E TORU NGĀ REO:AN ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE PROGRAMME IN A KURA KAUPAPA MĀORI NZALT INTERNATIONAL BIENNIAL CONFERENCE 2012 William Flavell BTchg, BA, PGDip(Ed), MEd(hons) Massey University
Whakapapa Ko Ngā Puhi, Ko Ngāti Maniapoto ngā iwi. Ko Ngā uri o Pohe, Ko Ngāti Pare ngā hapū. Ko Manaia, Ko Rangitoto ngā maunga. Ko Whangārei Terenga Paraoa, Ko Waipā ngā awa. Ko Pohe, Ko Rereahu ngā rangatira. Ko Wiremu Flavell toku ingoa.
Education goals for Māori IntroductionBold Vision for Māori
Te Marautanga o Aotearoa “Through our understanding of whanaungatanga, acquisition of languages entitles us to explore our own whakapapa, matauranga, whānau and individual identity while engaging in the rituals, histories, customs and cultural knowledge of others” (Ministry of Education, 2007).
Kura Kaupapa Maori Education Ruatoki bilingual school. Hoani Waititi Marae. Revitalisation of Maori language. Kōhanga Reo Kura Kaupapa Maori Te Aho Matua – Maori values philosophy
Literature Review Bilingual Education. Multilingual Education. Intercultural Education. South America setting Ecuador Case Study Additional language research in New Zealand.
South America Case StudyPast incidents of Elite Bilingual conflicts bilingualism and Spanish/Kichwa between Minoritised schools peoples bilingualism International Multilingual language education in curriculum Quito, Ecuador planning
Research Questions How has an additional language programme been developed and incorporated in a Kura Kaupapa Māori? What are the attitudes of the community of the Kura Kaupapa Māori towards the teaching and learning of an additional international language programme? What are the perceived benefits of learning an additional international language? What relationship exists between additional international language and Kaupapa Māori?
Methodology TinoCase Study Rangatiratanga Taonga Tuku Iho Approach Ethical issues Kia piki ake i ngāProcess of finding Ako Māori raruraru o te kāinga participants Semi-structured interviews Whānau Kaupapa Kaupapa Māori principles Whakawhanaungatang a
Methodology – IBRLA MODEL Initiation Accountability Benefits Legitimation Representation
Setting Kura Kaupapa Māori Years 1 – 13 Decile 4 197 Students 18 teachers (general and specialist staff)
The development of a Spanish language programme Initiated by the curiosity of a parent. Discussed at whānau hui. Developed by the School Principal. Sought funding from various trusts. Teachers sent to intensive Spanish language course. Metalinguistic skills.
The current Spanish language programme in the school Compulsory subject Junior school – two classes per week From year 4 – three classes per week From year 9 – four classes per week (immersion) Four Spanish language teachers/assistants Year 10 Mathematics class in Spanish
International School Excursion Integral feature of the Spanish language programme. Senior school 3 month exchange A week preparation in America Billeted with local families Intensive Spanish language course in Oaxaca $8000 needed per student to attend.
Spanish language resourcing Principal has translated language textbooks. Interface between te reo Māori and Spanish. NCEA Specifications. Opportunities for technological based learning.
Spanish language programme leadership ‘You need a passionate captain to drive it because such a programme would be difficult to implement in a KKM because there is nothing else really to model it from’ Leadership has been well-received by students, teachers and the community
AttitudesTeachers• “There are two languages of this land, and it will be exceptional that they leave with a further language”• “A progressive step forward which encourages students to think outside of the square”.Parents• “Since the arrival of Pākehā to this country, New Zealand has had a monolinguistic view of the world.• “Our world is so global these days, having another language is adding another feather to your bow”Students• “Learning Spanish has given me the opportunity to go to Chile, it‟s another language for me to learn and grow from”• “Once you learn Spanish, it‟s easier of being in a full-immersion”
Perceived BenefitsTeachers• Opportunities in tourism, trade and business opportunities.• “Help challenge the assumptions that they have about themselves”• “Children who are bilingual should be open to a third and a fourth language”.Parents• “Learning an additional language will allow the student to see further than just New Zealand”.• “Learning Spanish helps build confidence, creates a more global person…and that Spanish is a widely spoken and practical language”.Students• Learning Spanish helped develop a better world view.• “It helped with learning other subjects like History so it helps broaden your view”
Relationship between additional international language learning and Kaupapa Maori Cultural Linguistic• Hakari (feast) • Pronunciation is similar• Similar cultural traits to Maori. (loving and caring people).• Colonisation experiences.• El dia de muerto („celebration of the dead‟)
Discussion Themes Whānau Positive LeadershipInvolvement Attitudes Native language Resources Globalisation teachers International school excursions
Discussion 1Whānau Involvement• “Develop effective strategic plans, schools need to consult with their communities. Schools that involve parents and students in developing their strategic plan benefit from a sense of shared ownership and a community- wide commitment to language learning” (Ministry of Education, 2002).Leadership• Principals were able to recognise new opportunities that inspire, encourage and motivate others with a future vision for their school (Valentine & Prater, 2011).• “Providing a model, identifying a vision and fostering group goals” (Valentine & Prater, 2011).Native Language Teachers• Native language teachers able to obtain better communication outcomes for students and that students preferred native language teachers in the higher grades (Madrid & Perez-Canado, 2004).• English language skills not overly important for immersion atmosphere.
Discussion 2International Excursions• “More confident in their language skills and motivated to deepen their knowledge of other languages and cultures through language study and travel abroad” (Ingram, 2005).• “Many educators share the view that language competence and cultural understanding are acquired most effectively while living in the target language country”. (Badstubner & Ecke, 2009)Resources• In order for successful language learning to occur, students need access to a range of appropriate language resources.Positive Attitudes• Negative attitudes reduced the motivation of language learners, while positive attitudes increased the enthusiasm of language learning (Merisuo- Storm, 2008).• There is a relationship between positive attitudes towards learning and achievement (Sevim & Seda, 2006).
Recommendations A strongly supportive community needed to implement an additional international language programme. Planning of a comprehensive language curriculum. International excursions – valuable but expensive. Staffing and quality of teachers. Acquire quality teaching resources. Students must start learning from Year One.
Conclusion 1 A Kura Kaupapa Māori that taught a successful language programme was approached. The Principal, five teachers, five students and three parents were approached. The attitudes of the participants were overwhelmingly positive Participants identified many benefits. Success of programme can be understood in terms of various factors
Conclusion 2 Whānau support, leadership, quality teachers, international excursions and positive attitudes. More importantly adheres to the six principles of Kaupapa Maori. Spanish is not a threat to the Māori language.
He taonga nga reo katoa•ぼくのしょうらいのゆめはニュージーランドでさいしょのマオリ人のしゅしょうになることです。•ニュージーランドのわかい人達のもはんになりたいし、たばこをすったり、おさけを飲むことは体にわるいことを教えたいと思います。•お金持ちになって、母に海のそばのマンションを買ってあげたいです。今のところ、ゴールはマオリ語と日本語がぺらぺらになって、ワイカト大学をそつぎょうすることです
Acknowledgements University of Waikato Dr. Nicola Daly Haupai Puke Participants of the research Hillcrest High School Whangārei Boys’ High Friends/Whānau