude fiber content, low protein and fat digestibility<br />Contains greater than 18% crude fiber and less than 70% total digestible nutrients<br />
  6. 6. Dry Roughagae Examples<br />Hay- legume ( alfalfa), grass legume, non legume<br />Straw and chaff<br />Corn cobs<br />Cottonseed hulls<br />Shells and hulls<br />Sugarcane byproducts<br />Paper and wood byproducts<br />
  7. 7. 2. Pasture and Range grasses<br />Grazed plants<br />Soilage or greenchop<br />Cannery and food crop residues<br />
  8. 8. 3. Silages and Haylages<br /><ul><li>fermented, high moisture feed made from the entire plant. Stored in silos</li></ul>Examples:<br />corn, sorghum<br />Grass, grass-legume, legume<br />
  9. 9. 4. High Energy Concentrate<br />Cereal grains<br />Beet and citrus pulp<br />Molasses<br />Animal, marine and vegetable fats<br />Roots and tuber<br />
  10. 10. 5. Protein Supplements<br />Contains greater than 20% crude protein<br />animal, avian, marine sources<br />Milk and by-products<br />Legume seeds<br />Brewery and distillery by-products<br />Urea, ammonia<br />
  11. 11. 6. Mineral supplements and 7. Vitamin supplements<br />Must be added by sources that animal is able to absorb<br />Vitamin concentration in plants and animal tissues varies greatly<br />Plants: vitamin concentration affected by harvesting, processing and storing<br />Animals: liver and kidney are good sources of most vitamins<br />
  12. 12. 8. Additives<br />Non- nutritive ingredients added to stimulate growth or performance or improve the efficiency of feed<br />Added in very small quantities<br />Antibiotics, antifungals, antimicrobials<br />Buffers, colors, flavors<br />Probiotics<br />Hormones, enzymes<br />
  13. 13. Estimating Nutritional Value of a Feed<br />Goal: estimate how well nutrients in feedstuffs matches the animal’s needs<br />Three methods for Estimating<br />Chemical Analysis<br />Digestion and Balance Trials<br />Feeding Trials<br />
  14. 14. Chemical Analysis<br />Subdivides the components of the feedstuff into general groups ( protein, water, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins) to estimate the relative amount present<br />Problem: Doesn’t estimate how well the animal utilizes the feed<br />
  15. 15. Digestion and Balance Trials<br />Measures the digestibility of a feed<br />Feed consumption and fecal excretion are measured over period of time<br />Problem: Not a true measure because feces contain sloughed cells and tissue<br />
  16. 16. Feeding Trials<br />Used extensively<br />Usually done before chemical analysis or digestion and balance trials<br />Can evaluate growth, egg production, wool production<br />
  17. 17. Swine Nutrion<br />Porcine<br />Monogastricominivore<br />Terms<br />Sow – adult female<br />Boar- adult male<br />Piglet- young pig<br />Gilt- sexually mature female, no litter yet<br />Barrow- castrated male<br />
  18. 18. Swine Nutrion- Water<br />Neonates 80% water, finishing pigs 55% water<br />Requirement is influenced by many factors ( environment, moisture content of feed, urine output, etc.)<br />General guidelines 1-11/2 quarts of water per 1 lb of feed consumed<br />Lactating sows require more for milk production<br />Water quality affects consumption, high total dissolved solids can cause diarrhea, high levels of sulfates should be avoided<br />
  19. 19. Swine Nutrition- Energy<br />Required for buildup of lean and fat tissue<br />Nursing pigs- most energy from fat and sugar in milk<br />Growing pigs- most energy from cereal grains<br />Sows and finishing pigs- some energy is gained from volatile fatty acids from fermentation in large intestine<br />Dietary need is directly related to body weight<br />Amount of feed consumed ad libitum is controlled by energy content of diet<br />
  20. 20. Energy source feedstuffs for Swine<br />Cereal grains ( especially swine)<br />Damaged grains<br />Grain by- products<br />Purified sugars ( sucrose, lactose for piglets)<br />Fat ( tallows, animal and vegetable fats)<br />Processed food waste<br />
  21. 21. Swine Nutrition – Protein and Amino acids<br />Pig carcasses contain 50% muscle. About 8% of the whole body is edible protein<br />Pigs need 10 essential amino acids to maintain tissues<br />Amino acids required are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, leucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine<br />Lysine is the first limiting amino acid, high requirements, low content in feedstuffes ex. Corn<br />Most diets are based on soybean meal due to its higher lysine content<br />
  22. 22. Protein Source Feedstuffs in Swine<br />Plant proteins: soybeans<br />Animal proteins: by-products of meat packing industry, fish meal, dried milk products<br />Bacteria<br />Synthetic amino acids<br />
  23. 23. Swine Nutrition- Minerals<br />Highest Mineral Needs<br />Ca and P- usually fed as limestone and oyster shells<br />NaCl- inadequate amounts suppress feed intake<br />I- soybean and grain diets deficient, supplement required<br />Fe- injected in piglets to prevent anemia- lasts 3 weeks, milk is iron deficient<br />Mg- required in growing pigs, present in feedstuffs<br />Z- supplemented to prevent parakeratosis<br />
  24. 24. Swine Nutrition- Vitamins<br />Vitamin A- supplement 2-3 times need because corn has low Vit A and it breaks down with processing, dehydrated alfalfa is a good source<br />Vitamin D- absent in most feedstuffs, expose pigs to sunlight or add sun cured hays or fish oils to diet<br />Vitamin E – required in all life stages, legume hay, green forage and cereal grains are good sources<br />Vitamin K- present in feeds, synthesized by hind gut fermentation but pig must have access to feces. Supplement added to prevent hemorrhaging in newborns<br />
  25. 25. Vitamin, Mineral and Additive Source Feedstuffs in Swine<br />Mineral- trace mineral salt<br />Vitamin- alfalfa meal, fermentation by products, animal protein<br />Additives: antibiotics, anthelmintics etc<br />
  26. 26. Nutritional Diseases in Swine<br />Amino Acid Deficiency: anemia, edema, immunocompromise, impaired growth<br />Parakeratosis: Occurs between the 6-16th week of life. From low zinc, high calcium diet; bilateral abnormal keratinization of the skin, forming horny scales; starts as brown spots on underside<br />
  27. 27. Swine Feeding Management<br />Pre-breeding: gilt is bred at 7-8 mos. Flushing 1-2 weeks prior to breeding increases ovulation and litter size, high antibiotics added to dieet<br />Gestation: normal nutritional needs for first two trimesters. Majority of growth is in last month. Overweight sows are more likely to crush piglets<br />Farrowing: include laxatives to prevent constipation when in farrowing crate; wheat bran or dried beet pulp 10-15% of diet; high antibiotics<br />Lactation: nutrient requirements 3-4 times higher than during gestation, produce 2.5 lbs milk per piglet; if feed restricted can suffer bone fractures and paralysis<br />Nursing pigs: all nutrients from sow’s milk for first 2 weeks. Must supply iron( injectable) Begin eating dry food at 2 weeks<br />
  28. 28. Sheep Nutrition<br />Ovine<br />Ruminant Herbivores<br />Terms:<br />Ewe- female of reproductive age<br />Ram- intact male of reproductive age<br />Lamb- young sheep of either sex<br />Wether- neutered adult male<br />Mutton- meat derived from adult sheep<br />
  29. 29. Sheep Nutrition- Water<br />Water is limiting nutrient in many areas<br />Water quality is more important to sheep than any other livestock species ( stagnant, odor, high bacterial or mineral content)<br />Water intake is influenced by feed, vegetation, protein intake, environmental temperature, amount of rain, dew, or snowfall<br />
  30. 30. Water Requirements for Sheep<br />1 gallon of water per 4 lbs of dry feed consumed<br />More water when air temp is above 70F<br />Less intake if water temp is <40 or > 50F<br />Lower requirement where there is daily rain, heavy dew or soft, wet snow<br />Lower requirement for those eating silage, succulent or range forage<br />
  31. 31. Sheep Nutrition- Energy<br />Insufficient energy from low intake or poor quality feed<br />Energy deficiency reduces growth, fertility, wool quality, death<br />High energy needs:<br /><ul><li>Immediately before and after lambing
  32. 32. Flushing ewes and rams for breeding
  33. 33. Finishing lambs</li></li></ul><li>Energy Source Feedstuffs for Sheep<br />Good quality pasture, hay, silage<br />Grains: barley, corn, wheat, oats and milo<br />Precautions: when feeding wheat grain- lambs susceptible to acute indigestion<br />
  34. 34. Sheep Nutrition- Protein<br />Usually quantity is more important than quality due to bacterial conversion in rumen<br />Microbial protein synthesis supplies protein needs except when lactating or very young lambs<br />Add extra protein feeds when pastures are mature or when feeding creep rations<br />
  35. 35. Protein source feedstuffs for sheep<br />Green pastures, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, alfalfa hay, urea ( sometimes0 <br />Urea levels: < 1% of total ration<br />No urea in young lambs, creep rations, straw, poor quality hay or lambs on limited feed<br />
  36. 36. Sheep Nutriton- Minerals<br />Highest Mineral Needs<br />NaCl- usually provided ½-1/3 lb per ewe per month<br />Ca, P – highest need during lactation, provide leafy legumes for Ca, grains for P<br />I- usually provided in salt<br />Co- more in legumes than grasses<br />Se- small difference between deficiency and lethal toxicity, muscular dystrophy<br />Zinc- high needs for normal testicular development<br />
  37. 37. Sheep Nutrition- Vitamins<br />Vit A- can store excess for 6-12 months<br />Vit D- fast growing lambs kept inside may show problems<br />Vit E- low selenium leads to Vit E deficiency<br />Vit K- synthesized by rumen<br />Vit C- synthesized by tissues<br />
  38. 38. Vitamin and Mineral Feedstuffs in Sheep<br />Vitamins- green feeds, germs of seeds, sun-cured hays<br />Minerals- leafy legumes, grains, trace mineral and salt mix<br />
  39. 39. Sheep Nutritional Diseases<br />Enterotoxemia type D- intestinal toxins present in blood; caused by stress and sudden diet changes; vaccinate lambs prior to weaning<br />Urinary calculi- common in rams and wethers in drylot; results from Ca/P ration imbalance and decreased water intake<br />
  40. 40. Sheep Feed Management<br />Pre-breeding: ewe is flushed for 4-6 weeks, 2 weeks prior to breeding and continuing for 2-3 weeks after bred; flushed on either high quality pastures or ¼ to ½ lb of grain or pellets per day; treat for internal parasites and trim hooves<br />Gestation- 70% of fetal growth happens in the last 6 weeks of gestation<br />
  41. 41. continued<br />Late pregnance feed requirement<br /><ul><li>50% more feed if single lamb
  42. 42. 75% more feed if twin lamb
  43. 43. Add grain to high roughage diet, more energy</li></ul>Lactation- maximum milk production 2-3 weeks post parturition; feed three times her maintenance requirements; must have increase protein intake to make milk<br />Nursing lambs- born with non functioning rumen; colostrum is a must within first 12-18 hours. If no ewe colostrum, can use fresh cow colostrum. Creep feeding used for early weaning and getting lambs to market<br />
  44. 44. Goat Nutrition<br />Caprine<br />Ruminant Herbivore<br />Terms<br />Doe- female<br />Buck- intact male<br />Kid- baby goat, either sex<br />Wether- castrated male<br /><ul><li>Inquisitive feeding behavior
  45. 45. Raised for meat, milk, fiber and hides</li></li></ul><li>Goat Feeding Behavior<br />Confinement feeding: will pick through offered feed and eat what they want<br />This results in 2 important effects:<br />Composition of consumed diet differs from formulated diet<br />Goats will eat more if they have more to select, so offer less feed to force them to choose more of the diet<br />Range feeding: active forager, browses all plant types including trees, shrubs, grasses, creating a browse line. Will sometimes defoliate one type of plant; goats grazing hilly terrain have higher energy requirements than those on level terrain<br />
  46. 46. Goat Nutrition- Water<br />Requirements<br /><ul><li>Intake is related to feed intake and feed intake correlates to productivity
  47. 47. Free access to good quality water
  48. 48. More sensitive to water quality, won’t touch fecal/urine contaminated water
  49. 49. Lactation increases needs</li></li></ul><li>Goat Nutrition- Energy<br />Wide variances among breed, productivity, production and size<br />Mostly from carbohydrates and low levels of fat, high fat inhibits rumen fermentation<br />Excess fat is stored in the body around internal organs<br />Consume more dry matter then other livestock species<br />
  50. 50. Energy Source- Feedstuffs for Goats<br />Forages: alfalfa hay, bermuda grass hay<br />grains: corn, sorghum, oats<br />molasses<br />
  51. 51. Goat Nutrition- Protein<br />Most expensive component of diet<br />Needed to support rumen fermentation and supply amino acids<br />Unlike fat, excess is not stored<br />Vary with developmental stage<br />Protein source feedstuffs for goats<br />- Soybean meal, fish meal, cottonseed meal and sunflower meal<br />
  52. 52. Goat Nutrition- Mineral<br />Ca and P are two major minerals- needed for bone development and milk production<br />Mobilize bone stores for high needs<br />Phosphorus need is met due to goats high selectivity in diet<br />Only salt should be provided free choice<br />Lush pasture is deficient in magnesium<br />
  53. 53. Goat Nutrion- Vitamins<br />Only Vit A is likely to be deficient<br />Occurs in confinement fed goats in dry cold weather<br />Occurs in range fed goats when vegetation contains little or no green plant material<br />
  54. 54. Goat Nutritional Diseases<br />Enterotoxemia type D- can occur after high intake of immature succulent forage. Toxin is produced by Clostridium perfringens type D<br />Urinary calculi- can occur when Ca and P rations are unbalanced<br />