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MPEG M: multimedia service platform technologies


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MPEG M is a new suite of ISO/IEC standard and a multimedia service platform ( to diffuse trading of multimedia contents.

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MPEG M: multimedia service platform technologies

  1. 1. Panos Kudumakis, Xin Wang, [standards in a NUTSHELL]Sergio Matone, and Mark SandlerMPEG-M: Multimedia Service Platform TechnologiesM PEG-M is a suite of However, most of the current IPTV dard for advanced IPTV services. ISO/IEC standards efforts stem from rather conventional MPEG-M is based on a flexible architec- (ISO/IEC 23006) that value chain structures thus standing in ture capable of accommodating and has been developed stark contrast with the buoyant Web envi- extending in an interoperable fashion under the auspices of ronment where new initiatives—some- many of the features that are beingMoving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). times assembling millions of users in a deployed on the Web for delivering andMPEG-M, also known as Multimedia fortnight—pop up almost daily with consuming multimedia content (e.g.,Service Platform Technologies (MSPT), exciting new features, such as Apple’s and Hulu, Netflix, or Apple TV), next tofacilitates a collection of middleware Google’s APIs, enabling third parties to those enabled by the recent standardapplication programming interfaces provide applications and services. MPEG technologies (e.g., high-(APIs) and elementary services (ESs) as At the same time, we are witnessing efficiency video coding and dynamicwell as service aggregation so that service cases where the closed delivery and con- adaptive streaming over HTTP).providers (SPs) can offer users a plethora tent bundles offered by some operators Thanks to the MPEG-M suite of stan-of innovative services by extending cur- are being either abandoned (e.g., mobile dards aimed at facilitating the creationrent Internet Protocol television (IPTV) and provisioning of vastly enhancedtechnology toward the seamless integra- MPEG HAS BEEN THE IPTV services, it is envisaged that ation of personal content creation and dis- PROVIDER OF SOME thriving digital media economy can betribution, e-commerce, social networks, established, where ENABLING TECHNOLOGIESand Internet distribution of digital media. ■ developers can offer MPEG-M ser- AND HAS DEVELOPED A vice components to the professionalMOTIVATION LARGE PORTFOLIO OF market because a market will beWith the deployment of broadband net- STANDARDS THAT CAN BE enabled by the standard MPEG-Mworks enabling new ways to deliver and ASSEMBLED TO PROVIDE component service APIexchange multimedia services and the MULTIMEDIA SERVICES. ■ manufacturers can offer MPEG-Mimprovement of hardware performance devices to the global consumer mar-allowing many service aspects to be phone brands linked to a particular con- ket because of the global reach ofimplemented as Web-service software, tent service) or complemented with the MPEG-M servicesbusinesses related to media services are possibility offered to users to freely ■ SPs can set up and launch newfacing significant changes. These chang- access services (e.g., broadband, mobile, attractive MPEG-M services because ofes are opening new business opportuni- and IPTV) of their choice. The latter the ease to design and implementties for multimedia services, such as becomes more eminent by the appear- innovative MPEG-M value chainsthose generated by the recent introduc- ance of new operators offering service ■ users can seamlessly create, offer,tion of IPTV services for which several components (e.g., cloud services) and search, access, pay/cash, and consumestandards have been or are being devel- the need for these to be interoperable. MPEG-M services.oped. Examples of already developed MPEG has been the provider of some The MPEG-M suite of standardsstandards are: ITU-T Q.13/16, Open IPTV enabling technologies and has devel- extends the devices capabilities withForum, Alliance for Telecommunications oped a large portfolio of standards that advanced features such as content gen-Industry Solutions IPTV Interoperability can be assembled to provide multimedia eration, processing, and distribution byForum, Digital Video Broadcasting IPTV, services (see “MPEG technologies” a large number of users; easy creation ofHybrid Broadcast Broadband TV, and under the section “Resources”). new services by combining service com-YouView. Continuing its approach of providing ponents of their choice; global, seamless standards for the next generation of and transparent use of services regard-Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MSP.2011.942296 products, services, and applications less of geolocation, service provider, net-Date of publication: 1 November 2011 MPEG has developed MPEG-M, a stan- work provider, device manufacturer,1053-5888/11/$26.00©2011IEEE IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [159] NOVEMBER 2011
  2. 2. [standards in a NUTSHELL] continued ISSUING BODY, STRUCTURE OF THE STANDARD, AND SCHEDULE Describe End Deliver MPEG-M (ISO/IEC 23006) is a suite of User User Content standards that has been developed under the auspices of MPEG. ISO/IEC 23006 is referred as MPEG Extensible Middleware (MXM) in its Manage Post Package Store License Content Content Content first edition, and it specifies an architec- ture (Part 1), an API (Part 2), a refer- ence software (Part 3), and a set of protocols to which MXM devices had to Describe Adapt adhere (Part 4). Content Content MPEG-M (ISO/IEC 23006) is referred to as multimedia service platform tech- nologies (MSPT) in its second edition,[FIG1] A possible chain of services centered around postcontent SP. and it conserves the architecture and design philosophy of the first edition,and provider of payment and cashing “mood” of the friends by using, for but stressing the Service Orientedservices; diversity of user experience example, a semantic music playlist gen- Architecture character. It specifies alsothrough easy download and installation erator (see “SoundBite” under the sec- how to combine ESs into aggregatedof applications produced by a global tion “Resources”). The end user would services (Part 5) and usage guidelinescommunity of developers since all appli- then get the necessary licenses from the (Part 6).cations share the same middleware manage license SP. The sequence of The latter is subdivided into sixAPIs; and innovative business models songs would then be handed over to the parts:because of the ease to design and imple- package content SP, possibly in the form ■ Part 1—Architecture: specifies thement media-handling value chains of an “MPEG-21 Digital Item,” the latter architecture that is part of anwhose devices interoperate because they being a container for resources, meta- MPEG-M implementationare all based on the same set of technol- data, rights, and their interrelationships. ■ Part 2—MXM API: specifies theogies, especially MPEG technologies. The package content SP will get the middleware APIs resources from the store content SP and ■ Part 3—Conformance andOBJECTIVES hand over the packaged content to the Reference Software: specifies confor-The scope of the MPEG-M is to support deliver content SP who will stream the mance tests and the software imple-the SPs’ drive to deploy innovative mul- packaged content to the end user. mentation of the standardtimedia services by identifying a set of In many real-world MPEG-M value ■ Part 4—ESs: specifies ES protocolsESs and defining the corresponding set chains, SPs would not be able to exploit between MPEG-M applicationsof protocols and APIs to enable any user the potential of the standard if they were ■ Part 5—Service Aggregation: speci-in an MPEG-M value chain to access confined to only offer ESs. Therefore SPs fies mechanisms enabling the combi-those services in an interoperable fash- will typically offer bundles of ESs, known nation of ESs and other services toion. Note that an MPEG-M value chain as aggregated services (ASs). In general, build aggregated servicesis a collection of users, including cre- as shown in Figure 2, there will be a plu- ■ Part 6—Usage Guidelines: specifiesators, end users, and SPs that conform rality of SPs offering the same or par- examples on elementary and aggregat-to the MPEG-M standard. tially overlapping ASs, for example, a SP ed services. Assuming that in an MPEG-M value offering user description services, may The specification of the MPEG-M suitechain there is a SP for each ES, a user offer content description services as well. of standards reached Study of Draftmay ask the postcontent SP to get a Starting from MPEG-M ESs, the International Standard (SoDIS) status insequence of songs satisfying certain aggregation of services can put together July 2011, while its reference softwarecontent and user descriptions (meta- a certain amount of services generating and conformance tests are planned to bedata). The “mood” of a group of friends a complex MPEG-M value network, hav- finalized in April 2012.could be a type of user description. ing different topologies and associating With reference to Figure 1, the end services in several ways. For example, TECHNOLOGYuser would contact the post content SP the payment and cashing and rightswho would get appropriate information negotiation ESs are aggregated to cre- ARCHITECTURE AND SUPPORTEDfrom both the describe content SP and ate AS#4, while content delivery and COMPONENTSthe describe user SP to prepare the license provision ESs are both shared Next we describe the six parts of thesequence of songs according to the between AS#6 and AS#7. MPEG-M suite of standards. IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [160] NOVEMBER 2011
  3. 3. Content Creator End User Aggregated Service #2 User User Aggregated Identification Description Aggregated Service #1 Service #3 Application Content Content Resource Identification Identification Description Editing Service Content Resource Rights Description Delivery Storage Negotiation Content License User Payment and Packaging Provision Location Cashing Aggregated Aggregated Service #7 Event Other Service #4 Management Service #5 Aggregated Aggregated Service #6 Service #5[FIG2] MPEG-M standard-enabled digital media services ecosystem underpinning and supporting the activities of contentcreators and consumers.PART 1—ARCHITECTURE (23006-1) The elements of the MPEG-M archi- ■ The MPEG-M orchestrator engineA general architecture of an MPEG-M tecture are listed as follows: API can be used to access thedevice is given in Figure 3, where ■ MPEG-M engines are collections of MPEG-M orchestrator engine.MPEG-M applications running on an specific technologies that can be ■ An MPEG-M device is a deviceMPEG-M device could call the technology meaningfully bundled together. equipped with MPEG-M engines.engines (TEs) in the middleware, via an ■ The MPEG-M engine APIs can be ■ An MPEG-M application is anapplication-middleware API, to access used to access MPEG-M engine func- application that runs on an MPEG-Mlocal functionality modules, and the pro- tionality. device and makes calls to thetocol engines (PEs) to communicate with ■ The MPEG-M orchestrator engine MPEG-M engine APIs and theapplications running on other devices by is a special MPEG-M engine capable of MPEG-M orchestrator engine API.executing elementary or aggregated ser- creating chains of MPEG-M engines to In general, an MPEG-M device canvice protocols among them. The role of execute a high-level application call have several MPEG-M applicationsthe orchestrator engine is to set up a such as “Photo Slide Show.” running on it, e.g., a music or videomore complex chain of TEs and PEs. Typical TEs include those implement-ing MPEG technologies such as audio, Application 1 Application 2 Application Nvideo, 3-D graphics, sensory data, fileformat, streaming, metadata, search, ren-dering, adaptation, rights management Middlewareand media value chain ontologies (see“MPEG Technologies” in the section Orchestrator PE 1 TE 1 PE 2 TE 2 PE N TE N“Resources”). Typical PEs include those imple-menting the ESs, as described earlier inthe music “mood” example, such as Operating Systemdescribe user, describe content, managelicense, package content, and delivercontent. [FIG3] MPEG-M device architecture. The middleware is populated by TEs and PEs. IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [161] NOVEMBER 2011
  4. 4. [standards in a NUTSHELL] continuedplayer as well as a content creator com- ■ The MPEG-M orchestrator API, PART 3—CONFORMANCE ANDbining audio-visual resources with meta- i.e., the API of the special MPEG-M REFERENCE SOFTWARE (23006-3)data and rights information. Some engine that is capable of creating This part of ISO/IEC 23006 specifies con-applications may be resident (i.e., loaded chains of MPEG-M engines to execute formance tests and the software imple-by the MPEG-M manufacturer) while a high-level application call such as mentation of the standard.some may be temporary (i.e., downloaded “Photo Slide Show,” as opposed tofor a specific purpose). the typically low-level MPEG-M PART 4—ELEMENTARY SERVICES When an MPEG-M application is exe- engine API calls. (23006-4)cuted, there may be “low-level” calls The MPEG-M engine APIs are divided This part of ISO/IEC 23006 specifies adirectly to some MPEG-M engines in four categories: creation APIs, editing set of ESs and protocols enabling dis-through their APIs and “high-level” calls APIs, access APIs, and engine-specific tributed applications to exchangesuch as the “Photo Slide Show,” which APIs. information related to content itemswill be handled by the orchestrator 1) Creation APIs are used to create and their parts, including rights andengine. The MPEG-M orchestrator is data structures, files, and elementary protection information.capable of setting up a chain of MPEG-M streams conforming to the respective In particular, each ES corresponds toengines for handling complex opera- standards. an operation and a type of entity on whichtions, orchestrating the intervention 2) Editing APIs are used to modify an the operation is performed. Table 1 showsand send/receive data to/from the partic- existing data structure, file, elementa- the ESs defined in this part of MPEG-Mular chain of engines that a given high- ry stream to obtain a derived object with the rows indicating the operationslevel call will trigger, thus relieving still conforming to the respective and the columns indicating the entities.MPEG-M applications from the logic of standard. ESs can be combined in well-definedhandling them. 3) Access APIs are used to parse data sequences to build aggregated services, structures, files, and decode elementa- both of them are called, in general, mul-PART 2—APPLICATION ry streams to retrieve the information timedia services. The multimedia ser-PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (23006-2) contained within. vices are provided by and consumed byThis part of ISO/IEC 23006 specifies a set multimedia devices in an MPEG-M eco-of APIs so that MPEG-M applications exe- WIM.TV IS CONSTANTLY system, an example of which is thecuting on an MPEG-M device can access ENRICHED WITH MORE advanced IPTV terminal.the standard multimedia technologies con- FEATURES TO ENABLEtained in its middleware as MPEG-M TEs, PART 5—SERVICE MORE BUSINESS ROLESas specified by Part 1 of ISO/IEC 23006. AGGREGATION (23006-5) AND MAKE THE The middleware APIs belong to two The Business Process Model and Notationclasses: ECOSYSTEM AS LIVELY AND (BPMN) was useful toward the implemen- ■ The MPEG-M engine APIs, i.e., the EFFICIENT AS POSSIBLE. tation of the MPEG-M vision, that is, the collection of the individual MPEG-M creation of aggregated services from a engine APIs providing access to a single 4) Engine-specific APIs are those that number of predefined ESs. The primary MPEG technology (e.g., video coding) do not fall into the above categories, goal of the BPMN is to provide a standard or to a group of MPEG technologies such as APIs for license authorization notation that is readily understandable by where this is convenient and content rendering. all business stakeholders. These business stakeholders include the business ana- lysts who create and refine the processes, [TABLE 1] ESS CLASSIFIED BY OPERATIONS AND ENTITIES. the technical developers responsible for CONTENT CONTRACT DEVICE EVENT LICENSE SERVICE USER implementing the processes, and theAUTHENTICATE X X business managers who monitor andCHECK WITH X manage the processes. Consequently,CREATE X X XDELIVER X X BPMN is intended to serve as commonDESCRIBE X X X X language to bridge the communicationIDENTIFY X X XNEGOTIATE X X gap that frequently occurs between busi-PACKAGE X ness process design and implementation.PRESENT XPROCESS X X BPMN specifies both a graphical nota-REQUEST X X X X X tion and an XML representation for pro-REVOKE X X cesses; it is a formalism to describeSEARCH X X X X X XSTORE X X X X service workflows. Using this notation, itTRANSACT X X is possible to represent temporal events,VERIFY X X X associations, and precedences that are IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [162] NOVEMBER 2011
  5. 5. combining ESs into an aggregated WIM.TV is a digital media ecosystem for STANDARDservice. From this point of view, service diffuse trading of video content. ISO/IEC JTC 1/ SC 29/ WG 11 Infor-aggregation is seen as an instance of a Currently the following business roles mation Technology—Multimedia Serviceprocess described using BPMN. are supported: creators, advertisers, Platform Technologies (23006): A service aggregation can express a syndicators, agents, Web TVs, end users, ■ Part 1—Architecture (23006-1),process flow realizing a specific task as event minitowers, and Web banks. N11934, Mar. 2011well as a new service. The SP can expose However, WIM.TV is constantly ■ Part 2—MXM API (23006-2),elementary or aggregated services, enriched with more features to enable N11936, Mar. 2011constructed from several other services. more business roles and make the eco- ■ Part 3—Conformance andSince service aggregation is a key point system as lively and efficient as possible. Reference Software (23006-3),of MPEG-M, BPMN has been adopted N12148, Aug. 2011because it allows efficient description of RESOURCES ■ Part 4—ESs (23006-4), N12149,service interactions. Moreover many ■ Apple. (2011). iOS. [Online]. July 2011.different aggregation topologies (not Available: ■ Part 5—Service Aggregationonly a serial version of aggregation) and com/ (23006-5), N12150, Aug. 2011contacts among services can be quite ■ Google. (2011). Android. [Online]. ■ Part 6—Usage Guidelines oneasily illustrated employing the BPMN Available: Elementary and Aggregated Servicesgraphical notation. com/ (23006-6), N12151, July 2011. ■ L. Chiariglione. (2011). MPEG tech-PART 6—USAGE GUIDELINES ON nologies. [Online]. Available: http:// SERVICE WIM.TV. (2011). [Online]. Available: http://www.ELEMENTARY AND AGGREGATED (23006-6) phpPart 6 will provide usage guidelines for a ■ Vision, Applications and Re - AUTHORSnumber of aggregated services. Services quirements for High Efficiency Video Panos Kudumakis (panos.kudumakis@under consideration, for inclusion in this Coding (HEVC). (2011, Jan.). ISO/IEC is a research manager atpart of the MPEG-M standard, include JTC1/SC29/WG11/N11872. [Online]. qMedia, Queen Mary University ofselling music on the Web; buying adver- Available: London, United Kingdom. He is coeditortisement space on video streaming servic- mpeg/ of ISO/IEC Multimedia Service Platformes; user-centric TV programming with ■ Text of ISO/IEC DIS 23001-6 Technologies—Part 1: Architectureadvertisements; professional content Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over (23006-1) and has been an active membermash-up; IPTV content marketplace; HTTP (DASH). (2011, Jan.). ISO/IEC of the ISO/IEC MPEG Standardadvanced music services; personal casting JTC1/SC29/WG11/N11749. [Online]. Committee since 1998.of traffic events; distance learning; video- Available: Xin Wang ( ison-demand services via speech interface; eu/mpeg/ the head of the Multimedia Systems Laband management of content adaptation. ■ Centre for Digital Music, Queen at Corporate Research of Huawei Mary University of London. SoundBite: Technologies, Santa Clara, California,FURTHER TECHNICAL Semantic music playlist generator. United States. He is cochair of theDEVELOPMENTS [Online]. Available: http://isophonics. MPEG-M ad hoc group and coeditor ofThe further technical developments related net/content/soundbite ISO/IEC Multimedia Service Platformto MPEG-M suite of standards is the provi- ■ Information technology— Technologies—Part 1: Architecturesion of the reference software and confor- Multimedia framework (MPEG-21)— (23006-1).mance tests, as is the policy for every Part 2: Digital item declaration. ISO/ Sergio Matone ( standard. Toward this goal a special IEC 21000-2:2005. [Online]. Available: is a digital media technologist atproject, Open Connected TV (OCTV), has, Torino, Italy. He is coeditorbeen set up by the Digital Media Project. catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. of ISO/IEC Multimedia Service Platform The expected outcome of OCTV will htm?csnumber=41112 Technologies—Part 2: MXM API (23006-not be a complete product or a running ■ Object Management Group. (2011, 2), Part 4: ESs (23006-4) and Part 5:service, but a commercial-grade imple- Jan.). Business process model and Service Aggregation (23006-5).mentation of software—instead of the notation (BPMN). [Online]. Available: Mark Sandler (mark.sandler@eecs.usual provided reference software—that is the head of the School ofmay be used direct by implementers in ■ Call for participation in the Open Electronic Engineering and Computercommercial products and services. Connected TV project. (2011, Jan.). Science and director of qMedia, Queen Furthermore, Web/Internet/Mobile Digital Media Project, Doc. No. 1306. Mary University of London, UnitedTV (WIM.TV) is an early implementa- [Online]. Available: http://open.dmpf. Kingdom.tion of the MPEG-M suite of standards. org/dmp1306.doc [SP] IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [163] NOVEMBER 2011