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When dynamic becomes static – the next
step in web caching techniques

Wim Godden
Cu.be Solutions
Disclaimer
The next step

As in : what you will be doing in the future
Not as in : go home and run it ;-)

Language of choice : PHP

But : think Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, .Net, …
Who am I ?
Wim Godden (@wimgtr)
Founder of Cu.be Solutions (http://cu.be)
Open source developer since 1997
Developer of OpenX, PHPCompatibility, ...
Speaker at PHP and Open Source conferences
Who are you ?
Developers ?
System/network engineers ?
Managers ?
To understand the present
Understand the past
The Stone Age
New blog post by : caveman003
Pre-PHP : draw it and make html
The Egyptian Era
Old-school PHP : 'rebuild-every-time'
The Industrial Revolution
PHP : let's cache
Extra ! Extra !
PHP : dynamic content in static content
The Modern Era
PHP : multiple webservers
PHP : push updates to cache
Today
Adding reverse proxy caching
Website X with ESI
Header

Latest news

Article content page
Navigation
Page content
Website X with ESI
Top header
(TTL = 2h)
Latest news

Article content page
Navigation
(TTL = 1h)

Page content
Website X with ESI
Top header
(TTL = 2h)
Latest news (TTL = 2m)

Article content page
Navigation
(TTL = 1h)

Page content (TTL = 30m)
Going to /page/id/732

<html>
<esi:include src="/top"/>
<esi:include src="/nav"/>
<div id="something">
<esi:include src="/latest-news"/>
</div>
<esi:include src="/article/id/732"/>
</html>
Varnish - ESI

<esi:include src="/top"/>
<esi:include src="/news"/>

Article content page
<esi:include
src="/nav"/>

<esi:include src="/article/732"/>
A simple benchmark – 2KByte JPEG

Apache 2.2

4210

IIS 7.5

3960

Varnish 3.0

11400
A dynamically generated, but static page

Apache 2.2 + PHP (3 DB queries)

18

IIS 7.5 + .Net (3 DB queries)

16

Varnish 3.0

11400
Varnish - what can/can't be cached ?
Can :
Static pages
Images, js, css
Static parts of pages that don't change often (ESI)

Can't :
POST requests
Very large files (it's not a file server !)
Requests with Set-Cookie
User-specific content
ESI → no caching on user-specific content ?
Logged in as : Wim Godden

TTL = 0s ?

TTL=1h

5 messages

TTL = 5min
Nginx
Web server
Reverse proxy
Lightweight, fast
12.81% of all Websites
Nginx
No threads, event-driven
Uses epoll / kqueue
Low memory footprint
10000 active connections = normal
ESI on Nginx
Logged in as : Wim Godden
5 messages

Menu

NEWS
ESI SCL on Nginx
<scl:include key="top" src="/top" session="true" ttl="1h" />

<scl:include
key="menu"
src="/menu"
ttl="1h" />

<scl:include key="news" src="/news" ttl="5m" />
Requesting /page (1st time)

Nginx
1

Shared memory
/page

4

/page

3
2
Requesting /page ESI subrequests (1st time)

Nginx
1
2
3

/menu
/news
/top (in SCL session)
Requesting /page (next time)

Nginx
Shared memory

1

/page

2

/page
/menu
/news
/top (in SCL session)
New message is sent...

POST /send
o
i nt
rt
e
ins

...

se
t

(..
.)

DB

top (in SCL session)
Advantages
No repeated GET hits to webserver anymore !
At login : POST → warm up the cache !
No repeated hits for user-specific content
Not even for non-specific content
News added

addnews() method
o
i nt
rt
e
ins

...

se
t

(..
.)

DB

Memcache key /news
Advantages
No repeated GET hits to webserver anymore !
At login : POST → warm up the cache !
No repeated hits for user-specific content
Not even for non-specific content
No TTLs for non-specific content
How many Memcache requests ?
Logged in as : Wim Godden
<scl:include key="top" src="/top" session="true" ttl="1h" />
5 messages

<scl:include
key="menu"
src="/menu"
ttl="1h" />

<scl:include key="news" src="/news" ttl="5m" />
First release : ESI
Part of the ESI 1.0 spec
Only relevant features implemented
Extension for dynamic session support
But : unavailable for copyright reasons
Rebuilt from scratch : SCL
Session-specific Caching Language
Language details :

Control structures : if/else, switch/case, foreach
Variable handling
Strings : concatenation, substring, …
Exception handling, header manipulation, ...
SCL code samples

You are logged in as : <scl:session_var("person_name") />
You are logged in as : <@s("person_name") />
SCL code samples

<scl:switch var="session_var('isAdmin')">
<scl:case value="1">
<scl:include key="admin-buttons" src="/admin-buttons.php" />
</scl:case>
<scl:default>
<div id="just-a-user">
<scl:include key="user-buttons" src="/user-buttons.php" />
</div>
</scl:default>
</scl:switch>
SCL code samples

<scl:foreach item="messageId" src="global_var('thread' + query_var('threadId'))">
<scl:include key="'thread-message_' + messageId"
src="'/thread/message.php?id=' + messageId" />
</scl:foreach>
Identifying the user
In Nginx configuration :
scl_session_cookie <name> → Defined by language (or configurable)
scl_session_identifier <string> → Defined by you

Example for PHP :
scl_session_cookie PHPSESSID
scl_session_identifier UID
Identifying the user
Cookie :
PHPSESSID =
jpsidc1po35sq9q3og4f3hi6e2

Nginx + SCL

432
get UID_jpsidc1po35sq9q3og4f3hi6e2
Retrieving user specific content
Cookie :
PHPSESSID =
jpsidc1po35sq9q3og4f3hi6e2

Nginx + SCL

get top_432
Why Nginx ?
Native Memcached support
Excellent and superfast subrequest system
Including parallel subrequests

Handles thousands of connections per worker
With minimal memory footprint

Integrates with php-fpm
Additional features (chroot, slow request log, offline processing, ...)
Graceful rolling upgrades
What's the result ?
Figures
2nd customer :

No. of web servers : 72 → 8
No. of db servers : 15 → 4
Total : 87 → 12 (86% reduction !)

Last customer :

No. of total servers : +/- 1350
Expected reduction : 1350 → 300
Expected savings : €1.6 Million per year
Why is it so much faster ?
A real example : vBulletin
A real example : vBulletin

isAdmin session variable

Post

isModerator session variable
A real example : vBulletin
35

30

25

20

Standard install
With Memcached
Nginx + SCL + memcached

15

10

5

0
DB Server Load

Web Server Load

Max Requests/sec (1 = 282)
Availability
Good news :
It will become Open Source
It's solid : ESI version stable at 4 customers

Bad news :
First customer holds copyrights
Total rebuild
→ Open Source release
No current projects, so spare time

Beta : Jan-Feb
Stable : Q2 (on Github)
So...
Questions ?
Questions ?
Contact
Twitter
Web
Slides
E-mail

@wimgtr
http://techblog.wimgodden.be
http://www.slideshare.net/wimg
wim.godden@cu.be

Please provide feedback :
http://joind.in/9262

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When dynamic becomes static: the next step in web caching techniques

  • 1. When dynamic becomes static – the next step in web caching techniques Wim Godden Cu.be Solutions
  • 2. Disclaimer The next step As in : what you will be doing in the future Not as in : go home and run it ;-) Language of choice : PHP But : think Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, .Net, …
  • 3. Who am I ? Wim Godden (@wimgtr) Founder of Cu.be Solutions (http://cu.be) Open source developer since 1997 Developer of OpenX, PHPCompatibility, ... Speaker at PHP and Open Source conferences
  • 4. Who are you ? Developers ? System/network engineers ? Managers ?
  • 5. To understand the present Understand the past
  • 6. The Stone Age New blog post by : caveman003
  • 7. Pre-PHP : draw it and make html
  • 9. Old-school PHP : 'rebuild-every-time'
  • 11. PHP : let's cache
  • 13. PHP : dynamic content in static content
  • 15. PHP : multiple webservers
  • 16. PHP : push updates to cache
  • 17. Today
  • 19. Website X with ESI Header Latest news Article content page Navigation Page content
  • 20. Website X with ESI Top header (TTL = 2h) Latest news Article content page Navigation (TTL = 1h) Page content
  • 21. Website X with ESI Top header (TTL = 2h) Latest news (TTL = 2m) Article content page Navigation (TTL = 1h) Page content (TTL = 30m)
  • 22. Going to /page/id/732 <html> <esi:include src="/top"/> <esi:include src="/nav"/> <div id="something"> <esi:include src="/latest-news"/> </div> <esi:include src="/article/id/732"/> </html>
  • 23. Varnish - ESI <esi:include src="/top"/> <esi:include src="/news"/> Article content page <esi:include src="/nav"/> <esi:include src="/article/732"/>
  • 24. A simple benchmark – 2KByte JPEG Apache 2.2 4210 IIS 7.5 3960 Varnish 3.0 11400
  • 25. A dynamically generated, but static page Apache 2.2 + PHP (3 DB queries) 18 IIS 7.5 + .Net (3 DB queries) 16 Varnish 3.0 11400
  • 26. Varnish - what can/can't be cached ? Can : Static pages Images, js, css Static parts of pages that don't change often (ESI) Can't : POST requests Very large files (it's not a file server !) Requests with Set-Cookie User-specific content
  • 27. ESI → no caching on user-specific content ? Logged in as : Wim Godden TTL = 0s ? TTL=1h 5 messages TTL = 5min
  • 28. Nginx Web server Reverse proxy Lightweight, fast 12.81% of all Websites
  • 29. Nginx No threads, event-driven Uses epoll / kqueue Low memory footprint 10000 active connections = normal
  • 30. ESI on Nginx Logged in as : Wim Godden 5 messages Menu NEWS
  • 31. ESI SCL on Nginx <scl:include key="top" src="/top" session="true" ttl="1h" /> <scl:include key="menu" src="/menu" ttl="1h" /> <scl:include key="news" src="/news" ttl="5m" />
  • 32. Requesting /page (1st time) Nginx 1 Shared memory /page 4 /page 3 2
  • 33. Requesting /page ESI subrequests (1st time) Nginx 1 2 3 /menu /news /top (in SCL session)
  • 34. Requesting /page (next time) Nginx Shared memory 1 /page 2 /page /menu /news /top (in SCL session)
  • 35. New message is sent... POST /send o i nt rt e ins ... se t (.. .) DB top (in SCL session)
  • 36. Advantages No repeated GET hits to webserver anymore ! At login : POST → warm up the cache ! No repeated hits for user-specific content Not even for non-specific content
  • 37. News added addnews() method o i nt rt e ins ... se t (.. .) DB Memcache key /news
  • 38. Advantages No repeated GET hits to webserver anymore ! At login : POST → warm up the cache ! No repeated hits for user-specific content Not even for non-specific content No TTLs for non-specific content
  • 39. How many Memcache requests ? Logged in as : Wim Godden <scl:include key="top" src="/top" session="true" ttl="1h" /> 5 messages <scl:include key="menu" src="/menu" ttl="1h" /> <scl:include key="news" src="/news" ttl="5m" />
  • 40. First release : ESI Part of the ESI 1.0 spec Only relevant features implemented Extension for dynamic session support But : unavailable for copyright reasons
  • 41. Rebuilt from scratch : SCL Session-specific Caching Language Language details : Control structures : if/else, switch/case, foreach Variable handling Strings : concatenation, substring, … Exception handling, header manipulation, ...
  • 42. SCL code samples You are logged in as : <scl:session_var("person_name") /> You are logged in as : <@s("person_name") />
  • 43. SCL code samples <scl:switch var="session_var('isAdmin')"> <scl:case value="1"> <scl:include key="admin-buttons" src="/admin-buttons.php" /> </scl:case> <scl:default> <div id="just-a-user"> <scl:include key="user-buttons" src="/user-buttons.php" /> </div> </scl:default> </scl:switch>
  • 44. SCL code samples <scl:foreach item="messageId" src="global_var('thread' + query_var('threadId'))"> <scl:include key="'thread-message_' + messageId" src="'/thread/message.php?id=' + messageId" /> </scl:foreach>
  • 45. Identifying the user In Nginx configuration : scl_session_cookie <name> → Defined by language (or configurable) scl_session_identifier <string> → Defined by you Example for PHP : scl_session_cookie PHPSESSID scl_session_identifier UID
  • 46. Identifying the user Cookie : PHPSESSID = jpsidc1po35sq9q3og4f3hi6e2 Nginx + SCL 432 get UID_jpsidc1po35sq9q3og4f3hi6e2
  • 47. Retrieving user specific content Cookie : PHPSESSID = jpsidc1po35sq9q3og4f3hi6e2 Nginx + SCL get top_432
  • 48. Why Nginx ? Native Memcached support Excellent and superfast subrequest system Including parallel subrequests Handles thousands of connections per worker With minimal memory footprint Integrates with php-fpm Additional features (chroot, slow request log, offline processing, ...) Graceful rolling upgrades
  • 50. Figures 2nd customer : No. of web servers : 72 → 8 No. of db servers : 15 → 4 Total : 87 → 12 (86% reduction !) Last customer : No. of total servers : +/- 1350 Expected reduction : 1350 → 300 Expected savings : €1.6 Million per year
  • 51. Why is it so much faster ?
  • 52. A real example : vBulletin
  • 53. A real example : vBulletin isAdmin session variable Post isModerator session variable
  • 54. A real example : vBulletin 35 30 25 20 Standard install With Memcached Nginx + SCL + memcached 15 10 5 0 DB Server Load Web Server Load Max Requests/sec (1 = 282)
  • 55. Availability Good news : It will become Open Source It's solid : ESI version stable at 4 customers Bad news : First customer holds copyrights Total rebuild → Open Source release No current projects, so spare time Beta : Jan-Feb Stable : Q2 (on Github)
  • 56. So...