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THE MEANING OF COLOURS 
For most of us, a rainbow of colours envelopes our lives. Over 80% of visual information is 
relat...
European : Danger (stop signs), love (hearts), excitement (for sale signs) 
China : Traditional bridal colour, good luck, ...
Dark red : willpower, rage, wrath, tenseness, vigour, anger, leadership, courage, yearning, 
malice, wrath 
Maroon : Yang,...
USA : Halloween, cheap goods 
Hinduism : Saffron (peachy orange) is a sacred color 
Feng Shui : Yang, Earth, strengthens c...
Brown 
Colombia : discourages sales 
Australian Aboriginals : colour of the land, ceremonial ochre 
Feng Shui : Yang, Eart...
Yellow 
European : Hope, joy, happiness, hazards, cowardice, weakness, taxis 
Asia : sacred, imperial 
China : Nourishing,...
Light yellow : intellect, freshness, and joy 
Ivory/cream : quiet, pleasantness, calm, understated elegance, purity, softn...
Useful as a marketing colour for organic, healthy and natural 'green' products. 
Dark green : money, ambition, greed, jeal...
Iran : mourning 
China : immortality 
Colombia : soap 
Hinduism : the colour of Krishna 
Judaism : holiness 
Christianity ...
of light and dark blues can create feelings of trust. Pale Blue : ethereal, delicate, calming, 
health, healing, tranquili...
Silver 
Feng Shui : Yin, Metal, trustworthiness, romance . 
Silver : glamous, distinguishment, high tech, industrial, grac...
Feng Shui : Yin, Water, money, income, career success, emotional protection, power, 
stability, bruises, evil 
Black : pro...
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Significado das cores para outros paises

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Cores

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Significado das cores para outros paises

  1. 1. THE MEANING OF COLOURS For most of us, a rainbow of colours envelopes our lives. Over 80% of visual information is related to colour.¹ What colours and combinations of colours stimulate people to be interested in different things? What colours make us feel pleasure or disapproval, hot or cold, to be attracted or repelled, our appetite stimulated or suppressed? Many reactions to colour are instinctual, universal and cross cultural boundaries. "Colors also convey messages that go beyond ethnic, racial, or gender boundaries. According to a 1997 survey by Cooper Marketing Group, Oak Park, IL, power is represented by the color scarlet red for 25% of respondents, black for 17% and bright violet blue for 13%. More than 55% of those surveyed chose one of these three colors out of 100 colors. Fragility was most represented by pale pink (27%), white (9%), and pale lavender (9%)."² Other associations with colours are specific to a culture or regions. Mixing appropriate amounts of different colours however can neutralise inherent negative cultural connotations. Web design which achieves successful marketing results is sensitive to the cultural, instinctual and iconic meanings of colour in relation to the product being promoted and considers the cultural backgrounds and gender of the targeted clientele. Avoiding the extremes of sheer garishness and boredom, effective design displays symphonic colour arrangements of shades, tints, tones and complementarities to tantalise and maintain interest. Adding textures too can alter colours - a roughly textured surface makes a colour seem darker, while a smooth surface lightens the same colour. Colour trends may defy instinctual, cultural and iconic constraints - for example, the recent craze for vivid lime green. As Jill Morton says: "Psychologically, the 'anti-aesthetic' colors may well capture more attention than those on the aesthetically-correct list. History clearly demonstrates that this has been a prevalent trend in art since the turn of the 20th century, when Dada's urinals and snow shovels put an end to the era of Matisse and French Impressionism."³
  2. 2. European : Danger (stop signs), love (hearts), excitement (for sale signs) China : Traditional bridal colour, good luck, celebration, happiness, joy, vitality, long life, summoning, the direction South. Chinese saying goes "when something is so red, it is purple" - red purple brings luck and fame. Japan : life India : Purity Eastern : Joy (with white) Hebrew : sacrifice, sin Christian : sacrifice, passion, love USA : Christmas (with green), Valentine's day (with white) South Africa : Mourning Australian aboriginals : the land, earth, ceremonial ochre Cherokees : success Hopi : the direction South Romans : Red flag signified the onset of battle Celtic : Death, afterlife Feng Shui : Yang, Fire, good luck, money, respect, recognition, protection, vitality Red Red : Energy, strength, passion, eroticism, cheerfulness, courage, element of fire, career goals, fast action, lust, desire, blood, vibrancy, driving forces, risk, fame, love, survival, war, revolution, danger, aggression, strength, power, determination, emotional intensity, sex, provoking, dynamic, stimulating, courage, bravery, good-tasting, force, leadership, drama, excitement, speed, heat, warmth, violence, attention, generosity, romance Red stimulates metabolism, increases respiration rate, perspiration, appetite and raises blood pressure. Red is a strong masculine colour. Red tends to promote images and text, making objects appear larger and closer, though less than yellow coloured objects. Bright red can be annoying if used over large areas and is useful as a iconic colour to encourage people to act quickly eg. on buy or click here buttons. An apetite stimulant, red is useful for promoting products associated with energy ... drinks, cars, sports and games. Care is need using red in proximity with green ... as the old adage goes: 'Red and green should not be seen without something in between'. Mixing bright blue and bright red is also not recommended ... the combination is very tiring on the eye. Light red : joy, sexuality, passion, sensitivity, love, indecision
  3. 3. Dark red : willpower, rage, wrath, tenseness, vigour, anger, leadership, courage, yearning, malice, wrath Maroon : Yang, indecisiveness Pink European : Feminine colour, baby girls East India : Feminine colour Japan : Popular with both sexes Korea : trust Feng Shui : Yin, love Pink : Romance, love, friendship, femininity, truth, passivity, good will, emotional healing, peace, calming, affection, emotional maturity, caring, nurturing, sweet tasting, sweet smelling, ethereal, delicacy. Pale pink : sweetness of youth, fragility Vibrant pinks : high spirits, energy, youth Orange European : Autumn, creativity, harvest Netherlands : Favourite colour (House of Orange) Ireland : Protestants
  4. 4. USA : Halloween, cheap goods Hinduism : Saffron (peachy orange) is a sacred color Feng Shui : Yang, Earth, strengthens concentration, purpose, organization Orange : warmth, energy, balance, enthusiasm, vibrancy, vitality, expansiveness, flamboyance, excitement, business goals, property deals, ambition, career, goals, general success, justice, legal matters, selling, action, attention-grabbing, the sun, friendly, inviting, intense, joy, strength, endurance, steadfastness, tropics, quick movement, wealth of the mind and knowledge, charity, growing things, fascination, friendliness, happiness, beginnings, heat, creativity, autumn, determination, attraction, success, encouragement, courage, earth, mental and appetite stimulatant, emotional lift, assurance, social force, health, warmth, attractiveness, cheerfulness, mood-lightening, uninhibited, independence, amiability, constructiveness, self-assuredness, cheap, low-budget, fun kids colour, youth In restaurants, as orange is an appetite stimulant, orange decor encourages sales. Less passionate than red, orange still increases oxygen supply to the brain, stimulating mental activity. Popular amongst youth. Orange backgrounds help images seem closer and larger, but avoid over-use. Useful for highlighting important elements, promoting food products and toys. "As we turned our sights to orange, substantial research (including the data gathered at The Global Color Survey at www.colormatters.com and the Pantone Consumer Color Preference Study® dated June 1996) documented that orange is one of Americans' least favorite colors. ... In 1991, Forbes called attention to orange's mundane associations in its December 23 article, 'Does orange mean cheap?' Yes, it does."4 Dark orange : autumn, deceit, distrust Red orange : desire, sexuality, pleasure, domination, aggression, thirst for action Bright orange : tangy citrus, health Pale orange : apricot, coral, peach and melon are sophisticated
  5. 5. Brown Colombia : discourages sales Australian Aboriginals : colour of the land, ceremonial ochre Feng Shui : Yang, Earth, industry, grounded Brown : friendships, special events, earth, materialistic thoughts, hearth, home, outdoors, inexpensive, reliability, credibility, comfort, endurance, stability, simplicity, comfort, longevity, intimacy, tranquility, masculine, nurturing, contentment, strength, sensuality, productivity, passivity, fertility, generosity, dirt, substance, practicality, hard work Brown is too low key if used broadly without texture or another color to enhance it. Useful for promoting food and outdoor products for work and play. Reddish-brown : harvest, autumn Beiges and tans : Yang, sophistication, neatness, conceals emotion Copper : passion, money goals, professional growth, business productivity, career moves Coffee browns : sophistication, richness, robustness, panache Gold World-wide : Success, high quality, money Feng Shui : Yang, Metal, God consciousness Gold : wealth, god, winning, safety, masculine power, happiness, playful humour, prestige, wisdom, love of spirit, meaning, purpose, awe, spiritual love, quests of the heart, desire for power, mystic powers, higher mathematics, sciences, attainment, concentration. Gold and navy (credibility) are the best combination for selling to men and the second best for selling to women.
  6. 6. Yellow European : Hope, joy, happiness, hazards, cowardice, weakness, taxis Asia : sacred, imperial China : Nourishing, royalty Egypt : Mourning Japan : Courage India : Merchants Buddhism : wisdom Feng Shui : Yang, Earth, auspicious, sunbeams, warmth, motion Yellow : sun, intelligence, light, accelerated learning, memory, logical imagination, social energy, cooperation, organisation, breaking mental blocks, sunshine, joy, happiness, intellect, energy, cheerfulness, optimism, purity, enthusiasm, warmth, honour, loyalty, mental force, clarity, perception, understanding, wisdom, dishonesty, betrayal, jealousy, covetousness, deceit, disease, weakness, caution, cowardice, follower, curiosity, mellowness, confidence, humour, dreams, creativity, desire to improve, action, idealism, optimism, imagination, hope, summer, philosophy, uncertainty, restlessness, glory, enlightenment Yellow stimulates mental activity, generates muscle energy and attracts attention - it is the colour most visible to the human eye. Thus yellow objects move to the forefront. Students who study in yellow rooms do better in exams. Cheerful yellow can be used to promote food especially in combination with other fruit and vegetable tones, children's and leisure products and is best used as a highlight. With overuse, yellow can be disturbing and promote anxiety. Babies cry more in yellow rooms. Yellow against black denotes a warning ... the sting of the bee. Yellow is not a practical colour to use when selling expensive items to men ... they perceive it as an untrustworthy and childish ... and avoid yellow if you wish to evoke safety and stability. Care is needed with shades of yellow as they can lose their warmth and appear dirty. Dull yellow : caution, decay, sickness, jealousym aging
  7. 7. Light yellow : intellect, freshness, and joy Ivory/cream : quiet, pleasantness, calm, understated elegance, purity, softness, more rich and warm than white Green China : Exorcism, green hats indicate a man's wife is cheating on him. Japan : Life. Islam : Hope - the cloak of the prophet was thought to be green, virtue - only those of perfect faith can wear green. Ireland: Symbol of the entire country, Catholics European/USA : Spring, new birth, go, safe, environmental awareness, Saint Patrick's Day, Christmas (with red) USA : Money Feng Shui : Yin, Wood, growing energy, refreshing, nurturing, balancing, harmony normalising, healing, health, peaceful, calming Green : earth mother, physical healing, monetary success, abundance, fertility, tree & plant magic, growth, food, hope, personal goals, resurrection, renewal, youth, stability, endurance, freshness, nature, environment, tranquil, refreshing, quiet, hope, immortality, health, healing, good luck, renewal, youth, jealousy, inexperience, trees, grass, vigour, growth, harmony, responsiveness, generosity, safety, envy, misfortune, quietude, compassion, renewal, moderation, nurturing, diplomacy, calm, contemplation, joy, love, abundance, balance, self-control, inexperience, hope, good omens, soothing, sharing, dependability, friendliness Green lowers blood pressure, relaxes the nervous system, calms and soothes the mind, stimulates creativity, and is an appetite suppressant. Green is easy on the eye and can improve vision. Images set in green backgrounds seem farther away. Green is popular in most cultures.
  8. 8. Useful as a marketing colour for organic, healthy and natural 'green' products. Dark green : money, ambition, greed, jealousy, heaviness, prestige, promotes concentration Yellow-green/lime green : sickness, cowardice, discord, and jealousy, nausea - don't use this colour for promoting food products as it's an appetite depressant. Olive green : peace Avocado : 60s and 70s refridgerators Blue greens : most accepted colour group across gender lines Turquoise Ancient Persians : warding off evil eye Turquoise : calming, emotional healing, protection, refreshing, sophisticated Turquoise is equally popular with men and women. Mixes well with pale pinks and lavenders for a feminine look. Create a retro scenario with turquoise and pink or art deco by combining it with white and black. Combined with grey, silver, terra cotta and tans, it produces a southwestern USA look. With orange or yellow, it creates an innovative, fresh image suitable for sports-oriented sites.5 Light Turquoise : feminine Teal : sophisticated Blue European : soothing, "something blue" bridal tradition Cherokees : defeat, trouble
  9. 9. Iran : mourning China : immortality Colombia : soap Hinduism : the colour of Krishna Judaism : holiness Christianity : Christ's colour Catholicism : colour of Mary's robe Middle East : protection Worldwide : 'safe' colour Feng Shui : Yin, Water, calm, love, healing, relaxation, peace, trust, adventure, exploration Blue : good fortune, communication, wisdom, protection, spiritual inspiration, calmness, reassurance, gentleness, fluidity, water, sea, creativity, peace, calming, higher thoughts, mystery, sky, formality, travel, devotion, progress, quiet wisdom, freedom. betterment of humanity, love, trust, loyalty, intelligence, reassurance, artistry, compassion, inner strength, devotion, depression, sadness, tranquility, stability, unity, truth, understanding, confidence, acceptance, conservatism, security, cleanliness, order, comfort, cold, technology, devotion, harmony, depth, faith, heaven, piety, sincerity, precision, intellect, sadness, consciousness, speech, messages, ideas, sharing, cooperation, idealism, sincerity, empathy, relaxation, affection, inspiration, friendship, patience, contemplation, infinity, harmony, non-threatening, dependability Some believe blue slows the metabolism and suppresses the appetite. As it does not require the eye to focus, images and objects recede in blue backgrounds. With overuse, can create feelings of cold. Although also popular with women, blue is the predominant favourite colour of males and is suited to web sites involving and promoting technology, medical products, cleanliness, air, sky, water, sea and automotives. Blue is the favourite colour of more than half of the world's people - it is the colour least disliked by most cultures. High impact designs can be created with combinations of blue, red and yellow. Combinations
  10. 10. of light and dark blues can create feelings of trust. Pale Blue : ethereal, delicate, calming, health, healing, tranquility, understanding, softness In combination with pinks and pale yellows, creates the image of spring. Aqua : freshness, pristine, vigour, movement, dramatic, confidence, strength, individualism, eccentricity, humour, fearlessness, festivity Royal Blue : richness, superiority, cold Dark blue : depth, expertise, stability, credibility (especially with gold), intellect, wisdom, corporate colour, warmth, knowledge, power, integrity, seriousness, knowledge, health, decisiveness, law, order, logic, dependability, serenity Combining dark and lighter shades of blue creates a conservative and sophisticated look. White European : Marriage, angels, hospitals, doctors, peace, milk Japan : Mourning, white carnation means death China : Death, mourning India : Unhappiness Eastern : Funerals Feng Shui : Yang, Metal, death, mourning, ancestal spirits, ghosts, poise, confidence White : spirituality, goddess, peace, higher self, purity, virginity, reverence, simplicity, cleanliness, humility, precision, innocence, youth, birth, winter, snow, good, sterility, cold, clinical, sterility, clarity, perfection, innocence, virginity, goodness, light, fairness, safety, positivity, faith, coolness, charity, successful innovations, union, self-sacrifice, holiness, feminine divinity, pristine, chastity, positivity All white rooms can be uncomfortable with a stark atmosphere. White is useful for a background or accent colour as it highlights other colours. White is perceived by the eye as a brilliant colour. White can indicate simplicity with high-tech products and safety and cleanliness with medical products.
  11. 11. Silver Feng Shui : Yin, Metal, trustworthiness, romance . Silver : glamous, distinguishment, high tech, industrial, graceful aging, telepathy, clairvoyance, clairaudience, psychometry, intuition, dreams, astral energies, female power, communication, goddess, ornate riches, sleekness, modernity To create a high-tech look, use silver with other colours. Silver works well combined with gold and white to promote a feeling of control and power. Silver and other reflectors are strong eye attractors and are associated with life-giving water. Grey Feng Shui : Yin, Metal, dead, dull, indefinite Grey : security, reliability, intelligence, staid, modesty, dignity, maturity, solid, conservative, practical, old age, sadness, boring, practicality, professional, sophisticated, durability, quality, quiet, conservativeness, gloominess, sadness Black European : Funerals, death, mourning, rebellion, cool, restfulness China : Colour for young boys Thailand : Bad luck, unhappiness, evil Judaism : Unhappiness, bad luck, evil Australian Aboriginals : colour of the people, ceremonial ochre
  12. 12. Feng Shui : Yin, Water, money, income, career success, emotional protection, power, stability, bruises, evil Black : protection, repelling negativity, binding, shapeshifting, power, sexuality, sophistication, formality, elegance, classy, wealth, power, mystery, fear, evil, anonymity, unhappiness, depth, style, evil, sadness, remorse, anger, underground, modern music, space, high quality, bad luck, formality, reservedness, dignity, elegance, secretiveness, fear of the unknown, night, emptiness, dirtiness, sophistication, strength of character, dramatic, authority, prestige, grief, anger, reliability, strong, classic, strength, anti-establishment, modernism, serious . Black is an excellent technical colour and it assist targetting a sophisticated high-end market or a youth market to add mystery. Over a large area, black can be depressing. Though black backgrounds can enhance perspective and depth, they diminish readibility of text. Useful for web sites for art and photography to help other colours to vibrate.

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