Microhabitats Montane Riparian Zone
Where in the  world are we? <ul><li>Green Meadows Outdoor School </li></ul><ul><li>Fish Camp, CA </li></ul>
The Big Question <ul><li>Will climate change </li></ul><ul><li>have an effect on the riparian </li></ul><ul><li>microhabit...
Positive Feedback or Negative Feedback ? <ul><li>One theory suggests that if we meet or exceed rainfall averages, then the...
What we observed: <ul><li>Soil characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation types & structure </li></ul><ul><li>Zonation <...
Observation Tools <ul><li>Eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Tape measures </li><...
Soil Characteristics Soil Characteristics (powerpoint) <ul><li>Soil Biology Infiltration Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk De...
Soil Color <ul><li>Soil color  does not affect the behavior and use of soil, however it can indicate the composition of th...
Soil Structure <ul><li>Soil structure is the arrangement of soil particles into aggregates. These may have various shapes,...
Soil Texture <ul><li>Soil texture refers to sand, silt and clay composition. Soil content affects soil behavior, including...
Soil Characteristics Water to dry sand  <ul><li>Sandy bank is very pourous, and dries out very quickly. </li></ul>
Soil Characteristics Dry sand to elevated bank <ul><li>Sandy shore is mixed with larger aggregate and rock. </li></ul>
Average Temperatures June 18-26, 2010 <ul><li>Air Temperature: 24 ˚ C </li></ul><ul><li>Water Temperature: 14 ˚C </li></ul...
Temperature Ranges: June 18-26, 2010 <ul><li>Air Temperature: 20 ˚C - 26 ˚C </li></ul><ul><li>Water Temperature: 13 ˚C - 1...
Vegetation Types & Structures <ul><li>Willow Bleeding Hearts Catchfly </li></ul><ul><li>Lupine Pussy Paws Indian Rhubarb <...
Catchfly
Azalea
Snow Plant
Indian Rhubarb
Red Alder
Red Alder (cont.) <ul><li>“ Red alder (Alnus rubra), …is the most common hardwood in the Pacific Northwest. It is a relati...
Bleeding Heart
Yarrow
Willow
Miner’s Lettuce
Zonation: Different areas of the riparian microhabitat Zone 2: High Water Area Zone 1: River Bed Zone 3: Rocky Bar Zone 4:...
Zonation: Lowest zone to highest zone <ul><li>Zone 1:  River Bank </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-rounded, coarse grained sandy ...
Zonation:   Lowest zone to highest zone <ul><li>Zone 3:  Rocky Bar/Flood Zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarse grained, rounde...
Zonation: Lowest zone to highest zone <ul><li>Zone 5:  Vegetated Area  (Highest area of bank) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-an...
Water: upstream
Water: midstream
Water: downstream
Water
Water’s Impact
Water’s Impact
Water’s Impact Log Dam
Water’s Impact Cobble build up – soil and grass
Water’s Impact The Pool
Water’s Impact Aspen anchor – Debris field
Water’s Impact Debris Field
Food Web Mayflies In spring, water temperature needs to be in the low 40s. Peak hatches occur when the water temps hit 46 ...
Food Web Aphids and Ants
Food Web Willow Trout Flycatcher Caddisfly
Insects, etc. <ul><li>Ants </li></ul><ul><li>Aphids </li></ul><ul><li>Lady Bug </li></ul><ul><li>Common Buckeye </li></ul>...
Ladybug
Common Buckeye
Mourning Cloak
Honeybee
Dragonfly (larvae)
Team Members Janice Lizzy Shannon Will Khoun Julie Shawn Tony
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CVSP Microhabitat Investigation

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CVSP Microhabitat Investigation

  1. 1. Microhabitats Montane Riparian Zone
  2. 2. Where in the world are we? <ul><li>Green Meadows Outdoor School </li></ul><ul><li>Fish Camp, CA </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Big Question <ul><li>Will climate change </li></ul><ul><li>have an effect on the riparian </li></ul><ul><li>microhabitats along Big Creek, in </li></ul><ul><li>the Sierra Nevadas? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Positive Feedback or Negative Feedback ? <ul><li>One theory suggests that if we meet or exceed rainfall averages, then the riparian zone will maintain its structural characteristics. (negative feedback) </li></ul><ul><li>A second theory suggests that if our current rainfall decreases, due to climate change, then we will observe a shift in the plant and animal life that is present. (positive feedback) </li></ul>
  5. 5. What we observed: <ul><li>Soil characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation types & structure </li></ul><ul><li>Zonation </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>
  6. 6. Observation Tools <ul><li>Eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Tape measures </li></ul><ul><li>Thermometer </li></ul><ul><li>Magnifying lens </li></ul><ul><li>Field Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring Stick </li></ul>
  7. 7. Soil Characteristics Soil Characteristics (powerpoint) <ul><li>Soil Biology Infiltration Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk Density Moisture Salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry Magnetism Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Color Particle Density Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Consistence Particle Size Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility pH Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Horizons Porosity </li></ul>
  8. 8. Soil Color <ul><li>Soil color does not affect the behavior and use of soil, however it can indicate the composition of the soil and give clues to the conditions that the soil is subjected to. Soil can exhibit a wide range of color; black , white, reds , browns , yellows and under the right conditions green . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Soil Structure <ul><li>Soil structure is the arrangement of soil particles into aggregates. These may have various shapes, sizes and degrees of development or expression. Soil structure affects aeration, water movement, resistance to erosion and plant root growth. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Soil Texture <ul><li>Soil texture refers to sand, silt and clay composition. Soil content affects soil behavior, including the retention capacity for nutrients and water. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Soil Characteristics Water to dry sand <ul><li>Sandy bank is very pourous, and dries out very quickly. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Soil Characteristics Dry sand to elevated bank <ul><li>Sandy shore is mixed with larger aggregate and rock. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Average Temperatures June 18-26, 2010 <ul><li>Air Temperature: 24 ˚ C </li></ul><ul><li>Water Temperature: 14 ˚C </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Temperature: 30 ˚C </li></ul>
  14. 14. Temperature Ranges: June 18-26, 2010 <ul><li>Air Temperature: 20 ˚C - 26 ˚C </li></ul><ul><li>Water Temperature: 13 ˚C - 16 ˚C </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Temperature: 21 ˚C - 32 ˚C </li></ul>
  15. 15. Vegetation Types & Structures <ul><li>Willow Bleeding Hearts Catchfly </li></ul><ul><li>Lupine Pussy Paws Indian Rhubarb </li></ul><ul><li>White Fir Macloskeys Violet Snow Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Incense Cedar Musk Monkey Manzanita </li></ul><ul><li>Hazelnut Mountain Jewelflower Yarrow </li></ul><ul><li>Alder Miner’s Lettuce </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain Gooseberry Western Azalea </li></ul>
  16. 16. Catchfly
  17. 17. Azalea
  18. 18. Snow Plant
  19. 19. Indian Rhubarb
  20. 20. Red Alder
  21. 21. Red Alder (cont.) <ul><li>“ Red alder (Alnus rubra), …is the most common hardwood in the Pacific Northwest. It is a relatively short-lived, intolerant pioneer with rapid juvenile growth. The species is favored by disturbance and often increases after logging and burning” </li></ul><ul><li>Red alder is an excellent species for re-establishing woodlands.  The trees are used in forested riparian buffers to help reduce stream bank erosion , protect water quality, and enhance aquatic environments.  </li></ul>
  22. 22. Bleeding Heart
  23. 23. Yarrow
  24. 24. Willow
  25. 25. Miner’s Lettuce
  26. 26. Zonation: Different areas of the riparian microhabitat Zone 2: High Water Area Zone 1: River Bed Zone 3: Rocky Bar Zone 4: Sandy Bank Zone 5: Vegetated Area
  27. 27. Zonation: Lowest zone to highest zone <ul><li>Zone 1: River Bank </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-rounded, coarse grained sandy bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-rounded cobbles and pebbles of various sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rock Distribution: largest in the middle/fastest part of the stream, smaller rocks line the edge of the river </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 60% rocks, 40%sand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Width~ 33ft, Height~ 0ft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zone 2: High Water Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slower moving water with shallow pools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine-grained sandy bottom with some silt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-rounded cobbles and pebbles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cobbles are imbricated according to stream flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 50% sand, 40 % rocks, 10% silt or soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Width~ 7 feet, Height~ 2 inches </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Zonation: Lowest zone to highest zone <ul><li>Zone 3: Rocky Bar/Flood Zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarse grained, rounded to sub-rounded sandy bottom with some soil deposits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasses are growing on some of the soil deposits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-rounded pebbles and cobles with flat sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diameter of the pebbles and cobbles ranges from 1-10” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rocky bar is approximately 80% rocks, 15% sand, 5% soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Width~ 15 feet, Height~ 10 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zone 4 : Sandy Bank/2 nd Flood Zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium grained, sub-rounded to rounded sand with some silt and no soil deposits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-rounded pebbles ¼-2” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone is steeply sloped with a flat top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% sand, 10% rocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Width~ 24 feet, Height~ 33 inches </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Zonation: Lowest zone to highest zone <ul><li>Zone 5: Vegetated Area (Highest area of bank) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-angular, medium grained sand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large soil deposits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone is generally flat with a gentle slope away from the river </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes various saplings, grasses, flowering plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Width~ 42 feet, Height~ 3 feet (back sloping) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Water: upstream
  31. 31. Water: midstream
  32. 32. Water: downstream
  33. 33. Water
  34. 34. Water’s Impact
  35. 35. Water’s Impact
  36. 36. Water’s Impact Log Dam
  37. 37. Water’s Impact Cobble build up – soil and grass
  38. 38. Water’s Impact The Pool
  39. 39. Water’s Impact Aspen anchor – Debris field
  40. 40. Water’s Impact Debris Field
  41. 41. Food Web Mayflies In spring, water temperature needs to be in the low 40s. Peak hatches occur when the water temps hit 46 degrees and up. In summer, especially evenings, water temp needs to be in the 60 degree minimum. For fall mayflies, peak hatches will happen when the water temp is over 46 degrees. Egg development is highly dependent upon a narrow temperature range for survival, with maximum hatching rates at 15.8 °C and 1.9 - 5.2 °C for Other predators include birds, spiders, dragonflies, damselflies, trout, and insectivorous biting midges (McCafferty 1998).  Below the surface, more activity takes place. 90% of the food trout eat is taken below the surface. That generally means nymphs.
  42. 42. Food Web Aphids and Ants
  43. 43. Food Web Willow Trout Flycatcher Caddisfly
  44. 44. Insects, etc. <ul><li>Ants </li></ul><ul><li>Aphids </li></ul><ul><li>Lady Bug </li></ul><ul><li>Common Buckeye </li></ul><ul><li>Western Tiger Swallowtail </li></ul><ul><li>Honey Bee </li></ul><ul><li>Mourning Cloak </li></ul><ul><li>Leech </li></ul><ul><li>Mayfly </li></ul><ul><li>Dragonfly Larvae </li></ul><ul><li>Water Strider </li></ul><ul><li>Caddisfly Larvae </li></ul><ul><li>Green Lacewing </li></ul>
  45. 45. Ladybug
  46. 46. Common Buckeye
  47. 47. Mourning Cloak
  48. 48. Honeybee
  49. 49. Dragonfly (larvae)
  50. 50. Team Members Janice Lizzy Shannon Will Khoun Julie Shawn Tony

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