Theory of learning of gtm and audiolingual method


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Theory of learning of gtm and audiolingual method

  1. 1. Grammar-Translation MethodTheory of language• it is possible to find native language equivalents for all target language words• important for students to learn about the form of the target language• students should be conscious of the grammatical rules of the target language• literary language is superior to spoken languageTheory of learning• fundamental purpose of FL learning is to be able to read its literature• an important goal is for students to be able to translate• communication is not a goal of learning• learning is facilitated through attention to similarities between the TL and the native language• deductive approach to grammar• language learning is good mental exercise• there is one correct answerSyllabus• grammar-drivenActivities• primary skills to be developed are reading and writing• committing of vocabulary, paradigms to memory• translation• no attention to pronunciation or oral productionRole of teacher• “knower”; authoritarian• uses L1
  2. 2. Direct MethodTheory of language• language is viewed primarily as speech rather than writing• vocabulary is emphasized over grammar; although work on all four skills occurs from the beginning, oral communication is seen as basic; reading and writing exercises are based on what the students practice orally first• native language is not used in the classroom; when teacher introduces a new target language word or phrase, its meaning is demonstrated through the use of realia, pictures, pantomime;• pronunciation receives attention from the beginningTheory of learning• grammar should be taught inductively; avoidance of explicit grammar rules• the purpose of language learning is communication; therefore, a great emphasis is put on questions and answer activities• students learning better through self-correctionSyllabus• situationalActivities•Q&A• opportunities for “real-life” conversational practice• spoken before writtenRole of teacher• demonstration rather than translation or explanation
  3. 3. Audiolingual MethodTheory of language• language is composed of structural building blocks (sounds, syllables, morphemes, words, sentences, phrases)• particular parts of speech occupy particular slots in sentences; in order to create new sentences, students learn which part of speech can go into which slot• language forms do not occur by themselves; they occur in context• native language and target language have separate systems; they should be kept apart so that students’ native language interferes as little as possible with target language• speech is more basic than writing• the “natural order” (i.e. the order in which children learn) is listening, speaking, reading, writing• each language has a finite number of patterns; pattern practice helps students to form habits which enable them to use the patterns.• language cannot be separated from cultureTheory of learning• language learning is a process of habit formation; the more often an item is repeated, the stronger the habit formation and the greater the learning• it is important to prevent learners from making errors; errors lead to bad habits, and should be immediately corrected by the teacher• positive reinforcement helps the students to develop correct habits• students should “overlearn,” i.e. learn to answer automatically with no analysis• the major objective of language teaching should be the acquisition of structural patterns; students will learn vocabulary afterward.• the learning of a FL should be the same as the acquisition of the native language; we do not need to memorize rules in order to use our native language; the rules necessary for target language use will be figured out or learned through induction• contrastive analysis will reveal those areas where native language habits need to be replaced by target language habitsSyllabus• grammar-driven, but structural — not by traditional Latinate categoriesActivities• memorize dialogs• drills based on dialog (repetition, substitution, transformation)• spoken before written; in sum, learn good habits; emphasis on accuracy (native-like speech)Role of teacher• provides correct model of native language for mimicry• reinforces good habits; punishes bad habits