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Large Hadron Collider in a Nutshell


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This short Power Point is a short introduction to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). With diagrams and descriptive texts the Power Point along with a talk is more than enough of an introduction the worlds most famous and largest Particle Accelerator in the world. Download the Power Point for the full effect and to view the animations.

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Large Hadron Collider in a Nutshell

  1. 1. Particle Accelerators:First thing that comes to mind?
  2. 2. The Large Hadron Collider LHC
  3. 3. Where is the LHC?
  4. 4. The LHCOne of eight accelerators at CERNOthers being:The Antiproton Decelerator (AD)The Compact Linear Collider Study (CLIC)CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS)Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOLDE)The neutron facility (n_TOF)The Proton Synchrotron (PS)The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) Also dubbed The First Lord of the Rings
  5. 5. The LHCIt took over 10,000 physicists and engineers, from over 85 countries, overseveral decades to build the LHC. Founding members Members who joined CERN later
  6. 6. The LHC 175m underground The protons the earth’s in circumferencec 0.001% of are movingdiameter 27Km at 99.999999% 0.06% of the earth’s circumferenceAt that speed they go around the 27Km over 11000 times a second!!!!
  7. 7. How Does It Work?
  8. 8. How Does It Work? The PSB accelerates Finally the SPS fires the two A proton beam is fired out The proton beam to LHC the PS beams into the proton carries the proton and reach a speed of 0.3c accelerator. By the time the beam the proton ejects it into 0.87c round and beam before entering the Proton the Superoccurround is then carried the proton collisions Proton Synchrotron Synchrotron Booster (PSB). (SPS). are being carried at the Proton beams Synchrotron(PS). 0.999999c.
  9. 9. How Does It Work? The acceleration in the main LHC ring is carried out by large superconducting dipole magnets. The large magnets are cooled to -271⁰C (2.15K) with a liquid helium cooling unit to allow the wiring to carry currents in excess of 13,000 Amps.“If the LHC had been made of conventional magnets, it would have needed to be 120 kmlong to reach the same energies, and its electricity consumption would have beenphenomenal.”-Closing the gap: descent of the last LHC magnet,, 26/04/2007
  10. 10. How Does It Work?
  11. 11. How Does It Work?LHC DetectorsATLAS – A Toroidal LHC ApparatusCMS – Compact Muon SolenoidLHCb – LHC-beautyALICE – A Large Ion Collider ExperimentLHC ExperimentsTOTEM – Total Cross Section, Elastic Scattering and Diffraction DissociationLHCf – LHC-forwardMoEDAL – Monopole and Exotics Detector At the LHC
  12. 12. How Does It Work? In the centre of the detector the collisions occur these are known as “events”. The detectors track the subatomic particles as they scatter away from the collisions. These tracks can be used to work out the subatomic particles that have scattered. Each particle produces a unique track when effected by a magnetic field.
  13. 13. How Does It Work?
  14. 14. The Results
  15. 15. The Results
  16. 16. What Particles Are Collided And Why? Primarily proton – proton collisions
  17. 17. What Particles Are Collided And Why?To recreate the conditions of the universe less than a billionth of asecond after the big bang. To bring things back to there most simple form and find out how things stick together.
  18. 18. Current Science at the LHC Supersymmetry search Standard Model WorkSearch for FCNC single top-quark production Search for exotic particles Search for the Higgs Boson !!!!!And many others!!!!!
  19. 19. LHC Turn Off On Friday 19th September 2008 The LHC Shutdown: due to an incident in LHC Sector 3-4 which resulted in a large helium leek into the tunnel from the liquid helium cooling system.In the picture is a joint between the magnets that holds super-cooled wiring, as itshould be (left) and what the error caused (right).Each magnet weighs in the region of 20 Tons and the “explosion” of the heated wiring movedthe magnets about a foot, damaging about 50 of the ~1700 magnets of the LHC.
  20. 20. What Has It Taught Us? Higgs BosonThe LHC’s ATLAC and CMS has given us “Tantalizing” hints of the HiggsBoson but has not confirmed it. But they have narrowed down what the expected mass of the boson is to be. They now believe with 95% certainty that the boson will be found with a mass somewhere in the range of 114 GeV and 141 GeV -, 18/11/2011
  21. 21. The Future of the LHC The LHC continues its hunt for the infamous Higgs Boson as it carries out other major experiments in the fields of SupperSymmetry and the search for exotic particlesThe LHC will operate at its current energy of 4 TeV per beam until the end of 2012where it will go into a 20 month shutdown for upgrades to allow the collider to workat a power of 7 TeV per beam, reopening is planned for late 2014.
  22. 22. ConclusionThe LHC is a place where theories are being broken and new theories madeto take their place.“Only experimental data using the high energies reached by the LHC canpush knowledge forward, challenging those who seek confirmation ofestablished knowledge, and those who dare to dream beyond theparadigm.”-The Large Hadron Collider: Our understanding of the Universe is about to change...,“Nothing is so dangerous to the progress of the human mind than to assumethat our views of science are ultimate, that there are no mysteries in nature,that our triumphs are complete, and that there are no new worlds toconquer.”-(Brian Cox quoting Humphrey Davy),