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Cold War in a Global Context


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A survey of the Cold War within the context of Globalization.

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Cold War in a Global Context

  1. 1. The Early Cold War: 1947-1970
  2. 2.  Documentary  1982  Archival footage  Newsreel clips  Television news footage,  U.S. government- produced films (including military training films),  Advertisements  Television and radio programs  3 educated directors (elite colleges): Loader, Rafferty & Rafferty
  3. 3. Introduction to the Cold War
  4. 4. We Didn’t Start The Fire Write down all of the items from the video that you recognize.
  5. 5. 5 Overview • The Cold War was a state of economic, diplomatic, and ideological discord among nations without armed conflict. • Cold War “battles” occur in Europe, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East • 1945-1991
  6. 6. 6 Background: What • Mutual distrust between U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. had been brewing since the 1917 Russian Revolution (when U.S. forces invaded Russia to assist the anti- communist troops) • Americans are often ignorant of this part of their history…
  7. 7. 7 Background: What • The Soviet Union and United States united to defeat Hitler in WWII • Once the war ended, differences became more apparent • The Soviets lost 27 million people and saw mass devastation in the west of their country • Americans lost just over 400,000 men and suffered no attacks after Pearl Harbor
  8. 8. 8 Post War Desires • At the Yalta Conference in 1945, Stalin agreed to self- determination for European nations after WWII • Stalin wanted to ensure security for the Soviet Union (remember their losses) • He wanted a buffer zone and he wanted to extract reparations from Germany
  9. 9. 9 Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at Yalta. Post War World
  10. 10. Cold War Definition • The Cold War, often dated from 1947 to 1991, was a sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc, dominated by the United States with NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union along with the Warsaw Pact. This began after the success of their temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. A neutral faction arose with the Non-Aligned Movement founded by Egypt, India, and Yugoslavia; this faction rejected association with either the US-led West or the Soviet-led East.
  11. 11. Ominous Words • "From Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent [of Europe]. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Europe.... All these famous cities and populations lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere."
  12. 12. Background: How • MAD: “Mutually Assured Destruction”—the belief that neither the U.S. nor the USSR would ever commit to a nuclear attack because the result would be too devastating • Brinkmanship: The practice of pushing dangerous events to the verge of disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome. E.g. The Cuban Missile Crisis • Proxy Wars: A proxy war or proxy warfare is a war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. E.g. The Korean War, The Vietnam War, The Iran-Iraq War • Détente: The easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation. The term is often used in reference to the general easing of relations between the Soviet Union and the United States in the 1970s, a thawing at a period roughly in the middle of the Cold War.
  13. 13. Nixon and Kennedy
  14. 14. Essential Questions • Based on your personal knowledge and your past study of history, answer the following questions with your partner: – Do you believe that the world is a better, safer place now that the Cold War is over? – How responsible do you think the USSR and the USA are for the conflicts that continue in many parts of the world today? – How implicated are you in this process?
  15. 15. Summary • Please write a summary of today’s lecture – Be sure to incorporate all media into your summary – Focus on synthesizing content, ideas and perspectives – Minimum 5-7 sentences
  16. 16. Part I: “Reconstruction & Confrontation”
  17. 17. The Ideological StruggleThe Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL  spread world- wide Communism GOAL  “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan]METHODOLOGIES:  Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]  Arms Race [nuclear escalation]  Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy]  “proxy wars”  Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
  18. 18. TheThe “Iron Curtain”“Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in theFrom Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, anAdriatic, an iron curtainiron curtain has descended across thehas descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancientContinent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
  19. 19. Truman Doctrine [1947]Truman Doctrine [1947] 1.1. Civil War in Greece.Civil War in Greece. 2.2. Turkey under pressure from theTurkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in theUSSR for concessions in the Dardanelles.Dardanelles. 3.3. The U. S. should support freeThe U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world whopeoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armedwere resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…Weminorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work outmust assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.their own destinies in their own way. 4.4. The U.S. gave Greece & TurkeyThe U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.$400 million in aid.
  20. 20. Marshall Plan [1948]Marshall Plan [1948] 1.1. ““European RecoveryEuropean Recovery Program.”Program.” 2.2. Secretary of State,Secretary of State, George MarshallGeorge Marshall 3.3. The U. S. should provideThe U. S. should provide aid toaid to allall European nationsEuropean nations that need it. This movethat need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine,is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation,but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.and chaos. 4.4. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe &Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].USSR, [but this was rejected].
  21. 21. Post-War GermanyPost-War Germany
  22. 22. Berlin Blockade & AirliftBerlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)(1948-49)
  23. 23. NNorthorth AAtlantictlantic TTreatyreaty OOrganization (1949)rganization (1949)  United StatesUnited States  BelgiumBelgium  BritainBritain  CanadaCanada  DenmarkDenmark  FranceFrance  IcelandIceland  ItalyItaly  LuxemburgLuxemburg  NetherlandsNetherlands  NorwayNorway  PortugalPortugal  1952: Greece &1952: Greece & TurkeyTurkey  1955: West Germany1955: West Germany  1983: Spain1983: Spain
  24. 24. Warsaw Pact (1955)Warsaw Pact (1955) } U. S. S. R.U. S. S. R. } AlbaniaAlbania } BulgariaBulgaria } CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia } East GermanyEast Germany } HungaryHungary } PolandPoland } Romania (ForRomania (For Pheeeoooo)Pheeeoooo)
  25. 25. The Korean War: AThe Korean War: A “Police“Police Action” (1950-1953)Action” (1950-1953) Syngman RheeSyngman Rhee Kim Il-SungKim Il-Sung ““Domino Theory”Domino Theory”
  26. 26. Crisis and CCOT: Cold War Hinge and Turning Points 1953-1970
  27. 27. Cold War Crisis and CCOT: Cold War Hinge and Turning Points 1953-1970
  28. 28. 196 0 197 0 198 0 Truma n Eisenhower Stalin Khrushchev Kennedy Johnson Brezhnev Nixon Ford Carter An dro pov Cher nen ko Gorbachev Reagan Bush Sr. 1950-1953 The Korean War Oct 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 1964 – 1973 American Military Involvement In Vietnam 1956 Hungarian Uprising 1961 Berlin Wall Built 1968 Prague Spring: Czecho- slovakia 1980-81 Solidarity In Poland 1989 Collapse of Communism In Eastern Europe 1991 Collapse of Soviet Union
  29. 29. 1950-1953 Korean War 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 1979-1990s War in Afghanistan: The Afghan gov’t supported by Soviet Forces in fight against US-backed guerrilla fighters 1965-1973 Vietnam War 1960s-1980s In Central & South America the USA supported anti- Communist regimes (e.g. General Pinochet in Chile). The USSR supported Communist rebels 1967-1980s: Israel supported by the US gov’t in Middle East conflict w/ Arabs. The USSR supported the Palestinians & Arab states
  30. 30. The Arms Race:The Arms Race: AA “Missile Gap?”“Missile Gap?” } The Soviet UnionThe Soviet Union exploded its firstexploded its first A-bomb in 1949.A-bomb in 1949. } Now there wereNow there were two nucleartwo nuclear superpowers!superpowers!
  31. 31. Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What? HISTORY OF NUCLEAR WARHEAD STOCKPILES -- 1945-1995 NOTE: Totals are estimates. Lists include strategic and non-strategic warheads, as well as warheads awaiting dismantling 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 UNITED STATES 6 3,057 31,265 26,675 22,941 14,766 SOVIET UNION 0 200 6,129 19,443 39,197 27,000 BRITAIN 0 10 310 350 300 300 FRANCE 0 0 32 188 360 485 CHINA 0 0 5 185 425 425 Source: National Resources Defense Council
  32. 32. Sputnik I (1957)Sputnik I (1957) The Russians have beaten America inThe Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!space—they have the technological edge!
  33. 33. SPACE RACEThe super powers also competed in space. •In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, a satellite, into orbit around the Earth. •Soon after the United States established NASA. The race was on. •In 1958 the U.S. launched its own first satellite. In 1961, the Soviets sent the first man into space. •In 1969 the U.S. was the first nation to put a man on the moon. Both the Soviets and Americans explored the use of satellites for military purposes. (Star Wars, etc.)
  34. 34. MaoMao’s Revolution: 1949’s Revolution: 1949 Who lost China? – A 2Who lost China? – A 2ndnd REDRED Power!Power!
  35. 35. After World War II, Chinese Communists defeat Nationalist forces and two separate Chinas emerge.
  36. 36. • Leads Chinese Communists against Japanese invaders – U.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan, called Republic of China – Soviets and China agree to help each other in event of attack • Mao’s Brand of Marxist Socialism – Takes property from landowners and divides it among peasants • How different from Marx’s original theory? • Similar to the revolution in what other country? – Government seizes private companies and
  37. 37. • Communes — large collective farms often supporting over 25,000 people • Program is ended after inefficiency leads to crop failures and famines
  38. 38. • Movement to build society of peasants, workers • Red Guards — militia units formed to enforce strict communism in China – Teenagers, youth – close schools and execute or imprison many intellectuals – Video
  39. 39. The Nonaligned Movement 1955-1970
  40. 40. • Many countries, like India, want to avoid involvement in Cold War • Third World — developing nations; often newly independent, nonaligned • U.S., Soviet Union, China compete for influence over Third World – Back revolutions and give economic, military, technical aid – Some leaders (Nehru, Nasser) take advantage of this competition
  41. 41. History • At the Bandung Conference (Asian-African Conference), in 1955, 29 Asian and African countries identified themselves as neutral – Adopted a 10-point “declaration on the promotion of world peace and cooperation,” based on the UN Charter and the Five Principles of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru • Non-Aligned Movement was formed in 1961 • Five founding members of NAM: Nehru of India, Tito of Yugoslavia, Sukarno of Indonesia, Nasser of Egypt and Nkrumah of Ghana • Neutrality was not specific to the Cold War • Over 100 states were involved throughout the 20th Century Nehru and Zhou Enlai, leader of the People’s Republic of China at the Bandung Conference
  42. 42. Non-Alignment in Europe • Almost no European countries were nonaligned, as the Iron Curtain and spheres of influence were centered in Europe • Yugoslavia – After rejecting Soviet influence and being expelled from Cominform, Tito’s Yugoslavia began receiving aid from the West – However, after Stalin’s death, Tito realized that he would have to choose between allying with the West and giving up his single-party dictatorship, or reconciling with Khrushchev – Neither choice appealed to Tito, so he became a founder of the nonaligned movement as an alternative
  43. 43. Non-Alignment in Asia • Most of Asia was represented at the Bandung Conference • Being a key organizer of the Bandung Conference, India’s leader, Jawaharlal Nehru, emerged as a non-alignment leader • Indonesia and Malaysia also emerged as non-alignment country leaders • Asia, along with other Non-Alignment Movement countries, tried to shift the global political agenda away from the Cold War to the needs of their poorer countries A map of NAM countries in 2005
  44. 44. Non-Alignment in India • After independence, India’s relations with the United States diminished substantially • India rejected U.S. capitalism, and created a series of five year plans, with a very small private sector • As a result of the economic disputes between India and the U.S., India refused to join the U.S. alliance in the Cold War • Because India did not fully support the Soviet Union either, India became an organizer of the Bandung Conference • Indian leader, Jawaharlal Nehru went to the Bandung Conference with five objectives: – Peace and Disarmament – Self-Determination – Economic Equality – Cultural Equality – Multilateralism through strong support of the UN
  45. 45. The Third World • The term Third World country was created during the Cold War • During the Cold War, a Third World country referred to a country that was part of the Non- Alignment Movement • Many Asian countries were labeled Third World countries because of their political position in the Cold War • During the 1960s and 1970s countries part of the Third World used their majority vote in the United Nations to shift discussions and attention away from the Cold War, and to their countries’ needs.
  46. 46. Africa and the Non-Alignment Movement • The majority of the present-day members of the Non-Aligned Movement are small African states that desire independence from the world’s superpowers • Many of these nations joined soon after gaining self-determination from Western powers as a means of maintaining their autonomy and freedom • Eleven of the original twenty-five members of the Non-Alignment Movement were African states. Fears of further colonialism or future dependence on either the Western or communist blocs encouraged these nations to join the movement which encourages equality, non- aggression, and peaceful coexistence. • Although the threat of war was the dominant theme at the original summit meeting in 1961, the movement gained respect and influence as nations were given the right of “independent judgment” so that they could restructure the world economic order as well as prevent imperialism from permeating their independent societies. • The main African nations involved in the Non-Alignment Movement were Egypt, South Africa, and Ghana.
  47. 47. Egyptian Involvement In The Non- Alignment Movement • Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser played a major role in structuring the movement and its policies. He led a coup in 1952 that overthrew the royal family, and took power himself in 1954. Nasser made Egypt a one-party socialist state in 1956 and changed his title to president. • As part of the movement to eliminate colonialism, Nasser decided to nationalize the Suez Canal in 1956, and caused great global unrest. The British and French required the canal as a passage from Europe to Asia, and Nasser intervened due to the British denying funding for the Aswan High Dam, and the retaliation from these nations led to UN intervention. Nasser then turned to the Soviet Union to gain the funds necessary to complete the dam. By seeking economic assistance from either power, Nasser created future expectations of the Non-Aligned Movement and its members. Although the movement defined its intentions, the members were not strictly bound to the policies, and many of them used realpolitik to achieve their own goals.
  48. 48. Other Nations And The Non-Alignment Movement • South Africa became a member of the Non-Alignment Movement when it severed ties to the British Commonwealth in 1961 and consolidated the apartheid system. The Commonwealth opposed the apartheid system in South Africa, making the Non-Aligned Movement a justified means to end the relationship between the two nations. • Iran had been under the economic control of Britain and Russia throughout the nineteenth century. The Non-Alignment Movement reduced ties with these superpowers, but Iran continued to receive some economic aid from the United States because of the American’s deep interest in the Iranian oil industry. • Kwame Nkrumah led the non-violent Convention People’s Party and was instrumental in helping Ghana gain independence from Great Britain in 1957. Nkrumah became the president of independent Ghana and fought for the policy of Africanization. Ghana became a republic in 1960, and was a founding member of the Non-Alignment Movement. Nkrumah
  49. 49. The Impact of Non-Alignment • The Nonalignment Movement encountered several difficulties that made it less effective: – All members agreed to the ten- point declaration and were against bloc politics, but they were by no means unified in their foreign policies or goals – Many member-nations were from the Third World, and had little sway in international affairs compared to the powerful blocs – The nonalignment movement succeeded in being an alternative to the bloc system and a means of avoiding the influence of the blocs Nasser, Tito, and Nehru
  51. 51. Premier Nikita KhrushchevPremier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalistAbout the capitalist states, it doesn'tstates, it doesn't depend on youdepend on you whether wewhether we (Soviet Union) exist.(Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us,If you don't like us, don't accept ourdon't accept our invitations, and don'tinvitations, and don't invite us to comeinvite us to come to see you. Whetherto see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on ouryou like it our not, history is on our side.side. We will bury youWe will bury you. -- 1956. -- 1956 De-StalinizationDe-Stalinization ProgramProgram
  52. 52. An Historic Irony: SergeiAn Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American CitizenKhrushchev, American Citizen Who buried who?Who buried who?
  53. 53. The Suez Crisis: 1956-1957The Suez Crisis: 1956-1957
  54. 54. The Hungarian Uprising:The Hungarian Uprising: 19561956 Imre Nagy, HungarianImre Nagy, Hungarian Prime MinisterPrime Minister } Promised freePromised free elections.elections. } This could lead to theThis could lead to the end of communist ruleend of communist rule in Hungary. } Soviet troops shutSoviet troops shut down uprisingdown uprising
  55. 55. Nixon-KhrushchevNixon-Khrushchev “Kitchen Debate”“Kitchen Debate” (1959)(1959) Cold War --->Cold War ---> TensionsTensions <--- Technology<--- Technology & Affluence& Affluence
  56. 56. U-2 Spy Incident (1960)U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis GaryCol. Francis Gary PowersPowers’ plane was’ plane was shot down over Sovietshot down over Soviet airspace.airspace.
  57. 57. Paris, 1961Paris, 1961 Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin andKhrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks thatnuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.
  58. 58. 1961—Berlin Wall
  59. 59. The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) CheckpointCheckpoint CharlieCharlie
  60. 60. Ich bin einIch bin ein Berliner!Berliner! (1963)(1963) President KennedyPresident Kennedy tells Berlinerstells Berliners that the West isthat the West is with them!with them!
  61. 61. Khruschev Embraces Castro,Khruschev Embraces Castro, 19611961
  62. 62. Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)
  63. 63. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
  64. 64. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) We went eyeball-to-eyeball with theWe went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!Russians, and the other man blinked!
  65. 65. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
  66. 66. ““Prague Spring” (1968)Prague Spring” (1968) Former Czech President,Former Czech President, Alexander DubčekAlexander Dubček Communism with a human face!Communism with a human face!
  67. 67. ““Prague Spring” Dashed!Prague Spring” Dashed! Dissidents/playwrights arrested [likeDissidents/playwrights arrested [like Vaclav HavelVaclav Havel—future president of a free—future president of a free Czech RepublicCzech Republic].].
  68. 68. Détente • Détente: the general cooling of tensions during the Cold War middle- period (70s) • Result of 60s hyper-tension – Bay of Pigs, CMC – Space Race – Arms Race • “Hawkish” leaders out of power
  69. 69. SALT Treaties • Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty • SALT I – 1969—reduce nuclear weapon arsenals • SALT II – 1979, same general guidelines – USA does not ratify in protest of USSR invasion of Afghanistan • Largely symbolic, indicative of move toward détente • U.S. backs out all agreements in 1986 (height of “2nd Cold War”) Gerald Ford and Leonid Brezhnev signing a joint communiqué on the SALT treaty in Vladivostok, November 23, 1974.
  70. 70. Helsinki Accords • 1975, Helsinki, Finland • Attempt to reduce tensions between Western Nations and Communist Bloc • Thirty-five states, including the USA, Canada, and all European states except Albania and Andorra • Main result: Brought Europeans together outside of the Bi-polar power arrangements of the Cold War Erich Honecker (DDR, left) and Helmut Schmidt (FRG) in Conference on Security and Co- operation in Europe held in Helsinki 1975.
  71. 71. • Shah embraces Western governments, oil companies • Nationalists overthrow shah, seize oil • U.S. restores shah to power, fearing Soviet encroachment • 1978: Khomeini — Iranian Muslim leader; sparks riots in Iran; shah flees – Khomeini, ironically receives Soviet support
  72. 72. • Soviets invade Afghanistan, help Communist government against rebels • Muslim rebels fight guerilla war against Soviets with U.S. weapons – Osama Bin Laden helps organize defense of Muslim lands – Taliban emerge • U.S. stops grain shipments to Soviet Union; Soviets withdraw (1989)
  73. 73. • Ronald Reagan — anti-Communist U.S. president takes office in 1981 • Increases military spending, proposes a missile defense program • In 1985, new Soviet leadership allows easing of Cold War tensions
  74. 74. End of the Cold War: Overview
  75. 75. February 21, 1972; During his visit, President Richard Nixon meets with Chairman Mao Zedong. Concerning Taiwan, the U.S. side affirms the "One China Principle". The U.S. reaffirms their interest in a peaceful settlement of the Taiwan question. · Pres. Nixon attempted to improve U.S. ties with China by visiting China in 1972. Recognizing China
  76. 76. · Pres. Carter established official diplomatic ties with China in 1979. On January 29, 1979, Vice- Premier Deng Xiaoping and President Carter had a chat before their talks.
  77. 77. A Brief Thaw in the Cold War Détente: · In 1972, Pres. Nixon became the first President to visit the Soviet Union since the Cold War began. President Richard Nixon and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, 1972
  78. 78. · Nixon was practicing the policy of détente, or the easing of tensions.
  79. 79. · The U.S. and the Soviet Union soon signed the SALT Agreement, which limited the number of nuclear missiles that they produced. · The relationship between the U.S. and the Soviet Union continued to improve.
  80. 80. Examples of improved U.S. – Soviet relations: - Trade between the U.S. and the Soviet Union increased. - In 1975, U.S. and Soviet astronauts conducted a joint space mission. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford and Donald K. Slayton hold containers of Soviet space food in the Soviet Soyuz Module
  81. 81. - In 1979, Pres. Carter worked out the details of the SALT II Treaty with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev.
  82. 82. Détente ends: · In December of 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. The mujahideen (Islamic guerillas),who fought against the Soviet military occupation of Afghanistan during the Afghan- Soviet War (1979-1989), stand on top of a Soviet helicopter. They used guerrilla-war tactics to ambush Soviet troops.
  83. 83. Osama Bin Laden, in Afghanistan during the 1980s (top), and in October of 2001 (right).
  84. 84. · Pres. Carter withdrew U.S. support for the SALT II Treaty, ended all grain sales to the Soviet Union, and led an international boycott of the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow.
  85. 85. · Pres. Reagan increased military spending and pursued a weapons program, known as Star Wars, that could shoot down missiles from space. An End to the Cold War Click to zoom in.
  86. 86. · Star Wars helped to destroy the economy of the Soviet Union, as they were unable to match the United States’ spending on the military and provide for their citizens at the same time.
  87. 87. · Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev began a policy called glasnost, in which he allowed more freedom of speech and the press.
  88. 88. · Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev signed an arms control treaty, called the INF Treaty, with Pres. Reagan in 1987.
  89. 89. · As a result, fifteen Soviet republics gained their independence. · Eventually, however, Gorbachev was forced to resign in 1991, and the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. Armenia; 2. Azerbaijan; 3. Belarus; 4. Estonia; 5. Georgia; 6. Kazakhstan; 7. Kyrgyzstan; 8. Latvia; 9. Lithuania; 10. Moldova; 11. Russia; 12. Tajikistan; 13. Turkmenistan; 14. Ukraine; 15. Uzbekistan
  90. 90. The Fall of the Berlin Wall – News Report from ABC News (2:55)
  91. 91. Overview Images
  92. 92. Vietnam War: 1965-1973Vietnam War: 1965-1973
  93. 93. mujahedinmujahedin
  94. 94. Lech Walesa Lech Walesa
  95. 95. solidarit y solidarit y
  96. 96. Democracy ! Glasnost! Reform!
  97. 97. Vaclav Havel Vaclav Havel
  98. 98. Nicolae Ceasescu Nicolae Ceasescu