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Articulation Of Beliefs

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A presentation by professor Álvaro Muñoz. Manizales, Colombia.

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Articulation Of Beliefs

  1. 1. DOES THE FIRST LANGUAGE CAUSE INTERFERENCE?
  2. 2. <ul><li>For audiolingualism L1 was a problem to overcome </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>L1 did not affect language acquisition orders </li></ul><ul><li>No matter what the first language was all learners went through the same stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Asking them to go beyond their ability. </li></ul><ul><li>No drink beer </li></ul><ul><li>I no drink beer </li></ul><ul><li>I don't drink beer . He don't drink beer </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of do and correct placement of not. </li></ul><ul><li>It exists in some way for some things </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT ABOUT THE USE OF THE FIRST LANGUAGE IN THE CLASSROOM?
  4. 4. <ul><li>As long as teachers use L2 as much as possible to communicate information and interact with students… </li></ul><ul><li>Learners´ output does not directly lead to acquisition of the implicit system. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech production is necessary for the development of L2 output procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Language beyond their skills, to get a fix on the task and to seek clarification. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of L1 dissipates as learners gain control over output in the L2. </li></ul>
  5. 5. IS SLA LIKE FIRST LANGUAGE AQCUISITION?
  6. 6. <ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition orders and developmental stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Word, phrases, sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant to external manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>L1 Complete implicit system. variation in how far L2 learners get </li></ul><ul><li>Some errors are unique to one or the other </li></ul><ul><li>L2 learners already have one linguistic system. </li></ul><ul><li>External not internal factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn it like other subjects- interfere </li></ul>
  7. 7. DON`T IMITATION AND REPETITION PLAY A ROLE IN ACQUISITION?
  8. 8. <ul><li>Adults conception on how babies learn L1. </li></ul><ul><li>Mummy-daddy- ¨[m] sound universally easiest consonant to produce for children, along with [b] and [ah]. </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorism. </li></ul><ul><li>Only if they are attending to the meaning of what they are intended to imitate. </li></ul><ul><li>To perform a task quickly. If task changes, ability slows down or disappears. </li></ul>
  9. 9. SO DRILLS DON´T HELP, THEN?
  10. 10. <ul><li>Output oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical: not necessary attention to meaning. repetition, substitution, transformation) </li></ul><ul><li>meaningful: one correct response. where's the clock? </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative: what does your father do? </li></ul><ul><li>Research since 90´s: drills don't foster acquisition as structured input does. </li></ul>
  11. 11. DO LEARNERS DEVELOP BAD HABITS IF THEY AREN´T CORRECTED?
  12. 12. <ul><li>Fossilization, plateau. </li></ul><ul><li>Overt correction does little good in the long run. </li></ul><ul><li>No changes in the implicit system. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect correction; recasts and confirmation checks. </li></ul>
  13. 13. DOESN´T GIVING LEARNERS RULES HELP? That´s the way I learned.
  14. 14. <ul><li>We think the way we learned is the way languages are learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Input and interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Structured input. Mary was corrected by John. Pictures. reevaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Rules don't lead to acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>To sensitize learners to input. </li></ul>
  15. 15. SO DOES TEACHING MAKE NO DIFFERENCE?
  16. 16. <ul><li>As long as it involves more than the presentation and practice of rules. </li></ul><ul><li>It can't </li></ul><ul><li>Alter acquisition orders </li></ul><ul><li>Skip developmental stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Skip stages in acquisition of output procedures. (French speakers in Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>It can </li></ul><ul><li>Heighten attention. they might miss or get wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Classrooms have richer and more complex input than naturalistic environments </li></ul><ul><li>Speeding up of acquisition. </li></ul>
  17. 17. ARE SOME LANGUAGES MORE DIFFICULT TO LEARN THAN OTHERS?
  18. 18. <ul><li>Languages are organic entities. If one component is difficult, others are easy. </li></ul><ul><li>No language can be considered easier or harder. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes more hours to learn certain languages than others. external factors) </li></ul><ul><li>Shared alphabets. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish vs. Russian .Easier at the beginning. Cognates. Processing input </li></ul>
  19. 19. WHAT MAKES SOME STRUCTURES EASY AND SOME DIFFICULT TO ACQUIRE?
  20. 20. <ul><li>What makes a structure difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Low communicative value (meaning carried by main clause .doubt, denial) </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition or learning? </li></ul>
  21. 21. DOESN´T EVERYTHING IN LT COME DOWN TO MOTIVATION?
  22. 22. <ul><li>We have to be motivated everyday. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether or not we do something and how far we get. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrative and instrumental. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation can result from success in learning a foreign language (resultative motivation) </li></ul><ul><li>It does not explain the processes involved in acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>More motivated , learn more. </li></ul>
  23. 23. DOES AGE MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN LANGUAGE LEARNING?
  24. 24. <ul><li>Children learn at very quick rates. </li></ul><ul><li>The critical period. late childhood or puberty. </li></ul><ul><li>The earlier you start the better. </li></ul><ul><li>acquisition boils down to time on task. </li></ul><ul><li>Children's acquisition is more “round the clock” more varied contexts than for adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents are best at initial start up. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults are better at initial start up than children. In the end children get further and acquire more. </li></ul><ul><li>Language acquisition mechanisms don't shut off completely. </li></ul><ul><li>The sound system and everything else. </li></ul>
  25. 25. DON´T DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LEARNERS NEED DIFFERENT THINGS TO HELP THEM KEEP LEARNING?
  26. 26. <ul><li>Beginners need input that is manageable. no native speaker talk. As they progress more complex input, so that the internal processes can map new forms and structures into meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>For maximum vocabulary development they need to read all along the way. Learned as a byproduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction all along the way. Output demands should be minimal. Yes/no questions. </li></ul>
  27. 27. WHAT ABOUT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ? Should I consider learning styles?
  28. 28. <ul><li>L2 acquisition is different from other kinds of learning. Language processors are designed to work only on language. </li></ul><ul><li>No research has yet found a link between learning styles and the processes involved in language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>It would be important for explicit knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Language acquisition happens in only one way and all learners must go under it. (exposure to communicative input. Process it. Organize data. Acquire output procedures. Interact with other speakers) </li></ul><ul><li>Working memory. (some more limited than others). </li></ul><ul><li>Input and output processing takes place in working memory. although all learners need input for acquisition some might benefit from different kinds of input. </li></ul>
  29. 29. WHAT´S THE BEST METHOD FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING?
  30. 30. <ul><li>There is none. </li></ul><ul><li>Principled approaches to language instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Eclecticism is fine as long as it is informed and guided by something else than distaste for methods in general. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no single communicative method. natural approach, , task based learning. Immersion and content based instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation, expression and negotiation of meaning. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Implications for teaching <ul><li>The more input, the better (meaning based) </li></ul><ul><li>The more interaction, the better. </li></ul><ul><li>All learner production should be meaning based or communicative. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on form should be meaning based and tied to input or communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sensitive to students production abilities. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>We may be able to allow the learner innate strategies to dictate our practice and determine our syllabus; we may learn to adapt ourselves to his needs rather than impose upon him our preconceptions of how he ought to learn, what he ought to learn and when he ought to learn it. </li></ul><ul><li>Pit Corder </li></ul>

A presentation by professor Álvaro Muñoz. Manizales, Colombia.

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