Chile Vs Haiti Quake Comparison


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A comparative table of the Haiti & Chile earthquakes of 2010

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Chile Vs Haiti Quake Comparison

  1. 1. CASE STUDY: Haiti vs. Chile quake comparison CHILE HAITI Date and Magnitude: Date and Magnitude: 3:34 a.m., Sat. Feb. 27th. Tues. Jan. 12th. 8.8, epicentre 35km deep. 7.0 (with 52 aftershocks, all greater than magnitude 4), epicentre 13km deep. Location: (Fig.2) Location: (Fig.1) Chile is an HIDC with the lowest birth rate in South Epicentre near the town of Léogâne, America and a GDP per capita of almost $15,000. approximately 25 km west of Port-au- World’s largest copper producer. Majority of industry Prince, Haiti's capital. based in north of country. Haiti is a poor LEDC with little Booming wine, fruit and forestry industries. Economic infrastructure. growth of around 5% per annum before quake. 90% of pop. lives in urban areas. Geology: Geology: Chile lies on Pacific Rim’s ‘ring of fire’ – NAZCA PLATE is On the ENRIQUILLO-PLANTAIN GARDEN subducting beneath the SOUTH AMERICAN PLATE at fault zone (EDPZ) is a system of coaxial 80mm per year. Gives rise to the Andes Mountains. Plate left lateral-moving strike slip faults boundary marked by a trench 100km offshore. which runs along the southern side of Epicentre deep + far from population centres. the island of Hispaniola, where the Dominican Republic and Haiti are located. The quake occurred in the vicinity of the northern boundary where the CARIBBEAN PLATE shifts eastwards by about 20mm per year in relation to the NORTH AMERICAN plate. The strike-slip fault system in the region has two branches in Haiti, the Septentrional- Orient fault in the north and the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault in the south; both its location and focal mechanism suggest that the January 2010 quake was caused by a rupture of the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault, which had been locked for 250 years, gathering stress. Preparedness: Preparedness: Quake-prone region, so preparedness high. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center Quake awareness among public. issued a tsunami warning immediately Building codes require shake-resistant construction and after the initial quake, but quickly rapid emergency response systems. cancelled it Country withstood the global economic recession very well due to policy of saving profits from soaring copper prices. $16bn still available, which new president Sebastián Piñera can use to rebuild roads, bridges, ports and the 1.5m homes affected.
  2. 2. Effects: Effects: 350 deaths in coastal town of Constitución. Confirmed Death toll: 230,000. 400 killed elsewhere. Injuries: 300,000. 500,000 houses made uninhabitable. All hospitals in the capital were Estimated $15-30bn of damage – up to 15% of Chile’s GDP. destroyed as well as all air, sea and land Looting in Concepción, Chile’s second biggest city and the transport facilities. Three ‘Medecins one closest to the epicentre. Sans Frontiers’ medical facilities were 25 boats washed into Talcahuano by powerful waves damaged, with one completely caused by the quake. destroyed. Petionville hospital also Bridges + roads destroyed. Telecommunications + destroyed as well as St. Michel District electricity down. Hospital in Jacmel (largest referral Most of Chile’s copper mines, its biggest industry, were hospital in South-East Haiti). unaffected – mines located in north. However, two mines Control tower at Toussaint L’Ouverture which together account for 1/5th of Chile’s copper exports International Airport damaged. were temporarily closed  spike in global copper prices. Debris blocked roads including main Challenges for presidential successor Sebastián Piñera, road between Port-au-Prince and who will replace Michelle Bachelet on March 11th. Jacamel. In the long run, it could be positive for the country’s Communications infrastructure development because the rebuilding effort “will require destroyed – public telephones not large investment and demand for capital goods and that available + country’s two main mobile has a dynamising effect”. operators Digicel and Comcel Haiti, reported loss of services. Most radio stations also went off-air. 250,000 residences and 30,000 commercial buildings severely damaged and need to be demolished. Léogâne – 90% of town buildings destroyed. Palace of Justice, National Assembly, The Supreme Court and Port-au-Prince Cathedral either damaged or destroyed. Education system “totally collapsed” (Minister for education). Three main universities effected, as well as nursing school in the capital and country’s primary midwifery school. World Bank and UN offices destroyed. Citibank building destroyed. Short-term responses: Short-term responses: Govt. vows to deliver aid quickly to worst-hit areas + President Préval and government reassign budget funds to help rebuild. $16bn from windfall ministers used police headquarters near profits of copper, the main export, could quickly unlock the Toussaint L'Ouverture International budget funds. Airport as their new base of operations, Firefighters comb rubble for survivors. although their effectiveness was Army sending 10,000 troops. Curfew imposed to prevent extremely limited; several looting. Fuel supplies rationed. parliamentarians were still trapped in Communications in Santiago, the capital, were largely the Presidential Palace, and offices and restored within 4 days. records had been destroyed. President Bachelet’s govt. has been sluggish in its Appeals for humanitarian aid made. response – quake on Saturday but state of emergency not Dominican Republic, first country to declared until Sunday afternoon. give aid to Haiti. Dominican Republic
  3. 3. hospitals made available. Dominican Institute of Telecommunications (Indotel) helped with the restoration of some telephone services. The Dominican Red Cross coordinated early medical relief in conjunction with the International Red Cross. International agencies also gave aid, and provided medical support e.g. ICE-SAR (Iceland). The International Charter on Space and Major Disasters was activated, allowing satellite imagery of affected regions to be shared with rescue and aid organisations. The American Red Cross set a record for mobile donations, raising US$7 million in 24 hours when they allowed people to send US$10 donations by text messages Haitians were granted Temporary Protected Status in the U.S. Several orphanages were destroyed in the earthquake. After the process for the adoption of 400 children by families in the U.S. and the Netherlands was expedited. The U.S. military took charge of the national airport and certain private aid agencies had issues landing and hence, providing supplies. Acknowledged the non-governmental organisations' complaints concerning flight-operations bias and promised improvement while noting that up to 17th January, 600 emergency flights had landed and 50 were diverted; by the first weekend of disaster operations diversions had been reduced to three on Saturday and two on Sunday. Traffic congestion and blocked roads hampered relief efforts. Over the first weekend 130,000 food packets and 70,000 water containers were distributed to Haitians, as safe landing areas and distribution centres such as golf courses were secured.
  4. 4. Fig.1: Haiti map
  5. 5. Fig.2: Chile map