AP History Exam Study Guide<br />By Will Erickson<br />
Chapter 1!<br />
Aztecs<br />Great mathematicians, made numerous human sacrifices, and built elaborate cities for lack of simple technology...
Corn/ Maize<br />Critical to early life<br />Turned nomads into settlers <br />
Christopher Columbus<br />Persuaded Spain to give him 3 tiny ships, where he ventured west and ran into Bahamas (was looki...
Columbian Exchange<br />Plants to Old World: Tobacco, maize, beans, tomatoes, and potatoes<br />Animals to New World: Cows...
Treaty of Tordesillas<br />Divided Americas into 2 for Portugal and Spain<br />
Hernan Cortes<br />Entered Tenochititlan amazed by its beauty , later captured it and introduced his culture<br />
Chapter 2!<br />
Sir Walter Raleigh<br />Created colony in North Carolina<br />
Roanoke Island<br />England’s FIRST colony, later vanished<br />
3 Things Needed To Colonize<br />1: Popular Monarch<br />2: Religious Unity<br />3: Nationalism<br />
Primogeniture<br />Only eldest sons could inherit land<br />
Joint-Stock  Company<br />Allowed younger siblings chance for land<br />
Surplus Population<br />England was very overcrowded<br />
Virginia Company of London<br />Colonized in North America for gold<br />
Jamestown<br />Virginia Company of England’s colony<br />Nasty conditions<br />
Three D’s<br />1: Disease 2: Disorganization 3: Disposability<br />
Tobacco/ John Rolfe<br />John Rolfe: Saved economy and tobacco industry<br />
House of Burgesses<br />First government in colony<br />
Act Of Toleration<br />Protected Catholics from Protestants<br />
Barbados Slave Code<br />Reduced risk of slave rebellion <br />
Georgia<br />Savannah helped Georgia become 13th colony<br />
Chapter 3!<br />
John Calvin<br />Leader who expanded on Martin Luther’s thoughts<br />
Visible Saints<br />Most devout Christians would only <br />	admit Visible Saints <br />
Mayflower Compact<br />Agreement signed to hold government<br />Colonies settled in Plymouth Bay without authority<br />
Great Migration<br />70,000 refugees left England (1630’s)<br />
Roger Williams<br />Questioned legality of colony’s charter<br />Williams was forced to leave colony <br />Built 1st Bapti...
Fundamental Orders<br />Constitution for Connecticut river colony<br />
New Haven<br />New settlement<br />Goal: Grand Seaport<br />
New England Confederation<br />4 colonies founded to defend enemies<br />
English Navigation Laws<br />Goal: Make trade more efficient<br />Smuggling= Result<br />
Dominion of New England<br />Included NY, East + West NJ<br />Blow to Massachusetts   <br />
Salutary Neglect<br />Navigation laws- weakly enforced<br />
Pennsylvania/ Penn<br />Quakers arise in mid 1600’s<br />William Penn- earns large amount of land (Pennsylvania)<br />
Chapter 4!<br />
Women/ Chesapeake<br />Settlers faced many diseases<br />Life Expectancy down<br />Immigrants mainly men (6:1 Ratio)<br />
Indentured Servants<br />Tobacco labor up<br />White slaves worked for certain amount of money and time<br />
Headright System<br />Whoever paid the passage of a servant acquired 50 acres of land<br />
Bacon’s Rebellion<br />Nathaniel Bacon fed up with Gov. Berkley<br />Bacon + other men attacked Indians and Berkley<br />B...
Middle Passage<br />The voyage to Americas from Africa<br />
Southern Social Structure<br />Social Structure Ladder…<br />Rich Planters (owned slaves + land)<br />Small farmers (1-2 s...
Salem<br />20 people killed after being accused of being a witch<br />
Yankee Ingenuity<br />Proud national trait of New England<br />
Chapter 5!<br />
Ethnic Makeup<br />America: Melting Pot<br />Germans: 6%<br />Scots/Irish: 7%<br />Other Euro Countries: .5%<br />Africa: ...
Social Structure vs. Great Britain<br />America= Opportunity<br />Started to look more like Europe<br />Black slaves- No R...
Workaday America<br />90% of people- Agriculture<br />Fishing, commerce, manufacturing, lumbering, and naval stores<br />
Triangular Trade<br />Trade routes with West Indies, North America, England, and Africa<br />
Molasses Act<br />1733- Reduced trade between America and West Indies<br />
Benjamin Franklin<br />Walked 9 days giving word of Declaration of Independence<br />
Taverns<br />Social place for all statuses<br />
Religion & Location<br />Church of England: Official religion of 6 colonies<br />
Great Awakening<br />Religion- Down<br />Jonathan Edwards: Stated the need for complete dependence on God’s grace<br />Thr...
Schools & Religion<br />New England most interested in education<br />Mostly male leaders were educated<br />Emphasis: Rel...
John Peter Zenger<br />Reported on government being corrupt, almost jailed<br />Achievement for reporter’s freedom<br />
3 Types Of Colonies<br />Appointed by King<br />Appointed by themselves<br />Themselves under self-governing charters<br />
Chapter 6!<br />
New France<br />Quebec founded in Canada<br />French gain complete control over New France<br />Valuable resource = beaver...
Result of wars in N.A.<br />England destroyed France and Spain, rewarded land<br />Spanish commander cuts off ENG captain’...
Ohio Valley<br />England: ventured westward<br />France: Link Canada + Mississippi Valley<br />
Congress of Albany<br />Only 7 of 13 delegates (colonies) show up<br />Goal: Greater colonial unity, bolter defense agains...
Seven Years’ War<br />Fought around world<br />Frederick the Great- Defeated French, Austrian, + Russian armies<br />Franc...
Proclamation of 1763<br />Prohibited settlement beyond Appalachians Mountains<br />
Chapter 7!<br />
Mercantilism<br />Wealth- Power<br />Gold- More exported then imported<br />
Navigation Laws<br />Aimed at Dutch, trying to trade in America<br />
Sugar Act<br />Increased duty on sugar imported from West Indies<br />
Quartering Act<br />Required America to supply food and housing to troops<br />
Stamp Act<br />Tax on most paper items<br />
Stamp Act Congress<br />27 delegates (9 colonies) going to repeal Stamp Act<br />
Declaratory Act<br />Reaffirmed England had right to bind colonies in all cases<br />
Townshend Act<br />Small import tax, colonists still enraged<br />
Boston Massacre<br />Colonists fired upon by ENG soldiers<br />
First Continental Congress<br />12 colonies met to discuss colonial grievances<br />
Lexington & Concord<br />England troops kill 8 Americans at Lexington, but cut off in/at Concord<br />ENG + U.S.A official...
Positives/ Negatives of ENG<br />POSITIVES<br />Population: 3-1 over U.S.<br />NEGATIVES<br />Cockiness<br />2nd rate gene...
Positives/Negatives of U.S.<br />POSITIVES<br />G. Washington + Ben. Frank.- Great leaders<br />Fighting for freedom<br />...
Chapter 8!<br />
Olive Branch Petition<br />1775- Avoided war with England<br />Reaffirmed America’s faith to England<br />
Common Sense<br />Thomas Paine<br />Argued for American freedom from England<br />Written so that common people could unde...
Declaration Of Independence<br />Declared that 13 British colonies were now independent<br />Primarily written by Thomas J...
Saratoga<br />Americans won<br />Turning point for U.S.<br />
Yorktown<br />American + French forces force English surrender<br />
Treaty Of Paris<br />Ended Revolutionary War<br />America gained freedom<br />
Chapter 9!<br />
VA Statute For Religious Freedom<br />Separated church and state<br />Written by Thomas Jefferson<br />
Republican Motherhood<br />The crucial role of women in a free America<br />
State Constitutions<br />Created to govern states, writers worked tirelessly<br />
Lack of Trading<br />England: Made own goods<br />America couldn’t trade with England or French West Indies<br />
Articles of Confederation<br />Written constitution for U.S.<br />States get land<br />Each state=  1 vote<br />
Northwest Ordinance<br />Territorial stages, 60,000 people = state<br />Path to Statehood<br />
Articles of Confederation<br />+: Form of government, outlined constitution<br />-: No power to regulate commerce, tax col...
Land Ordinance<br />NW land bought- National Debt<br />
Ugly Duckling<br />U.S. + ENG: Tension<br />ENG: Kept trading posts in U.S.<br />Spain: Claimed north of Gulf of Mexico + ...
Shay’s Rebellion<br />Farmers demanded lighter taxes<br />Daniel Shay raised small army<br />Rebellion crushed<br />
Mobocracy<br />Fear of mass public disorder<br />
Constitutional Convention<br />Held in Philadelphia<br />Saved by Alexander Hamilton<br />Held in secrecy<br />Each state=...
C.C. Delegate Make-Up<br />Most delegates- lawyers<br />55 Delegates<br />All rich, young, but experienced<br />Goals: Pre...
Small/Large State Plan<br />“Large State” Plan: Both houses should be based on population<br />“Small State” Plan: Equal r...
Great Compromise<br />Equal representation<br />2 senators/ state<br />
Electoral College<br />Elects the president<br />
3/5th Compromise<br />Slavery citizenship debated<br />3/5th of a vote per slave<br />
“We The People”<br />First words of constitution<br />
Anti vs. Federalists<br />Anti-Federalists: Opposed stronger fed. gov’t<br />Federalists: Influence of- rich-<br />
Federalist Papers<br />In favor of Constitution<br />Supported federalists <br />
Ratification Process<br />Bitter, riots erupted in NY + Penn<br />4 final states join<br />
Chapter 10!<br />
Population/ 25 Years<br />Doubled<br />Cities emerge + grew<br />
The Cabinet<br />Not in Constitution<br />Evolved by George Washington<br />Members: Thomas Jefferson (secr. of state), Al...
Rural/ Urban Population<br />Rural: 90%<br />
Judiciary Act of 1789<br />Organized Supreme Court<br />Chief Justice- John Jay + 5 Associates<br />
Bill Of Rights<br />Protection for freedom of religion, speech, press, bear arms, trial by jury, and prevent cruel punishm...
Hamilton/ “funding at par”<br />Federal government paid off debt at face value + interest<br />
Customs Duties/ Excise Tax<br />How to get/collect money? – Taxes <br />1791- Excise Tax: domestic items (whiskey)<br />
Bank of the U.S.<br />Government- major stockholder + print $<br />Useful, but constitutional?<br />
Strict vs. Loose Constructionism<br />Strict Constructionist: Interpret constitution literally (Thomas Jefferson)<br />Loo...
Whiskey Rebellion<br />SW Pennsylvania<br />Tarred + Feathered revenue officers<br />Collections came to a halt<br />13,00...
Reign of Terror<br />French king killed, church attacked<br />Daily hangings<br />French Revolution<br />
Neutrality Proclamation<br />U.S. neutral to war in France<br />Self- Interest<br />
Fallen Timbers<br />Native Americans defeated, give up land<br />
Treaty of Greenville<br />U.S. gives $20,000 and hunting rights<br />
Jay’s Treaty<br />England: Left posts, paid ship damage<br />America: Paid off Pre-Revolution debts (merchants)<br />
Pickney’s Treaty<br />U.S. + Spain<br />America gained Florida and Mississippi<br />
XYZ Affair<br />Secret French officials demand $32 million<br /> $250,000 just to speak with French foreign minister<br />
Convention of 1800<br />Peace between France + U.S.<br />Back to normal (ships, $, etc.)<br />
Alien & Sedition Act<br />Alien Laws- President could deport illegal immigrants, never enforced<br />Sedition Act- Reduced...
Nullification<br />Right to refuse laws<br />No other states agree, 1803 adopted by Supreme Court<br />
Federalist vs. Dem-Repubs<br />
Chapter 11!<br />
Election of 1800<br />James Adams vs. Thomas Jefferson<br />
Naturalization Law- 1802<br />Reduced citizenship to 5 years in country<br />Replaced Alien Laws<br />
Excise Tax Repeal<br />$1 Million in revenue<br />
Candidate T.J. vs. President T.J.<br />Contradicts himself<br />2 of him: 1) Scholarly private citizen 2) Harassed public ...
Judiciary Act Of 1801<br />Created 16 new judges + offices<br />*Judicial Review*<br />
John Marshall<br />Chief Justice<br />Shaped U.S. legal traditions<br />
Marbury vs. Madison<br />Madison sued for delivery of commission<br />“Judicial Review”<br />
Barbary States<br />Pirates raided U.S. ships<br />Tripoli declared war on U.S. (1801)<br />U.S. quickly won<br />
Louisiana Purchase<br />$15 Million for land<br />Napoleon needed money + couldn’t maintain land<br />
Lewis And Clark<br />Sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore acquired land<br />
Orders In Council<br />Closed Euro ports in French control<br />
Embargo Act<br />Forbid export of goods<br />U.S. or foreign<br />
Non-Intercourse Act<br />Reopened trade with all nations except for Great Britain and France<br />
Macon’s Bill No. 2<br />Reopened trade w/ world, if ENG + France repealed commerce restraints<br />
Battle Of Tippecanoe<br />William Harrison + army become heroes<br />Tecumseh- alliance with ENG<br />
Chapter 12!<br />
Battle of the Thames<br />General Harrison defeats England <br />U.S. defends own soil<br />
Plattsburgh<br />10,000 ENG prepared to invade NY<br />U.S. managed to win on floating slaughterhouses (waterway)<br />
Francis Scott Key/ Fort McHenry<br />Francis Scott Key- Detained on ENG ship, wrote Star Spangled Banner<br />Fort McHenry...
New Orleans<br />U.S. wanted the city<br />ENG- overconfident<br />U.S. + Andrew Jackson won<br />
Treaty Of Ghent<br />ENG + U.S.- cease fighting, no grievances<br />
Hartford Convention<br />NE states meet on grievances <br />Tension high, succession neared<br />
Rush-Bagot Agreement<br />ENG/U.S.- Limited navies on lakes<br />
Nationalism<br />Pride in one’s country<br />
American System<br />Network of roads and canals<br />Brought country together economically, socially, and politically<br />
Erie Canal<br />Completed in 1825 in New York<br />
Era Of Good Feelings<br />Happy phase under Pres. James Monroe<br />
Panic of 1819<br />Deflation, depression, bankruptcies, unemployment, bank failures, soup kitchens, + debtors prison<br />
“Wildcat” Banks<br />Pushed to the wall + foreclosed farms<br />
Ohio Fever<br />Cheap land out west<br />Appealed to Euro immigrants<br />
Cumberland Road<br />Ran from Maryland to Illinois<br />
Land Act Of 1820<br />Buyer could buy 80 acres of land for $1.25 an acre<br />
Tallmadge Amendment<br />No more slaves could be brought into Missouri slaveholders<br />
Missouri Compromise<br />Missouri- slave state<br />Maine- free state<br />36’30”- Missouri Compromise line<br />
McColluch vs. Maryland<br />Maryland tried to destroy Bank of the U.S. by taxing its notes<br />John Marshall defends bank...
Cohens vs. Virginia<br />Cohens accused of illegally selling lottery tickets<br />
Gibbons vs. Ogden<br />NY tried to grant monopoly of waterborne commerce between NY + NJ<br />
Fletcher vs. Peck<br />Georgia granted 35 million acres to private speculators<br />
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward<br />Questioned charter of college by King George III<br />
Treaty Of 1818<br />America shared Newfoundland with England for fishing<br />10 year joint of Oregon country<br />
Florida Purchase Treaty<br />Spain gives Florida to U.S. for claims of Texas<br />
Monroe Doctrine<br />Stern warning to European powers<br />No colonization<br />Nonintervention<br />
Russo-American Treaty of 1824<br />Restricted Russia’s advancement (Alaska)<br />
Chapter 13!<br />
Corrupt Bargain<br />Full of presidential candidates, all leaders<br />No candidate won the majority<br />
John Quincy Adams As President<br />Sarcastic, tactless, brilliant in foreign affairs<br />Best secretary of state, worst ...
Spoils System<br />Rewarding political supporters with political positions<br />
Jacksonian Democracy<br />Every man is as good as his neighbor<br />Each generation deserved its turn<br />
Tariff Of 1828<br />Southern states protest<br />Very high tariff<br />
Denmark Vesey<br />Aborted slave rebellion in Charleston<br />
Nullies<br />Tried to get 2/3rd vote for nullification in South Carolina legislation<br />
Tariff Of 1832 + 1833<br />1832- Passed by Congress, fell short of South demands<br />1833- Favored by South<br />
Force Bill<br />Authorized president to use army and navy to collect taxes<br />
Trail Of Tears<br />Indian journey to Oklahoma and West<br />Many died<br />
Removal Act<br />Removed all Native Americans east of Mississippi river<br />
Seminole Indians<br />Retreated to Everglades (Florida swamps)<br />Fought for 7 years until leader was captured + surrend...
Bank War<br />Clay + Webster showed Congress bill to renew Bank Of U.S. charter<br />
Nicholas Biddle/ Biddle’s Panic<br />Biddle- desperate<br />Tried to create crisis by calling in Bank’s loans<br />
Pet Banks/ Wildcat Banks<br />Surplus funds placed in numerous state institutions<br />Pet Banks- Where the $ was placed<b...
Specie Circular<br />Required all public land to be purchased with metallic (“hard”) money<br />
Panic of 1837<br />Inflation high after 2nd Bank of U.S.<br />Specie Circular<br />
Divorce Bill<br />Divorced government from banking altogether<br />
Austin/ Crockett/ Bowie/ Houston<br />Pioneers who led Texas independence for U.S.<br />
Alamo<br />Pivotal battle in the Texas Revolution<br />Mexico defeated<br />
Election Of 1840<br />Martin Van Buren vs. William Henry Harrison<br />Dems-Repubs/ Whigs<br />Harrison won<br />
Whigs<br />Favored renewed bank, protective tariffs, and public school<br />
Chapter 14!<br />
Life On The Frontier<br />Grim, poorly fed, bad housing, and seclusion<br />Dependent on neighbors<br />
Fur Trappers/ Rendezvous<br />Fur traders began to feel pressured<br />Rendezvous- Huge meeting with traders around mounta...
Problems In The Cities<br />Smelly slums, bad street lighting, bad water, rats, and sewage<br />
Irish + German Immigrants<br />1.5 Million of each group<br />Europe: No room<br />
Nativists/ Know-Nothings<br />Nativists- Rallied for political action, later created the “Know-Nothing” party<br />
Industrial Revolution<br />British inventors created series of machines for mass production<br />
Samuel Slater<br />Memorized textile machinery, snuck to U.S. and created spinning cotton thread<br />
Eli Whitney<br />Built cotton gin<br />Efficiency up<br />
New England As Ind. Center<br />Attractive for manufacturers<br />Dense population<br />
Tariff Of 1816<br />Contest to control shape of economy<br />
Sewing Machine/ Howe/ Singer<br />Invented by Elias Howe, perfected by Issac Singer<br />
Limited Liability/ Free Incorp.<br />Businessmen could create corporations without applying for charter<br />
Samuel F.B. Morse/ Telegraph<br />Communication up<br />
Worker Complaints<br />Hours- Long<br />Wages- Low<br />Meals- Skimpy<br />
Commonwealth         vs. Hunt<br />Ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided their methods were hono...
John Deere<br />Created steel plow that broke stubborn soil<br />
Cyrus McCormick<br />Mechanical reaper<br />
Lancaster Turnpike<br />62 mile highway<br />Philly to Lancaster<br />
Cumberland Road<br />Highway from Maryland to Illinois (591 Miles)<br />
Robert Fulton/ Clermont<br />Steamboat craze set off<br />Could go against current<br />
Erie Canal<br />363 miles<br />Buffalo to NY harbor<br />
Iron Horse<br />Railroads- Cheap, fast, + reliable<br />
Chapter 15!<br />
Deists<br />2nd Great Awakening new religion<br />Believe in a supreme being<br />Reject original sin concept<br />
Unitarian<br />God existed in only 1 person, not in orthodox trinity<br />Stressed human goodness<br />
Second Great Awakening<br />Shattered and reorganized churches<br />Converted people<br />Movements- prison reform, women’...
Methodists/ Baptists<br />Reaped most abundant harvest of souls by revivalism<br />
Peter Cartwright<br />Methodist “circuit speaker” fought oppressors<br />
Charles Finney<br />Best revival preacher<br />Held giant gatherings<br />
Mormons/ Smith/ Young<br />Joseph Smith- 1830<br />Bringham Young led group to Utah<br />
Horace Mann/ Noah Webster<br />Campaigned for more and better schools<br />Higher pay for teachers and expanded curriculum...
William McGuffey<br />Grade school readers (textbooks) sold 122 million copies<br />
U Of Carolina/ U Of Virginia<br />Created with religious freedom<br />No political influence<br />
Dorothea Dix<br />Travelled 60,000 miles to increase conditions of insane people<br />Influence worked, now “mentally ill”...
Temperance Society<br />Wanted drinkers to vote to sign pledge <br />Reformed drunkards emerge<br />
T.S. Arthur/ Ten Nights<br />Anti-alcoholic book described town ruined by bar<br />
Mott/ Stanton/ Anthony<br />Mott- Not recognized at ENG convention<br />Stanton- Left “obey” out of marriage license<br />...
W.R.C. / Seneca Falls<br />Women’s Rights Convention<br />Leaders met to create Dec. of Sentiments<br />
Wilderness Utopias<br />Communities of wilderness cooperation<br />
Life Span<br />Short, 40 years<br />
Puritan View Of Art<br />Sinful waste of time<br />
New National Literature<br />Washington Irving<br />James Cooper<br />William Bryant<br />
Transcendentalism<br />Rejected theory that all knowledge comes to the mind through the senses<br />
Chapter 16!<br />
King Cotton<br />U.S. dependent on cotton (south)<br />
Oligarchy<br />Government influenced by a planter aristocracy<br />
Cotton Economy<br />Monopolistic<br />Small farmers sold land<br />
Southern Social Structure<br />¼ owned slaves<br />Few southerners lived on plantations<br />Landless whites- ¾ of souther...
Slaves vs. Infrastructure<br />Society’s basement<br />Slave brought in despite import rule<br />
American Colonization Society<br />Tried to transport slaves back to Africa<br />15,000 went<br />
Weld/ Garrison/ Douglass<br />Weld- Self educated, spoke to rural farmers<br />William Garrison- 26 year old wrote anti-sl...
Gag Resolution<br />Anti-slavery appeals tabled without debate<br />
Chapter 17!<br />
John Tyler & The Bank Bill<br />Financial reform<br />Establish a new national bank<br />John Tyler- Vetoed bank twice<br />
Tariff Bill Of 1842<br />32% on dutiable goods<br />
Caroline<br />American steamer carrying supplies attacked by Great Britain<br />
Aroostook War<br />War with Great Britain in Aroostook Valley<br />
Annexation Of Texas<br />Passed Congress in 1845<br />28th state<br />9 Years between interest and annexation<br />
Oregon Fever/ Oregon Trail<br />Oregon Fever- Restless pioneers in huge numbers travel in covered wagons along Oregon Trai...
Walker Tariff Of 1846<br />Excellent revenue<br />Heavy imports<br />
Restoration Of Independent Treasury<br />James Polk’s 2nd objective<br />
Attack Across The Rio Grande<br />Mexican troops cross river and attack Gen. Zachary Taylor + troops<br />
Mexico City + Buena Vista<br />Mexico City- U.S. won<br />Buena Vista- Santa Anna and Mexico defeated<br />
Treaty Of Guadalupe Hidalgo<br />U.S. gained Texas + area west (Oregon/ California)<br />
Slavocracy<br />Mexican war caused by slavery<br />“Evil Purposes<br />
Chapter 18!<br />
Free Soil Party<br />Created by Anti-slavery supporters<br />
Sutter’s Mill<br />Gold was discovered in California<br />Sparked gold rush<br />
California Statehood<br />Free state<br />Passed the usual territory status<br />
Sectional Balance<br />Worrisome issue of free vs. slave state balance<br />
Underground Railroad<br />Runaway slaves assisted by Northern citizens<br />
Harriet Tubman<br />Slave from Maryland<br />Rescued 300+ from Underground Railroad<br />
Compromise Of 1850<br />South demanded new fugitive slave law<br />Texas paid $10 Million<br />Bloodhound Bill (runaway la...
Fugitive Slave Law Of 1850<br />South could hunt slaves in North<br />Could take issue to court<br />Judges paid 2X for co...
Death Of The Whigs<br />Winfield Scott- mistake<br />Whigs split over slavery issue<br />
Popular Sovereignty<br />People get to choose state’s status (free/slave)<br />
Clayton- Bulwer Treaty<br />ENG creeping up on sea<br />Conflict avoided with treaty<br />
Slavocrats<br />Looked south for expansion<br />
Ostend Manifesto<br />U.S. secret proposal to buy Cuba for $120 million<br />Cuba declined<br />
Treaty Of Wanghia<br />China/U.S. opened commerce in Pacific<br />
Commander Matthew Perry<br />Entered Edo Bay in 1853, requested free trade and friendly relations<br />Would return later ...
Treaty Of Kanagawa<br />Perry returned, signed treaty<br />Provided fair treatment and free trade<br />
Kansas-Nebraska Act<br />Nebraska Territory split into 2 states<br />
Chapter 19!<br />
Uncle Tom’s Cabin<br />Showed cruel splitting of families through slavery<br />
Harriet Beecher Stowe<br />Author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin<br />
Shawnee Mission<br />Place where slavery supporters set up government<br />
Topeka<br />Capital of free-soil Kansas<br />
Bleeding Kansas<br />Anti/Pro Slavery conflict in Kansas<br />Small fights<br />
John Brown<br />Obsessively dedicated to abolishing slavery<br />Killed men and raided Harper’s Ferry<br />
Pottawatomie Creek<br />5 men killed (supposedly pro-slavery) by John Brown<br />
Lecompton Constitution<br />People could vote pro or anti-slavery<br />Many free-soilers boycotted poll<br />
Senator Sumner<br />Attacked after giving an anti-slavery speech<br />
Representative Brooks<br />Attacked Sumner until his cane broke<br />
Know-Nothing Party<br />Hated immigration<br />Millard Filmore<br />
Dred Scott     	 Case<br />Black slave had lived in Illinois and Wisconsin for 5 years<br />Wanted freedom<br />
Panic Of 1857<br />Gold rush inflated currency<br />Unemployment + Hunger<br />
Tariff Of 1857<br />Reduced duties to 20% on dutiable goods<br />
Lincoln/ Douglas Debates<br />Abraham Lincoln + Stephen Douglas  debate for Illinois senate seat<br />
Freeport Doctrine<br />Douglas argued that slavery would stay down if people voted it down<br />
Harper’s Ferry<br />John Brown captured a weapons warehouse in Virginia<br />Planned to arm slaves<br />Later captured (by...
N & S Dem. Party<br />Democrats split<br />North- Stephen Douglas<br />South- John Breckinridge<br />
Republican Platform<br />Low tariff<br />Immigration<br />Transportation/ RR<br />Appealed to non-southern group<br />
Election Of 1860<br />
C.S.A.<br />Confederate States of America<br />Made up of southern states<br />
Jefferson Davis<br />President of C.S.A.<br />
Crittenden Compromise<br />Slavery prohibited north of 36’30”<br />Lincoln rejected proposal<br />
Chapter 20!<br />
Fort Sumner<br />Union on way to fort<br />South attacks w/ cannons and open fire<br />South seized fort<br />
Border States<br />Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia<br />Could go to U.S.A. or C.S.A.<br />
Butternut Region<br />Southern Ohio, Indiana, + Illinois<br />
General Robert E. Lee<br />Offered to lead north, stayed loyal to his home state (Virginia)<br />Right-hand man- Stonewall...
+/- Of C.S.A.<br />+: Motive to fight, talented officers, fought on homeland, “bred” to fight<br />-: No factories, lack o...
+/- Of U.S.A.<br />+: Controlled sea, 22 million people, immigrant support, traded supplies with Europe<br />-: Trouble wi...
King Cotton Dethroned<br />Productive in pre-year years, surplus in ENG, operatives thrown out of work<br />
Laird Rams<br />2 Confederate warships being constructed in ENG<br />Made of iron<br />ENG bought ships at last minute for...
Lincoln’s Wartime Actions<br />Accused of being “simple Susan”<br />Proclaimed blockade<br />Increased size of fed. Army<b...
Draft vs. Volunteers<br />Rich boys could avoid war<br />90% of Union troops were volunteers<br />
$300 Men<br />Amount needed to avoid draft<br />
New York City Riots<br />Poor mob ran through city wreaking havoc<br />
North’s Financing Of The War<br />Tobacco + alcohol tax<br />Morill Tariff Act<br />Paperback money created<br />Sale of b...
South’s Financing Of The War<br />$400 million in bonds<br />10% tax on farm produce<br />Printed blue-backed $<br />
North’s Economic Boom<br />More factories<br />Protective tariffs<br />Millionaires emerge<br />
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Ap history exam study guide ch 1-20

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Ap history exam study guide ch 1-20

  1. 1. AP History Exam Study Guide<br />By Will Erickson<br />
  2. 2. Chapter 1!<br />
  3. 3. Aztecs<br />Great mathematicians, made numerous human sacrifices, and built elaborate cities for lack of simple technology<br />
  4. 4. Corn/ Maize<br />Critical to early life<br />Turned nomads into settlers <br />
  5. 5. Christopher Columbus<br />Persuaded Spain to give him 3 tiny ships, where he ventured west and ran into Bahamas (was looking for Indies, but found Americas)<br />
  6. 6. Columbian Exchange<br />Plants to Old World: Tobacco, maize, beans, tomatoes, and potatoes<br />Animals to New World: Cows, pigs, and horses<br />Germs to New World: Smallpox, yellow fever, and malaria (90% killed by germs)<br />To Caribbean: Sugar Cane<br />
  7. 7. Treaty of Tordesillas<br />Divided Americas into 2 for Portugal and Spain<br />
  8. 8. Hernan Cortes<br />Entered Tenochititlan amazed by its beauty , later captured it and introduced his culture<br />
  9. 9. Chapter 2!<br />
  10. 10. Sir Walter Raleigh<br />Created colony in North Carolina<br />
  11. 11. Roanoke Island<br />England’s FIRST colony, later vanished<br />
  12. 12. 3 Things Needed To Colonize<br />1: Popular Monarch<br />2: Religious Unity<br />3: Nationalism<br />
  13. 13. Primogeniture<br />Only eldest sons could inherit land<br />
  14. 14. Joint-Stock Company<br />Allowed younger siblings chance for land<br />
  15. 15. Surplus Population<br />England was very overcrowded<br />
  16. 16. Virginia Company of London<br />Colonized in North America for gold<br />
  17. 17. Jamestown<br />Virginia Company of England’s colony<br />Nasty conditions<br />
  18. 18. Three D’s<br />1: Disease 2: Disorganization 3: Disposability<br />
  19. 19. Tobacco/ John Rolfe<br />John Rolfe: Saved economy and tobacco industry<br />
  20. 20. House of Burgesses<br />First government in colony<br />
  21. 21. Act Of Toleration<br />Protected Catholics from Protestants<br />
  22. 22. Barbados Slave Code<br />Reduced risk of slave rebellion <br />
  23. 23. Georgia<br />Savannah helped Georgia become 13th colony<br />
  24. 24. Chapter 3!<br />
  25. 25. John Calvin<br />Leader who expanded on Martin Luther’s thoughts<br />
  26. 26. Visible Saints<br />Most devout Christians would only <br /> admit Visible Saints <br />
  27. 27. Mayflower Compact<br />Agreement signed to hold government<br />Colonies settled in Plymouth Bay without authority<br />
  28. 28. Great Migration<br />70,000 refugees left England (1630’s)<br />
  29. 29. Roger Williams<br />Questioned legality of colony’s charter<br />Williams was forced to leave colony <br />Built 1st Baptist Church (Religious Freedom)<br />Built settlements in Rhode Island<br />
  30. 30. Fundamental Orders<br />Constitution for Connecticut river colony<br />
  31. 31. New Haven<br />New settlement<br />Goal: Grand Seaport<br />
  32. 32. New England Confederation<br />4 colonies founded to defend enemies<br />
  33. 33. English Navigation Laws<br />Goal: Make trade more efficient<br />Smuggling= Result<br />
  34. 34. Dominion of New England<br />Included NY, East + West NJ<br />Blow to Massachusetts <br />
  35. 35. Salutary Neglect<br />Navigation laws- weakly enforced<br />
  36. 36. Pennsylvania/ Penn<br />Quakers arise in mid 1600’s<br />William Penn- earns large amount of land (Pennsylvania)<br />
  37. 37. Chapter 4!<br />
  38. 38. Women/ Chesapeake<br />Settlers faced many diseases<br />Life Expectancy down<br />Immigrants mainly men (6:1 Ratio)<br />
  39. 39. Indentured Servants<br />Tobacco labor up<br />White slaves worked for certain amount of money and time<br />
  40. 40. Headright System<br />Whoever paid the passage of a servant acquired 50 acres of land<br />
  41. 41. Bacon’s Rebellion<br />Nathaniel Bacon fed up with Gov. Berkley<br />Bacon + other men attacked Indians and Berkley<br />Bacon dies (disease) and Berkley returns and murders followers <br />
  42. 42. Middle Passage<br />The voyage to Americas from Africa<br />
  43. 43. Southern Social Structure<br />Social Structure Ladder…<br />Rich Planters (owned slaves + land)<br />Small farmers (1-2 slaves)<br />Landless whites (Indentured Servants)<br />Black Slaves<br />
  44. 44. Salem<br />20 people killed after being accused of being a witch<br />
  45. 45. Yankee Ingenuity<br />Proud national trait of New England<br />
  46. 46. Chapter 5!<br />
  47. 47. Ethnic Makeup<br />America: Melting Pot<br />Germans: 6%<br />Scots/Irish: 7%<br />Other Euro Countries: .5%<br />Africa: 20%<br />Most mixed in world<br />
  48. 48. Social Structure vs. Great Britain<br />America= Opportunity<br />Started to look more like Europe<br />Black slaves- No Rights<br />
  49. 49. Workaday America<br />90% of people- Agriculture<br />Fishing, commerce, manufacturing, lumbering, and naval stores<br />
  50. 50. Triangular Trade<br />Trade routes with West Indies, North America, England, and Africa<br />
  51. 51. Molasses Act<br />1733- Reduced trade between America and West Indies<br />
  52. 52. Benjamin Franklin<br />Walked 9 days giving word of Declaration of Independence<br />
  53. 53. Taverns<br />Social place for all statuses<br />
  54. 54. Religion & Location<br />Church of England: Official religion of 6 colonies<br />
  55. 55. Great Awakening<br />Religion- Down<br />Jonathan Edwards: Stated the need for complete dependence on God’s grace<br />Three lasting effects<br /># Of Churches: Up<br />Encouraged missionary work among Indians and some slaves<br />1st spontaneous mass movement of America<br />
  56. 56. Schools & Religion<br />New England most interested in education<br />Mostly male leaders were educated<br />Emphasis: Religion and Language<br />
  57. 57. John Peter Zenger<br />Reported on government being corrupt, almost jailed<br />Achievement for reporter’s freedom<br />
  58. 58. 3 Types Of Colonies<br />Appointed by King<br />Appointed by themselves<br />Themselves under self-governing charters<br />
  59. 59. Chapter 6!<br />
  60. 60. New France<br />Quebec founded in Canada<br />French gain complete control over New France<br />Valuable resource = beaver<br />French goal- block Spain<br />
  61. 61. Result of wars in N.A.<br />England destroyed France and Spain, rewarded land<br />Spanish commander cuts off ENG captain’s ear, sends it to King<br />
  62. 62. Ohio Valley<br />England: ventured westward<br />France: Link Canada + Mississippi Valley<br />
  63. 63. Congress of Albany<br />Only 7 of 13 delegates (colonies) show up<br />Goal: Greater colonial unity, bolter defense against France<br />
  64. 64. Seven Years’ War<br />Fought around world<br />Frederick the Great- Defeated French, Austrian, + Russian armies<br />France- Wasted strength<br />
  65. 65. Proclamation of 1763<br />Prohibited settlement beyond Appalachians Mountains<br />
  66. 66. Chapter 7!<br />
  67. 67. Mercantilism<br />Wealth- Power<br />Gold- More exported then imported<br />
  68. 68. Navigation Laws<br />Aimed at Dutch, trying to trade in America<br />
  69. 69. Sugar Act<br />Increased duty on sugar imported from West Indies<br />
  70. 70. Quartering Act<br />Required America to supply food and housing to troops<br />
  71. 71. Stamp Act<br />Tax on most paper items<br />
  72. 72. Stamp Act Congress<br />27 delegates (9 colonies) going to repeal Stamp Act<br />
  73. 73. Declaratory Act<br />Reaffirmed England had right to bind colonies in all cases<br />
  74. 74. Townshend Act<br />Small import tax, colonists still enraged<br />
  75. 75. Boston Massacre<br />Colonists fired upon by ENG soldiers<br />
  76. 76. First Continental Congress<br />12 colonies met to discuss colonial grievances<br />
  77. 77. Lexington & Concord<br />England troops kill 8 Americans at Lexington, but cut off in/at Concord<br />ENG + U.S.A officially at war<br />
  78. 78. Positives/ Negatives of ENG<br />POSITIVES<br />Population: 3-1 over U.S.<br />NEGATIVES<br />Cockiness<br />2nd rate generals<br />No desire to kill colonists<br />
  79. 79. Positives/Negatives of U.S.<br />POSITIVES<br />G. Washington + Ben. Frank.- Great leaders<br />Fighting for freedom<br />NEGATIVES<br />Soldiers- Disorganized<br />
  80. 80. Chapter 8!<br />
  81. 81. Olive Branch Petition<br />1775- Avoided war with England<br />Reaffirmed America’s faith to England<br />
  82. 82. Common Sense<br />Thomas Paine<br />Argued for American freedom from England<br />Written so that common people could understand<br />
  83. 83. Declaration Of Independence<br />Declared that 13 British colonies were now independent<br />Primarily written by Thomas Jefferson<br />
  84. 84. Saratoga<br />Americans won<br />Turning point for U.S.<br />
  85. 85. Yorktown<br />American + French forces force English surrender<br />
  86. 86. Treaty Of Paris<br />Ended Revolutionary War<br />America gained freedom<br />
  87. 87. Chapter 9!<br />
  88. 88. VA Statute For Religious Freedom<br />Separated church and state<br />Written by Thomas Jefferson<br />
  89. 89. Republican Motherhood<br />The crucial role of women in a free America<br />
  90. 90. State Constitutions<br />Created to govern states, writers worked tirelessly<br />
  91. 91. Lack of Trading<br />England: Made own goods<br />America couldn’t trade with England or French West Indies<br />
  92. 92. Articles of Confederation<br />Written constitution for U.S.<br />States get land<br />Each state= 1 vote<br />
  93. 93. Northwest Ordinance<br />Territorial stages, 60,000 people = state<br />Path to Statehood<br />
  94. 94. Articles of Confederation<br />+: Form of government, outlined constitution<br />-: No power to regulate commerce, tax collection program<br />
  95. 95. Land Ordinance<br />NW land bought- National Debt<br />
  96. 96. Ugly Duckling<br />U.S. + ENG: Tension<br />ENG: Kept trading posts in U.S.<br />Spain: Claimed north of Gulf of Mexico + Florida<br />French- Wanted debts payed off<br />
  97. 97. Shay’s Rebellion<br />Farmers demanded lighter taxes<br />Daniel Shay raised small army<br />Rebellion crushed<br />
  98. 98. Mobocracy<br />Fear of mass public disorder<br />
  99. 99. Constitutional Convention<br />Held in Philadelphia<br />Saved by Alexander Hamilton<br />Held in secrecy<br />Each state= 1 vote<br />Meant to agree on Constitution<br />
  100. 100. C.C. Delegate Make-Up<br />Most delegates- lawyers<br />55 Delegates<br />All rich, young, but experienced<br />Goals: Preserve union, ensure security of life<br />
  101. 101. Small/Large State Plan<br />“Large State” Plan: Both houses should be based on population<br />“Small State” Plan: Equal representation in population + size<br />
  102. 102. Great Compromise<br />Equal representation<br />2 senators/ state<br />
  103. 103. Electoral College<br />Elects the president<br />
  104. 104. 3/5th Compromise<br />Slavery citizenship debated<br />3/5th of a vote per slave<br />
  105. 105. “We The People”<br />First words of constitution<br />
  106. 106. Anti vs. Federalists<br />Anti-Federalists: Opposed stronger fed. gov’t<br />Federalists: Influence of- rich-<br />
  107. 107. Federalist Papers<br />In favor of Constitution<br />Supported federalists <br />
  108. 108. Ratification Process<br />Bitter, riots erupted in NY + Penn<br />4 final states join<br />
  109. 109. Chapter 10!<br />
  110. 110. Population/ 25 Years<br />Doubled<br />Cities emerge + grew<br />
  111. 111. The Cabinet<br />Not in Constitution<br />Evolved by George Washington<br />Members: Thomas Jefferson (secr. of state), Alexander Hamilton (treasury), and Henry Knox (War)<br />
  112. 112. Rural/ Urban Population<br />Rural: 90%<br />
  113. 113. Judiciary Act of 1789<br />Organized Supreme Court<br />Chief Justice- John Jay + 5 Associates<br />
  114. 114. Bill Of Rights<br />Protection for freedom of religion, speech, press, bear arms, trial by jury, and prevent cruel punishment<br />
  115. 115. Hamilton/ “funding at par”<br />Federal government paid off debt at face value + interest<br />
  116. 116. Customs Duties/ Excise Tax<br />How to get/collect money? – Taxes <br />1791- Excise Tax: domestic items (whiskey)<br />
  117. 117. Bank of the U.S.<br />Government- major stockholder + print $<br />Useful, but constitutional?<br />
  118. 118. Strict vs. Loose Constructionism<br />Strict Constructionist: Interpret constitution literally (Thomas Jefferson)<br />Loose Constructionist: Loose and broad interpretation of constitution (Alexander Hamilton)<br />
  119. 119. Whiskey Rebellion<br />SW Pennsylvania<br />Tarred + Feathered revenue officers<br />Collections came to a halt<br />13,000 citizens rally to crush rebellion <br />
  120. 120. Reign of Terror<br />French king killed, church attacked<br />Daily hangings<br />French Revolution<br />
  121. 121. Neutrality Proclamation<br />U.S. neutral to war in France<br />Self- Interest<br />
  122. 122. Fallen Timbers<br />Native Americans defeated, give up land<br />
  123. 123. Treaty of Greenville<br />U.S. gives $20,000 and hunting rights<br />
  124. 124. Jay’s Treaty<br />England: Left posts, paid ship damage<br />America: Paid off Pre-Revolution debts (merchants)<br />
  125. 125. Pickney’s Treaty<br />U.S. + Spain<br />America gained Florida and Mississippi<br />
  126. 126. XYZ Affair<br />Secret French officials demand $32 million<br /> $250,000 just to speak with French foreign minister<br />
  127. 127. Convention of 1800<br />Peace between France + U.S.<br />Back to normal (ships, $, etc.)<br />
  128. 128. Alien & Sedition Act<br />Alien Laws- President could deport illegal immigrants, never enforced<br />Sedition Act- Reduced freedom of speech + press, deface law= fine and/or prison<br />
  129. 129. Nullification<br />Right to refuse laws<br />No other states agree, 1803 adopted by Supreme Court<br />
  130. 130. Federalist vs. Dem-Repubs<br />
  131. 131. Chapter 11!<br />
  132. 132. Election of 1800<br />James Adams vs. Thomas Jefferson<br />
  133. 133. Naturalization Law- 1802<br />Reduced citizenship to 5 years in country<br />Replaced Alien Laws<br />
  134. 134. Excise Tax Repeal<br />$1 Million in revenue<br />
  135. 135. Candidate T.J. vs. President T.J.<br />Contradicts himself<br />2 of him: 1) Scholarly private citizen 2) Harassed public officials <br />
  136. 136. Judiciary Act Of 1801<br />Created 16 new judges + offices<br />*Judicial Review*<br />
  137. 137. John Marshall<br />Chief Justice<br />Shaped U.S. legal traditions<br />
  138. 138. Marbury vs. Madison<br />Madison sued for delivery of commission<br />“Judicial Review”<br />
  139. 139. Barbary States<br />Pirates raided U.S. ships<br />Tripoli declared war on U.S. (1801)<br />U.S. quickly won<br />
  140. 140. Louisiana Purchase<br />$15 Million for land<br />Napoleon needed money + couldn’t maintain land<br />
  141. 141. Lewis And Clark<br />Sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore acquired land<br />
  142. 142. Orders In Council<br />Closed Euro ports in French control<br />
  143. 143. Embargo Act<br />Forbid export of goods<br />U.S. or foreign<br />
  144. 144. Non-Intercourse Act<br />Reopened trade with all nations except for Great Britain and France<br />
  145. 145. Macon’s Bill No. 2<br />Reopened trade w/ world, if ENG + France repealed commerce restraints<br />
  146. 146. Battle Of Tippecanoe<br />William Harrison + army become heroes<br />Tecumseh- alliance with ENG<br />
  147. 147. Chapter 12!<br />
  148. 148. Battle of the Thames<br />General Harrison defeats England <br />U.S. defends own soil<br />
  149. 149. Plattsburgh<br />10,000 ENG prepared to invade NY<br />U.S. managed to win on floating slaughterhouses (waterway)<br />
  150. 150. Francis Scott Key/ Fort McHenry<br />Francis Scott Key- Detained on ENG ship, wrote Star Spangled Banner<br />Fort McHenry- Hit by ENG cannons, not captured<br />
  151. 151. New Orleans<br />U.S. wanted the city<br />ENG- overconfident<br />U.S. + Andrew Jackson won<br />
  152. 152. Treaty Of Ghent<br />ENG + U.S.- cease fighting, no grievances<br />
  153. 153. Hartford Convention<br />NE states meet on grievances <br />Tension high, succession neared<br />
  154. 154. Rush-Bagot Agreement<br />ENG/U.S.- Limited navies on lakes<br />
  155. 155. Nationalism<br />Pride in one’s country<br />
  156. 156. American System<br />Network of roads and canals<br />Brought country together economically, socially, and politically<br />
  157. 157. Erie Canal<br />Completed in 1825 in New York<br />
  158. 158. Era Of Good Feelings<br />Happy phase under Pres. James Monroe<br />
  159. 159. Panic of 1819<br />Deflation, depression, bankruptcies, unemployment, bank failures, soup kitchens, + debtors prison<br />
  160. 160. “Wildcat” Banks<br />Pushed to the wall + foreclosed farms<br />
  161. 161. Ohio Fever<br />Cheap land out west<br />Appealed to Euro immigrants<br />
  162. 162. Cumberland Road<br />Ran from Maryland to Illinois<br />
  163. 163. Land Act Of 1820<br />Buyer could buy 80 acres of land for $1.25 an acre<br />
  164. 164. Tallmadge Amendment<br />No more slaves could be brought into Missouri slaveholders<br />
  165. 165. Missouri Compromise<br />Missouri- slave state<br />Maine- free state<br />36’30”- Missouri Compromise line<br />
  166. 166. McColluch vs. Maryland<br />Maryland tried to destroy Bank of the U.S. by taxing its notes<br />John Marshall defends bank<br />
  167. 167. Cohens vs. Virginia<br />Cohens accused of illegally selling lottery tickets<br />
  168. 168. Gibbons vs. Ogden<br />NY tried to grant monopoly of waterborne commerce between NY + NJ<br />
  169. 169. Fletcher vs. Peck<br />Georgia granted 35 million acres to private speculators<br />
  170. 170. Dartmouth College vs. Woodward<br />Questioned charter of college by King George III<br />
  171. 171. Treaty Of 1818<br />America shared Newfoundland with England for fishing<br />10 year joint of Oregon country<br />
  172. 172. Florida Purchase Treaty<br />Spain gives Florida to U.S. for claims of Texas<br />
  173. 173. Monroe Doctrine<br />Stern warning to European powers<br />No colonization<br />Nonintervention<br />
  174. 174. Russo-American Treaty of 1824<br />Restricted Russia’s advancement (Alaska)<br />
  175. 175. Chapter 13!<br />
  176. 176. Corrupt Bargain<br />Full of presidential candidates, all leaders<br />No candidate won the majority<br />
  177. 177. John Quincy Adams As President<br />Sarcastic, tactless, brilliant in foreign affairs<br />Best secretary of state, worst president<br />
  178. 178. Spoils System<br />Rewarding political supporters with political positions<br />
  179. 179. Jacksonian Democracy<br />Every man is as good as his neighbor<br />Each generation deserved its turn<br />
  180. 180. Tariff Of 1828<br />Southern states protest<br />Very high tariff<br />
  181. 181. Denmark Vesey<br />Aborted slave rebellion in Charleston<br />
  182. 182. Nullies<br />Tried to get 2/3rd vote for nullification in South Carolina legislation<br />
  183. 183. Tariff Of 1832 + 1833<br />1832- Passed by Congress, fell short of South demands<br />1833- Favored by South<br />
  184. 184. Force Bill<br />Authorized president to use army and navy to collect taxes<br />
  185. 185. Trail Of Tears<br />Indian journey to Oklahoma and West<br />Many died<br />
  186. 186. Removal Act<br />Removed all Native Americans east of Mississippi river<br />
  187. 187. Seminole Indians<br />Retreated to Everglades (Florida swamps)<br />Fought for 7 years until leader was captured + surrendered<br />
  188. 188. Bank War<br />Clay + Webster showed Congress bill to renew Bank Of U.S. charter<br />
  189. 189. Nicholas Biddle/ Biddle’s Panic<br />Biddle- desperate<br />Tried to create crisis by calling in Bank’s loans<br />
  190. 190. Pet Banks/ Wildcat Banks<br />Surplus funds placed in numerous state institutions<br />Pet Banks- Where the $ was placed<br />Wildcat Banks- Fly-by-night consisted of a few chairs and a suitcase full of printed notes<br />
  191. 191. Specie Circular<br />Required all public land to be purchased with metallic (“hard”) money<br />
  192. 192. Panic of 1837<br />Inflation high after 2nd Bank of U.S.<br />Specie Circular<br />
  193. 193. Divorce Bill<br />Divorced government from banking altogether<br />
  194. 194. Austin/ Crockett/ Bowie/ Houston<br />Pioneers who led Texas independence for U.S.<br />
  195. 195. Alamo<br />Pivotal battle in the Texas Revolution<br />Mexico defeated<br />
  196. 196. Election Of 1840<br />Martin Van Buren vs. William Henry Harrison<br />Dems-Repubs/ Whigs<br />Harrison won<br />
  197. 197. Whigs<br />Favored renewed bank, protective tariffs, and public school<br />
  198. 198. Chapter 14!<br />
  199. 199. Life On The Frontier<br />Grim, poorly fed, bad housing, and seclusion<br />Dependent on neighbors<br />
  200. 200. Fur Trappers/ Rendezvous<br />Fur traders began to feel pressured<br />Rendezvous- Huge meeting with traders around mountains<br />
  201. 201. Problems In The Cities<br />Smelly slums, bad street lighting, bad water, rats, and sewage<br />
  202. 202. Irish + German Immigrants<br />1.5 Million of each group<br />Europe: No room<br />
  203. 203. Nativists/ Know-Nothings<br />Nativists- Rallied for political action, later created the “Know-Nothing” party<br />
  204. 204. Industrial Revolution<br />British inventors created series of machines for mass production<br />
  205. 205. Samuel Slater<br />Memorized textile machinery, snuck to U.S. and created spinning cotton thread<br />
  206. 206. Eli Whitney<br />Built cotton gin<br />Efficiency up<br />
  207. 207. New England As Ind. Center<br />Attractive for manufacturers<br />Dense population<br />
  208. 208. Tariff Of 1816<br />Contest to control shape of economy<br />
  209. 209. Sewing Machine/ Howe/ Singer<br />Invented by Elias Howe, perfected by Issac Singer<br />
  210. 210. Limited Liability/ Free Incorp.<br />Businessmen could create corporations without applying for charter<br />
  211. 211. Samuel F.B. Morse/ Telegraph<br />Communication up<br />
  212. 212. Worker Complaints<br />Hours- Long<br />Wages- Low<br />Meals- Skimpy<br />
  213. 213. Commonwealth vs. Hunt<br />Ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided their methods were honorable<br />
  214. 214. John Deere<br />Created steel plow that broke stubborn soil<br />
  215. 215. Cyrus McCormick<br />Mechanical reaper<br />
  216. 216. Lancaster Turnpike<br />62 mile highway<br />Philly to Lancaster<br />
  217. 217. Cumberland Road<br />Highway from Maryland to Illinois (591 Miles)<br />
  218. 218. Robert Fulton/ Clermont<br />Steamboat craze set off<br />Could go against current<br />
  219. 219. Erie Canal<br />363 miles<br />Buffalo to NY harbor<br />
  220. 220. Iron Horse<br />Railroads- Cheap, fast, + reliable<br />
  221. 221. Chapter 15!<br />
  222. 222. Deists<br />2nd Great Awakening new religion<br />Believe in a supreme being<br />Reject original sin concept<br />
  223. 223. Unitarian<br />God existed in only 1 person, not in orthodox trinity<br />Stressed human goodness<br />
  224. 224. Second Great Awakening<br />Shattered and reorganized churches<br />Converted people<br />Movements- prison reform, women’s rights, and abolishing of slavery<br />
  225. 225. Methodists/ Baptists<br />Reaped most abundant harvest of souls by revivalism<br />
  226. 226. Peter Cartwright<br />Methodist “circuit speaker” fought oppressors<br />
  227. 227. Charles Finney<br />Best revival preacher<br />Held giant gatherings<br />
  228. 228. Mormons/ Smith/ Young<br />Joseph Smith- 1830<br />Bringham Young led group to Utah<br />
  229. 229. Horace Mann/ Noah Webster<br />Campaigned for more and better schools<br />Higher pay for teachers and expanded curriculum<br />Webster- Wanted improved textbooks, created English dictionary<br />
  230. 230. William McGuffey<br />Grade school readers (textbooks) sold 122 million copies<br />
  231. 231. U Of Carolina/ U Of Virginia<br />Created with religious freedom<br />No political influence<br />
  232. 232. Dorothea Dix<br />Travelled 60,000 miles to increase conditions of insane people<br />Influence worked, now “mentally ill”<br />
  233. 233. Temperance Society<br />Wanted drinkers to vote to sign pledge <br />Reformed drunkards emerge<br />
  234. 234. T.S. Arthur/ Ten Nights<br />Anti-alcoholic book described town ruined by bar<br />
  235. 235. Mott/ Stanton/ Anthony<br />Mott- Not recognized at ENG convention<br />Stanton- Left “obey” out of marriage license<br />Anthony- Huge advocate led to supporters called “suzyb’s”<br />
  236. 236. W.R.C. / Seneca Falls<br />Women’s Rights Convention<br />Leaders met to create Dec. of Sentiments<br />
  237. 237. Wilderness Utopias<br />Communities of wilderness cooperation<br />
  238. 238. Life Span<br />Short, 40 years<br />
  239. 239. Puritan View Of Art<br />Sinful waste of time<br />
  240. 240. New National Literature<br />Washington Irving<br />James Cooper<br />William Bryant<br />
  241. 241. Transcendentalism<br />Rejected theory that all knowledge comes to the mind through the senses<br />
  242. 242. Chapter 16!<br />
  243. 243. King Cotton<br />U.S. dependent on cotton (south)<br />
  244. 244. Oligarchy<br />Government influenced by a planter aristocracy<br />
  245. 245. Cotton Economy<br />Monopolistic<br />Small farmers sold land<br />
  246. 246. Southern Social Structure<br />¼ owned slaves<br />Few southerners lived on plantations<br />Landless whites- ¾ of southern whites<br />
  247. 247. Slaves vs. Infrastructure<br />Society’s basement<br />Slave brought in despite import rule<br />
  248. 248. American Colonization Society<br />Tried to transport slaves back to Africa<br />15,000 went<br />
  249. 249. Weld/ Garrison/ Douglass<br />Weld- Self educated, spoke to rural farmers<br />William Garrison- 26 year old wrote anti-slavery newspaper (The Liberator)<br />Frederick Douglass- Lectured for anti-slavery despite threats<br />
  250. 250. Gag Resolution<br />Anti-slavery appeals tabled without debate<br />
  251. 251. Chapter 17!<br />
  252. 252. John Tyler & The Bank Bill<br />Financial reform<br />Establish a new national bank<br />John Tyler- Vetoed bank twice<br />
  253. 253. Tariff Bill Of 1842<br />32% on dutiable goods<br />
  254. 254. Caroline<br />American steamer carrying supplies attacked by Great Britain<br />
  255. 255. Aroostook War<br />War with Great Britain in Aroostook Valley<br />
  256. 256. Annexation Of Texas<br />Passed Congress in 1845<br />28th state<br />9 Years between interest and annexation<br />
  257. 257. Oregon Fever/ Oregon Trail<br />Oregon Fever- Restless pioneers in huge numbers travel in covered wagons along Oregon Trail<br />
  258. 258. Walker Tariff Of 1846<br />Excellent revenue<br />Heavy imports<br />
  259. 259. Restoration Of Independent Treasury<br />James Polk’s 2nd objective<br />
  260. 260. Attack Across The Rio Grande<br />Mexican troops cross river and attack Gen. Zachary Taylor + troops<br />
  261. 261. Mexico City + Buena Vista<br />Mexico City- U.S. won<br />Buena Vista- Santa Anna and Mexico defeated<br />
  262. 262. Treaty Of Guadalupe Hidalgo<br />U.S. gained Texas + area west (Oregon/ California)<br />
  263. 263. Slavocracy<br />Mexican war caused by slavery<br />“Evil Purposes<br />
  264. 264. Chapter 18!<br />
  265. 265. Free Soil Party<br />Created by Anti-slavery supporters<br />
  266. 266. Sutter’s Mill<br />Gold was discovered in California<br />Sparked gold rush<br />
  267. 267. California Statehood<br />Free state<br />Passed the usual territory status<br />
  268. 268. Sectional Balance<br />Worrisome issue of free vs. slave state balance<br />
  269. 269. Underground Railroad<br />Runaway slaves assisted by Northern citizens<br />
  270. 270. Harriet Tubman<br />Slave from Maryland<br />Rescued 300+ from Underground Railroad<br />
  271. 271. Compromise Of 1850<br />South demanded new fugitive slave law<br />Texas paid $10 Million<br />Bloodhound Bill (runaway law)<br />Slave/Free State<br />California- new state<br />
  272. 272. Fugitive Slave Law Of 1850<br />South could hunt slaves in North<br />Could take issue to court<br />Judges paid 2X for convicting slaves<br />
  273. 273. Death Of The Whigs<br />Winfield Scott- mistake<br />Whigs split over slavery issue<br />
  274. 274. Popular Sovereignty<br />People get to choose state’s status (free/slave)<br />
  275. 275. Clayton- Bulwer Treaty<br />ENG creeping up on sea<br />Conflict avoided with treaty<br />
  276. 276. Slavocrats<br />Looked south for expansion<br />
  277. 277. Ostend Manifesto<br />U.S. secret proposal to buy Cuba for $120 million<br />Cuba declined<br />
  278. 278. Treaty Of Wanghia<br />China/U.S. opened commerce in Pacific<br />
  279. 279. Commander Matthew Perry<br />Entered Edo Bay in 1853, requested free trade and friendly relations<br />Would return later for their reply<br />
  280. 280. Treaty Of Kanagawa<br />Perry returned, signed treaty<br />Provided fair treatment and free trade<br />
  281. 281. Kansas-Nebraska Act<br />Nebraska Territory split into 2 states<br />
  282. 282. Chapter 19!<br />
  283. 283. Uncle Tom’s Cabin<br />Showed cruel splitting of families through slavery<br />
  284. 284. Harriet Beecher Stowe<br />Author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin<br />
  285. 285. Shawnee Mission<br />Place where slavery supporters set up government<br />
  286. 286. Topeka<br />Capital of free-soil Kansas<br />
  287. 287. Bleeding Kansas<br />Anti/Pro Slavery conflict in Kansas<br />Small fights<br />
  288. 288. John Brown<br />Obsessively dedicated to abolishing slavery<br />Killed men and raided Harper’s Ferry<br />
  289. 289. Pottawatomie Creek<br />5 men killed (supposedly pro-slavery) by John Brown<br />
  290. 290. Lecompton Constitution<br />People could vote pro or anti-slavery<br />Many free-soilers boycotted poll<br />
  291. 291. Senator Sumner<br />Attacked after giving an anti-slavery speech<br />
  292. 292. Representative Brooks<br />Attacked Sumner until his cane broke<br />
  293. 293. Know-Nothing Party<br />Hated immigration<br />Millard Filmore<br />
  294. 294. Dred Scott Case<br />Black slave had lived in Illinois and Wisconsin for 5 years<br />Wanted freedom<br />
  295. 295. Panic Of 1857<br />Gold rush inflated currency<br />Unemployment + Hunger<br />
  296. 296. Tariff Of 1857<br />Reduced duties to 20% on dutiable goods<br />
  297. 297. Lincoln/ Douglas Debates<br />Abraham Lincoln + Stephen Douglas debate for Illinois senate seat<br />
  298. 298. Freeport Doctrine<br />Douglas argued that slavery would stay down if people voted it down<br />
  299. 299. Harper’s Ferry<br />John Brown captured a weapons warehouse in Virginia<br />Planned to arm slaves<br />Later captured (by Robert E. Lee)<br />
  300. 300. N & S Dem. Party<br />Democrats split<br />North- Stephen Douglas<br />South- John Breckinridge<br />
  301. 301. Republican Platform<br />Low tariff<br />Immigration<br />Transportation/ RR<br />Appealed to non-southern group<br />
  302. 302. Election Of 1860<br />
  303. 303. C.S.A.<br />Confederate States of America<br />Made up of southern states<br />
  304. 304. Jefferson Davis<br />President of C.S.A.<br />
  305. 305. Crittenden Compromise<br />Slavery prohibited north of 36’30”<br />Lincoln rejected proposal<br />
  306. 306. Chapter 20!<br />
  307. 307. Fort Sumner<br />Union on way to fort<br />South attacks w/ cannons and open fire<br />South seized fort<br />
  308. 308. Border States<br />Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia<br />Could go to U.S.A. or C.S.A.<br />
  309. 309. Butternut Region<br />Southern Ohio, Indiana, + Illinois<br />
  310. 310. General Robert E. Lee<br />Offered to lead north, stayed loyal to his home state (Virginia)<br />Right-hand man- Stonewall Jackson<br />
  311. 311. +/- Of C.S.A.<br />+: Motive to fight, talented officers, fought on homeland, “bred” to fight<br />-: No factories, lack of supplies, weak economy<br />
  312. 312. +/- Of U.S.A.<br />+: Controlled sea, 22 million people, immigrant support, traded supplies with Europe<br />-: Trouble with top general<br />
  313. 313. King Cotton Dethroned<br />Productive in pre-year years, surplus in ENG, operatives thrown out of work<br />
  314. 314. Laird Rams<br />2 Confederate warships being constructed in ENG<br />Made of iron<br />ENG bought ships at last minute for royal army<br />
  315. 315. Lincoln’s Wartime Actions<br />Accused of being “simple Susan”<br />Proclaimed blockade<br />Increased size of fed. Army<br />$2 million for war<br />
  316. 316. Draft vs. Volunteers<br />Rich boys could avoid war<br />90% of Union troops were volunteers<br />
  317. 317. $300 Men<br />Amount needed to avoid draft<br />
  318. 318. New York City Riots<br />Poor mob ran through city wreaking havoc<br />
  319. 319. North’s Financing Of The War<br />Tobacco + alcohol tax<br />Morill Tariff Act<br />Paperback money created<br />Sale of bonds<br />
  320. 320. South’s Financing Of The War<br />$400 million in bonds<br />10% tax on farm produce<br />Printed blue-backed $<br />
  321. 321. North’s Economic Boom<br />More factories<br />Protective tariffs<br />Millionaires emerge<br />

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