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Operatig System Tutorial Level3


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Operatig System Tutorial Level3

  1. 1. IT-020-3(3) OPERATING SYSTEM CONFIGURATION Prepared By; Prepared By;
  2. 2. What is an Operating System? <ul><li>It has one set of tasks to perform </li></ul><ul><li>controls the operation of a computer </li></ul><ul><li>directs the input and output of data </li></ul><ul><li>keeps track of files </li></ul><ul><li>controls the processing of computer programs </li></ul><ul><li>managing the functioning of the computer hardware </li></ul><ul><li>running the applications programs </li></ul><ul><li>serving as an interface between the computer and the user </li></ul><ul><li>and allocating computer resources to various functions </li></ul>Prepared By;
  3. 3. The computer's master control program Prepared By;
  4. 4. How Operating Systems Work <ul><li>An operating system is the most important software that runs on a computer. </li></ul>Prepared By;
  5. 5. What is software? <ul><li>Software is any set of instructions that performs some task on a computer </li></ul><ul><li>The operating system performs many essential tasks for your computer. </li></ul><ul><li>-controls the memory needed for computer processes. </li></ul><ul><li>-manages disk space. </li></ul><ul><li>-controls peripheral devices. </li></ul><ul><li>-and allows you to communicate with the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Without an operating system, a computer is useless . </li></ul>Prepared By;
  6. 6. An operating system performs the following functions. <ul><li>User Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Job Management </li></ul><ul><li>Task Management </li></ul><ul><li>Data Management </li></ul><ul><li>Device Management </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul>Prepared By;
  7. 7. The Operating System's Job <ul><li>Windows Operating System Loading boot your computer </li></ul>VS Prepared By; OS Loading Mac OS Loading
  8. 8. You know what that means? <ul><li>Booting is the process that occurs when press the power button to turn computer on. </li></ul><ul><li>The operating system loads. </li></ul><ul><li>In the points: </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling the way in which the computer functions </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for managing the computer's hardware and software resources . </li></ul>Prepared By;
  9. 9. Vista Desktop <ul><li>big share of the operating system market </li></ul><ul><li>over 90% of computer users have </li></ul>Prepared By;
  10. 10. Mac OS X Desktop <ul><li>almost 7.5% percent of the operating systems market as of March 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Mac computers are sleek and modern looking </li></ul>Prepared By;
  11. 11. Desktop Version of Linux <ul><li>Linux is an open source </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike Windows and Mac OS </li></ul><ul><li>Linux was started in the 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>originally created by Linus Torvalds </li></ul><ul><li>create various versions of the Linux operating system </li></ul><ul><li>represents under 1% of the market share for home users </li></ul>Prepared By;
  12. 12. Two popular distributions of the software <ul><li>Ubuntu and Red Hat </li></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu is completely free </li></ul><ul><li>specifically for home users </li></ul><ul><li>perfect for laptops, desktops and servers </li></ul><ul><li>Red Hat is a company </li></ul><ul><li>offers technical and training support for businesses </li></ul>Prepared By;
  13. 13. You may work on : <ul><li>A Word document </li></ul><ul><li>print an email </li></ul><ul><li>And Internet browser open for web surfing </li></ul><ul><li>These three programs need attention from the (CPU): </li></ul><ul><li>- To do whatever task that you </li></ul><ul><li>- The user </li></ul><ul><li>- Are telling it to do </li></ul>Prepared By;
  14. 14. <ul><li>need memory and storage </li></ul><ul><li>be able to send messages </li></ul><ul><li>responsible for handling processor and network management . </li></ul>Prepared By;
  15. 15. Types of Operating Systems <ul><li>Three most common Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux Logos Operating systems </li></ul>Prepared By;
  16. 16. Start Menu on Windows <ul><li>User Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Graphical User Interface (GUI) </li></ul><ul><li>allows the user to interact with the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Instead typing a command that tell the computer what to do </li></ul><ul><li>you can use graphical icons and text on the GUI to instruct the computer to perform a task </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems may support optional interfaces </li></ul>Prepared By;
  17. 17. Let's take a look at the graphical user interfaces of three popular operating systems. <ul><li>Microsoft Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft created the operating system, Windows, in the mid-1980s. They have a version of the operating system that is designed for the home user, and a professional version, which is intended for businesses. The versions differ in the depth of networking, security, and multimedia support. </li></ul>Prepared By;
  18. 18. Job Management <ul><li>controls the order and time in which programs are run </li></ul><ul><li>is more sophisticated in the mainframe environment </li></ul><ul><li>where scheduling the daily work has always been routine </li></ul><ul><li>job control language (JCL) was developed decades ago </li></ul>Prepared By;
  19. 19. Task Management <ul><li>Multitasking ability to simultaneously execute multiple programs </li></ul><ul><li>necessary for keeping several applications open at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>multiple programs can be running at the same time </li></ul>Prepared By;
  20. 20. Prepared By;
  21. 21. Data Management <ul><li>keeps track of the data on disk, tape and optical storage devices . </li></ul><ul><li>application program deals with data by file name and a particular </li></ul><ul><li>knows where that data are physically stored (which sectors on disk) </li></ul><ul><li>and interaction between the application and operating system is through the programming interface </li></ul><ul><li>an application needs to read or write data (API) </li></ul>Prepared By;
  22. 22. Device Management <ul><li>controls peripheral devices </li></ul><ul><li>requires drivers for the peripherals attached to the computer </li></ul><ul><li>routine that knows how to deal with each device </li></ul><ul><li>When a new peripheral is added, device's driver is installed into the operating system </li></ul>Prepared By;
  23. 23. Security <ul><li>provide password protection to keep unauthorized users out of the system </li></ul><ul><li>maintain activity logs and accounting </li></ul><ul><li>provide backup and recovery routines </li></ul>Prepared By;
  24. 24. History <ul><li>operating systems were developed in the late 1950s to manage tape storage </li></ul><ul><li>- (programmers mostly wrote their own I/O routines) </li></ul><ul><li>In the mid-1960s, operating systems became essential to manage disks </li></ul><ul><li>- (complex timesharing and multitasking systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Today, all multi-purpose computers from desktop to mainframe use an operating system. Consumer electronics devices increasingly use an OS. </li></ul>Prepared By;
  25. 25. Common Operating Systems <ul><li>The primary operating systems -Windows (Windows 98, XP, Vista) </li></ul><ul><li>-Macintosh OS X </li></ul><ul><li>-Linux </li></ul><ul><li>-Unix </li></ul><ul><li>-i5/OS (IBM iSeries) </li></ul><ul><li>-z/OS (IBM zSeries mainframes) </li></ul><ul><li>DOS is still used for some applications </li></ul><ul><li>(special-purpose operating systems) </li></ul>Prepared By;
  26. 26. What is firmware? <ul><li>combination of software and hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Computer chips that have data or programs recorded on them are firmware </li></ul><ul><li>Firmware is software that is embedded in a piece of hardware </li></ul><ul><li>These chips commonly include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>ROMs (read-only memory) </li></ul><ul><li>PROMs (programmable read-only memory) </li></ul><ul><li>EPROMs (erasable programmable read-only memory) </li></ul><ul><li>- Firmware in PROM or EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>- firmware upgrade to diskette and flash the BIOS </li></ul>Prepared By;
  27. 27. System and Application Software <ul><li>This diagram shows how the major system software interacts with applications in memory. </li></ul><ul><li>System software comprises the programs that support the running of applications (operating system, DBMS, TP monitor and access methods). </li></ul>Prepared By;
  28. 28. Prepared By;
  29. 29. Binary code <ul><li>Code used in digital computers </li></ul><ul><li>off and on / usually symbolized by 0 and 1 </li></ul><ul><li>A binary code signal is a series of electrical pulses that represent numbers, characters, and operations to be performed </li></ul>Prepared By;
  30. 30. Bit <ul><li>BI nary digi T </li></ul><ul><li>A binary digit </li></ul><ul><li>smallest element of computer storage </li></ul><ul><li>single digit in a binary number (0 or 1) </li></ul><ul><li>magnetic domain on disk or tape </li></ul><ul><li>The most common is the byte </li></ul><ul><li>made up of 8 bits and equivalent to one alphanumeric character </li></ul>Prepared By;
  31. 31. <ul><li>( BI nary digi T ) The smallest element of computer storage. </li></ul><ul><li>It is positive or negative magnetic spot on disk and tape and charged cell in memory. </li></ul>Prepared By;
  32. 32. <ul><li>transmitted as a pulse of high or low voltage </li></ul><ul><li>Speed is increased by making the transistors open and close faster </li></ul>Prepared By;
  33. 33. Prepared By;
  34. 34. Prepared By;
  35. 35. Software <ul><li>Instructions that tell a computer what to do. Software is the entire set of programs, procedures, and routines associated with the operation of a computer system, including the operating system . </li></ul><ul><li>The term differentiates these features from hardware , the physical components of a computer system. Two main types of software are system software, which controls a computer's internal functioning, and application software, which directs the computer to execute commands that solve practical problems. </li></ul><ul><li>A third category is network software, which coordinates communication between computers linked in a network. Software is written by programmers in any number of programming languages . </li></ul><ul><li>This information, the source code, must then be translated by means of a compiler into machine language , which the computer can understand and act on. </li></ul>Prepared By;
  36. 36. For more information <ul><li>visit Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Copyright © 1994-2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. </li></ul>Prepared By;
  37. 37. The End Prepared By;