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Judaism
Who are the Jews? <ul><li>Child of a Jewish mother or conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
What types of Jews? <ul><li>Sephardim  (Expelled from Spain 1497)   </li></ul><ul><li>Ashkenazim  (Germany, Austria, Polan...
What do Jews believe? <ul><li>The Shema </li></ul><ul><li>Hear, O Israel, the L-rd is our G-d, the L-rd is One.  </li></ul...
Kippah Tefillin Mezzuzah Shema
Memory <ul><li>Listen, my people, to my teaching, and pay attention to what I say. I am going to use wise sayings and expl...
What do Jews believe? <ul><li>Covenant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People serve God and keep his laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Kosher laws <ul><li>Kosher - food that is fit to eat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables, fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An...
Tikkun olam  <ul><li>“ Repairing the world” or “perfecting the world.” </li></ul><ul><li>Performing ritual mitzvot hastens...
Holiness code <ul><li>‘ Consecrate yourselves and be holy, because I am the LORD your God. Keep my decrees and follow them...
What do Jews believe about the messiah? <ul><li>God’s ‘anointed one’ </li></ul><ul><li>Called God’s son </li></ul><ul><li>...
What are the Jewish holy books? <ul><li>TeNaKh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Torah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophets (Neviim) </...
The Talmud <ul><li>Mishnah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgements, opinions, practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gemara </li></ul><...
Celebrating Shabbat <ul><li>Woman of the house welcomes the Sabbath </li></ul><ul><li>Kiddush </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blessi...
Celebrating the Sabbath <ul><li>Synagogue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shabbat shalom” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liturgy  </li...
The synagogue <ul><li>House of worship, study and prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Community centre </li></ul><ul><li>Features </l...
The ark and bimah
Jewish leadership <ul><li>Rabbi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Brit millah (circumcision) <ul><li>Sign of the covenant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer before circumcision </li></ul></ul><u...
Bar mitzvah <ul><li>Meaning: son of the commandment </li></ul><ul><li>13 years old - becomes an adult </li></ul><ul><li>Re...
Marriage  <ul><li>Plan of God </li></ul><ul><li>Bride and groom fast </li></ul><ul><li>Ketubah </li></ul><ul><li>Betrothal...
Festivals
Rosh Hashanah <ul><li>Jewish New Year </li></ul><ul><li>Birthday of the world and Adam </li></ul><ul><li>Day of Judgement ...
Yom Kippur <ul><li>Day of Atonement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of causing act to be forgiven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Hanukkah  <ul><li>Celebrate the Everlasting Light burning for 8 days -  165 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Judah the Maccabee and A...
Pesach (Passover) <ul><li>Remember and relive the Exodus </li></ul><ul><li>Family festival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House cle...
Recent Jewish history
Destruction of Jerusalem and Israel <ul><li>First Jewish revolt against Roman rule </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of Jerusa...
New Jewish Diaspora
Anti-Semitism or Judeophobia <ul><li>Forced conversion and baptism </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory Christian sermons in synag...
Expulsions of Jews
Growth of the Jewish community in the Land of Israel  <ul><li>Jews always lived in the Land of Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Re...
Growth of Zionism <ul><li>Movement to support a Jewish homeland in the Biblical Land of Israel  </li></ul><ul><li>Response...
Balfour Declaration 1917 <ul><li>&quot;His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a  nati...
British Mandate <ul><li>Britain given control of Palestine by Versailles Conference in 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Faisal-Weizm...
Separation of Palestine & Jordan <ul><li>In 1921 Britain stopped Jewish settlement  in Transjordan.  </li></ul><ul><li>Gav...
Rise of Palestinian nationalism <ul><li>Muhammad Amin al-Husseini, a convicted anti-Jewish rioter, made Grand Mufti despit...
Muhammad Amin al-Husseini <ul><li>Stayed with Hitler during WW2 </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged the Holocaust: </li></ul><ul>...
Between a rock and a hard place <ul><li>Jews wanted unlimited emigration to Palestine to escape persecution in Europe and ...
Jews in Europe in 1933
Jewish emigration
Extent of the Holocaust Country Jewish pop.  Sept. 1939 Number Jews  murdered Percentage of Jews murdered Poland 3,300,000...
 
Letter found near a dead child at  Ravensbruch concentration camp <ul><ul><ul><li>O, Lord, remember not only the men and w...
Jews in Europe in 1950
UN partition plan of 1947 <ul><li>2 state solution with Jerusalem under international control </li></ul><ul><li>Most Jews ...
After the 1949 armistice <ul><li>  The territory of the   State of Israel proposed   by the UN in 1947 </li></ul><ul><li> ...
Refugees, refugees <ul><li>600,000 Jews expelled/encouraged to leave Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Libya, Egypt etc. They left beh...
Palestinian refugees 1948 <ul><li>“ The Arab States encouraged the Palestine Arabs to leave their homes temporarily in ord...
Jewish refugees 1948 In 1948 800,000 Jews  were encouraged or  forced to leave Muslim  countries where their  ancestors ha...
Jewish contributions <ul><li>0.25% world population </li></ul><ul><li>22% Nobel prize winners </li></ul><ul><li>47% world ...
Summing up <ul><li>To the Jews we owe the idea of equality before the law, both divine and human; of the sanctity of life ...
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Judaism powerpoint

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A brief overview of Judaism. its main beliefs, practices and some recent history. Suitable for secondary school and above

Published in: Education, Spiritual

Judaism powerpoint

  1. 1. Judaism
  2. 2. Who are the Jews? <ul><li>Child of a Jewish mother or conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Ethnicity’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oldest extant community in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest monotheistic religion </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Judaism developed after the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD </li></ul>
  3. 3. What types of Jews? <ul><li>Sephardim (Expelled from Spain 1497) </li></ul><ul><li>Ashkenazim (Germany, Austria, Poland) </li></ul><ul><li>Oriental Jews (Middle Eastern/Arab) </li></ul><ul><li>Falasha (Ethiopia) </li></ul><ul><li>Orthodox </li></ul><ul><li>Reform </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra-orthodox </li></ul><ul><li>Secular </li></ul>
  4. 4. What do Jews believe? <ul><li>The Shema </li></ul><ul><li>Hear, O Israel, the L-rd is our G-d, the L-rd is One. </li></ul><ul><li>Blessed be the name of the glory of His kingdom forever and ever. You shall love the L-rd your G-d with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might. </li></ul><ul><li>And these words which I command you today shall be on your heart. You shall teach them thoroughly to your children, and you shall speak of them when you sit in your house and when you walk on the road, when you lie down and when you rise up. You shall bind them as a sign upon your arm, and they shall be for a reminder between your eyes. And you shall write them upon the doorposts of your house and upon your gates. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Kippah Tefillin Mezzuzah Shema
  6. 6. Memory <ul><li>Listen, my people, to my teaching, and pay attention to what I say. I am going to use wise sayings and explain mysteries from the past, things we have heard and known, things that our ancestors told us. We will not keep them from our children; we will tell the next generation about the Lord’s power and his great deeds and the wonderful things he has done. He gave laws to the people of Israel and commandments to the descendants of Jacob. He instructed our ancestors to teach his laws to their children, so that the next generation might learn them and in turn tell their children. In this way they also would put their trust in God and not forget that he has done, but always obey his commandments. Psalm 78:1-7 </li></ul>
  7. 7. What do Jews believe? <ul><li>Covenant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People serve God and keep his laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God looks after his people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commandments - mitzvah (act of human kindness) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>613 commandments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>248 positive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>365 negative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chukkim </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Kosher laws <ul><li>Kosher - food that is fit to eat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables, fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals with split hoof and chew cud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish with fins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animals slaughtered ritually </li></ul><ul><li>Kosher kitchen </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because the Torah says so </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Tikkun olam <ul><li>“ Repairing the world” or “perfecting the world.” </li></ul><ul><li>Performing ritual mitzvot hastens messianic age </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens good spiritual forces </li></ul><ul><li>Makes Jews better people which influences society and thus the world </li></ul>
  10. 10. Holiness code <ul><li>‘ Consecrate yourselves and be holy, because I am the LORD your God. Keep my decrees and follow them. I am the LORD, who makes you holy.’ </li></ul><ul><li>“ Speak to the entire assembly of Israel and say to them: ‘Be holy because I, the LORD your God, am holy.’” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many laws on sexual relations, sexual purity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice, animal welfare, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. What do Jews believe about the messiah? <ul><li>God’s ‘anointed one’ </li></ul><ul><li>Called God’s son </li></ul><ul><li>Bring blessings from God </li></ul><ul><li>Establish God’s kingdom on earth </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy Israel’s enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Rule the whole world </li></ul>
  12. 12. What are the Jewish holy books? <ul><li>TeNaKh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Torah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophets (Neviim) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writings (Ketuvim) </li></ul></ul>Torah scroll Dressed Torah Yad
  13. 13. The Talmud <ul><li>Mishnah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgements, opinions, practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gemara </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussions of mishnah </li></ul></ul>Babylonian Talmud Page of Talmud
  14. 14. Celebrating Shabbat <ul><li>Woman of the house welcomes the Sabbath </li></ul><ul><li>Kiddush </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blessing and drinking wine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blessing the day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blessing wife and children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shabbat meal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 loaves bread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Songs, prayer </li></ul></ul>Hallot
  15. 15. Celebrating the Sabbath <ul><li>Synagogue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shabbat shalom” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liturgy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torah reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sermon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Songs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Havdulah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Candle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spice box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shavua tov” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The synagogue <ul><li>House of worship, study and prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Community centre </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ner Tamid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bimah </li></ul></ul>Grand synagogue in Brussels Modern orthodox synagogue
  17. 17. The ark and bimah
  18. 18. Jewish leadership <ul><li>Rabbi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beth din </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cantor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scribe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Torah scrolls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shochet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaughterer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mohel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumcision </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Brit millah (circumcision) <ul><li>Sign of the covenant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer before circumcision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Praised be Thou, O Lord our G-d, ruling spirit of the universe who has commanded us to enter into the covenant of our father Abraham.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer after circumcision: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ As he entered the covenant, so may he enter into the love of the Torah, into the marriage canopy and into the life of good deeds.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Bar mitzvah <ul><li>Meaning: son of the commandment </li></ul><ul><li>13 years old - becomes an adult </li></ul><ul><li>Read Torah in public </li></ul><ul><li>Father’s blessing </li></ul><ul><li>Celebratory meal </li></ul>
  21. 21. Marriage <ul><li>Plan of God </li></ul><ul><li>Bride and groom fast </li></ul><ul><li>Ketubah </li></ul><ul><li>Betrothal </li></ul><ul><li>Chuppah </li></ul><ul><li>Wine, ring </li></ul><ul><li>7 benedictions </li></ul><ul><li>Break a glass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Mazel tov’ </li></ul>
  22. 22. Festivals
  23. 23. Rosh Hashanah <ul><li>Jewish New Year </li></ul><ul><li>Birthday of the world and Adam </li></ul><ul><li>Day of Judgement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st of 10 days of repentance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 books opened to righteous, wicked and in-between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer, apologies, fasting, hesed , self-reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shofar blown 100 times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repentance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronation of God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creator of the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judge of the world </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Yom Kippur <ul><li>Day of Atonement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of causing act to be forgiven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 hour fast and prayer in synagogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No eating and drinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No wearing of leather shoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No bathing or washing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No anointing oneself with perfumes or lotions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No marital relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No dealing with money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Person’s fate for the year sealed </li></ul>
  25. 25. Hanukkah <ul><li>Celebrate the Everlasting Light burning for 8 days - 165 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Judah the Maccabee and Antiochus Epiphanes </li></ul><ul><li>Family festival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food cooked in oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents exchanged </li></ul></ul>Hannukiah Menorah
  26. 26. Pesach (Passover) <ul><li>Remember and relive the Exodus </li></ul><ul><li>Family festival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House cleaned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove leaven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seder meal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haggadah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 glasses wine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic foods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Songs and fun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Next year in Jerusalem” </li></ul>
  27. 27. Recent Jewish history
  28. 28. Destruction of Jerusalem and Israel <ul><li>First Jewish revolt against Roman rule </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple 70 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Jewish revolt 132-135 </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 Jews killed, 985 villages destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Jews forbidden to live in Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Judea renamed Palaestina </li></ul>Arch of Titus in Rome
  29. 29. New Jewish Diaspora
  30. 30. Anti-Semitism or Judeophobia <ul><li>Forced conversion and baptism </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory Christian sermons in synagogues </li></ul><ul><li>Public disputations </li></ul><ul><li>Burning of Jewish books </li></ul><ul><li>Forced into ghettos </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on professions </li></ul><ul><li>Expulsions and slaughter </li></ul><ul><li>Genocide </li></ul><ul><li>Holocaust denial </li></ul><ul><li>De-legitimising the State of Israel </li></ul>
  31. 31. Expulsions of Jews
  32. 32. Growth of the Jewish community in the Land of Israel <ul><li>Jews always lived in the Land of Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Jerusalem and Israel a constant theme in Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Jews often emigrated there in Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish philanthropists sponsored agricultural settlements in 19th century </li></ul>Mikveh Israel agricultural school 1870 Petah Tiqwa founded 1880
  33. 33. Growth of Zionism <ul><li>Movement to support a Jewish homeland in the Biblical Land of Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Response to rampant anti-Semitism of 19th century Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian pogroms and expulsions of 1880s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dreyfus Affair in France in 1890s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persecution 1930s and Holocaust 1940s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secular but with religious roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire for a refuge from persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to be self-governing independent nation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1st Zionist Congress 1897 </li></ul>
  34. 34. Balfour Declaration 1917 <ul><li>&quot;His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people , and . . . nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine . . .&quot; </li></ul>
  35. 35. British Mandate <ul><li>Britain given control of Palestine by Versailles Conference in 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Faisal-Weizmann Agreement signed </li></ul><ul><li>In 1920 the League of Nations gave Britain the mandate to administer Palestine and establish a Jewish homeland </li></ul>
  36. 36. Separation of Palestine & Jordan <ul><li>In 1921 Britain stopped Jewish settlement in Transjordan. </li></ul><ul><li>Gave the territory to Emir Abdullah who later became the first King of Jordan </li></ul>
  37. 37. Rise of Palestinian nationalism <ul><li>Muhammad Amin al-Husseini, a convicted anti-Jewish rioter, made Grand Mufti despite opposition of Muslim High Council in 1922 </li></ul><ul><li>He eliminated Arabs who opposed him and who wanted to cooperate with Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Instigated Arab revolts in 1920, 1927, 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Poisoned Jewish – Palestinian relations until today </li></ul>
  38. 38. Muhammad Amin al-Husseini <ul><li>Stayed with Hitler during WW2 </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged the Holocaust: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Mufti was one of the initiators of the systematic extermination of European Jewry and had been a collaborator and adviser of Eichmann and Himmler in the execution of this plan. ... He was one of Eichmann's best friends and had constantly incited him to accelerate the extermination measures.” Eichmann's deputy Dieter Wisliceny at Nuremburg Trials </li></ul><ul><li>Yasser Arafat was Husseini’s nephew </li></ul>
  39. 39. Between a rock and a hard place <ul><li>Jews wanted unlimited emigration to Palestine to escape persecution in Europe and verbally and violently rejected British attempts to limit immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs opposed Jewish immigration as they saw it would lead to a Jewish majority and the loss of their country. So they verbally and violently attacked Britain for allowing it </li></ul>
  40. 40. Jews in Europe in 1933
  41. 41. Jewish emigration
  42. 42. Extent of the Holocaust Country Jewish pop. Sept. 1939 Number Jews murdered Percentage of Jews murdered Poland 3,300,000 2,800,000 85 Soviet Union 2,100,000 1,500,000 71 Romania 850,000 425,000 50 Hungary 404,000 200,000 50 Czechoslovakia 315,000 260,000 82 France 300,000 90,000 30 Germany 210,000 171,000 81 Lithuania 150,000 135,000 90 Holland 150,000 90,000 60 Others 522,000 313,000 60 Total 8,301,000 5,978,000 72
  43. 44. Letter found near a dead child at Ravensbruch concentration camp <ul><ul><ul><li>O, Lord, remember not only the men and women of good will, but also those of evil will. But do not remember all the suffering they have inflicted upon us; remember the fruits we have borne thanks to this suffering— our comradeship, our loyalty, our humility, our courage, our generosity, the greatness of heart which has grown out of all this; and when they come to the judgement, let all the fruits that we have borne be their forgiveness. </li></ul></ul></ul>&quot;The Holocaust was a Cain inspired action, one of Hitler’s satanic designs and plans which should have been prevented by a unified front of all Christian and Jewish forces.” Sun Myung Moon 1975
  44. 45. Jews in Europe in 1950
  45. 46. UN partition plan of 1947 <ul><li>2 state solution with Jerusalem under international control </li></ul><ul><li>Most Jews accepted the plan </li></ul><ul><li>Arab leadership in and out of Palestine rejected the plan </li></ul><ul><li>Britain refused to implement the plan & ended mandate on 15 th May 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>5 Arab armies invade Israel </li></ul>
  46. 47. After the 1949 armistice <ul><li> The territory of the State of Israel proposed by the UN in 1947 </li></ul><ul><li> Territory conquered by Israel 1948-49 </li></ul><ul><li>New frontier agreed in 1949 armistice </li></ul><ul><li>West Bank annexed by Jordan in 1950 </li></ul>
  47. 48. Refugees, refugees <ul><li>600,000 Jews expelled/encouraged to leave Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Libya, Egypt etc. They left behind houses, businesses, possessions </li></ul><ul><li>They fled to Israel where they settled </li></ul><ul><li>720,000 Palestinians fled to Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, West Bank, Gaza </li></ul><ul><li>They were not given citizenship but kept in refugee camps until today </li></ul>
  48. 49. Palestinian refugees 1948 <ul><li>“ The Arab States encouraged the Palestine Arabs to leave their homes temporarily in order to be out of the way of the Arab invasion armies,” </li></ul><ul><li>Jordanian newspaper Filastin (February 19, 1949) </li></ul>
  49. 50. Jewish refugees 1948 In 1948 800,000 Jews were encouraged or forced to leave Muslim countries where their ancestors had lived for up to 2500 years. Their possessions were seized without compensation. About 600,000 settled in Israel and were given citizenship. Another 300,000 sought refuge elsewhere. 1948 2000 Country Jewish population Jewish population Morocco 265,000 5,800 Algeria 140,000 100 Tunisia 105,000 1,300 Libya 38,000 0 Egypt 75,000 200 Lebanon 6,000 0 Syria 30,000 200 Iraq 150,000 100 Iran 100,000 12,500 Afghanistan 5,000 2 Pakistan 2,000 300 Yemen 63,000 200 Ethiopia 23,270 100 Total 1,002,270 20,800
  50. 51. Jewish contributions <ul><li>0.25% world population </li></ul><ul><li>22% Nobel prize winners </li></ul><ul><li>47% world chess champions </li></ul><ul><li>51% Oscars for best score & best song </li></ul><ul><li>Thinkers of the 20th Century - 30% </li></ul><ul><li>40% eminent psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Business, finance, education, medicine, government, Hollywood, cosmetics, literature, law, philosophy, charity etc. </li></ul>
  51. 52. Summing up <ul><li>To the Jews we owe the idea of equality before the law, both divine and human; of the sanctity of life and the dignity of the human person; of the individual conscience, and so of personal redemption; of the collective conscience, and so of social responsibility; of peace as an abstract ideal and love as the foundation of justice, and many other items that constitute the basic moral furniture of the human mind. Without the Jews it might have been a much emptier place. Above all, the Jews taught us how to rationalise the unknown. The result was monotheism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul Johnson, Roman Catholic historian </li></ul></ul>

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