Good governance powerpoint WH

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An exposition of the social, economic and political implications of the Principle

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  • We are living in a time when politics intrudes on our lives from everywhere. As soon as we turn on the radio or the TV, we immediately hear politicians complaining about the state of affairs and promising to solve all problems if they could get the power. Periodically adult citizens have an opportunity to vote in an election to decide which candidates will get into power. Therefore, it is very important to consider the role and the function of the government, to evaluate, judge and to respond intelligently to what is going on in the world of politics.
  • Government of people .therefore need to understand what it is to be human. Good understanding of human nature the basis of all good theories of government. Theories which have led to disaster based on faulty theories.
  • Aristotle said this 2500 years ago. Still repeated and still quoted because he was right. Rings true. Makes sense. He didn’t discover it just articulated it because he had an accurate understanding of human nature. Wisdom. So many cruddy theories been discredited. Raises questions What is it that brings happiness. Turn again to the master Important to have an accurate unerstaning of human nature. Realistic. Not idealistic. Tailor instituions to suit people, not people to suit instituions.
  • The first question we should ask ourselves is this: What is the purpose of government ? To answer this question we have to look back at history so as to understand the origin of society. Was there ever a time when the society did not exist and people lived separately from each other? Hardly, as Aristotle noted a long time ago:
  • This is based on Rev Ahn's lecture
  • Why the tribes of Israel wanted a king like other people War is the mother of government Origin lof laws
  • Game of football rules players umpire penalties organising body
  • The family is a natural institution based on the conjugal love and sexual attraction between a man and woman and their desire for children who are the fruit of that love. Because they are so emotional, the bonds within the family are very strong and we naturally feel that there are ties of duty and obligation that link us together. These ties we feel not only for our immediate family but also for uncles, aunts, cousins, and other relatives even if we have never met them. Naturally, the more distant a relative is, the weaker the attachment becomes; yet it is not for nothing that we say 釘 blood is thicker than water. The most fundamental social relations we have are familial. In fact there has never been a society which has not had the family as its smallest and most basic unit. Love between a man and woman. Marriage. Conjugal love. Children as fruit and expression of their love. Parental love. Siblings. Family. Lineage. Grandkids. Balance between public and private individual/whole Drinking famly money ‘ Manners make the man’
  • 1948 Britain was still in pretty good shape! What would Elliot have said today?
  • There is only a certain amount that an individual can achieve by himself. It is possible to survive by oneself, grow one's own food, build one's own house, make one's own clothes etc. But much more can be accomplished by cooperating with others. Naturally people prefer to work with their relatives because usually they can trust them more. So one of the earliest and most important functions of the family was economic which is why in most traditional societies parents, children and other relatives worked together to secure all they needed to survive.
  • The most fundamental social relations we have are familial. In fact there has never been a society which has not had the family as its smallest and most basic unit. Love between a man and woman. Marriage. Conjugal love. Children as fruit and expression of their love. Parental love. Siblings. Family. Lineage. Grandkids.
  • As time goes on families expand gradually becoming small societies. As they do so the strength of affection between people declines as the distance between them increases. In favourable circumstances through intermarriage and friendship these small societies merge into a larger society. Usually they helped each other one way or another, they feasted together and celebrated important occasions and shared products of their work as far as they thought it just. In a closely related society traditions and customs developed which explained who should do and what they should do, and which role is assigned to everyone.
  • The first of these is stability of possession. People naturally share what they have within the family, with those for whom they have a natural affection. Scarcity though leads to envy and conflict. People want things for themselves and their family. But at the same time everyone wants to be left undisturbed in the enjoyment of his proper possessions. People want to own , not merely possess, goods. So the rule that "every man no matter how we happen to feel towards him, be left undisturbed in the enjoyment of his proper possessions" develops, and is followed because people believe it to be useful. They know their own desires, and through feeling sympathy for others, extrapolate that everyone feels the same way. Through this ownership relationship exists, not just between the person and the thing, but also between people, because that ownership is acknowledged. So ownership is defined relationally. It is an artificial social convention. But once everything is owned by someone, the contention is stopped as long as everyone abides by this convention. The de facto qualifications for ownership (Hume is not interested in abstract de jure ones), are present possession, occupation, prescription, accession and succession. These are the correct rules, because they are the ones most natural and in harmony with human nature and inclinations. Thus they are least likely to be questioned. The benefit of the institution of property is that the short term outlook of most people is replaced by a long term view. For example, if people can pass things on to their descendants, as is their natural inclination, they are more likely to be industrious and frugal. David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature (Oxford: Oxford University Press: Press, 1978), 501f. Hume's three Principles of Justice are comparable to the three Great Blessings in Divine Principle. This one, stability of possession is like the third blessing, to have dominion over the creation, to be Lord of Creation, co-creator with God and perfect one's creativity through this.
  • However it is not enough for people to have stability of possession. Since people have different goods there has to be a way for people to be able to exchange their property. The second principle is therefore, the convention that rights over goods may be transferred by consent, and only by consent. This means that trade the consequent division of labour becomes possible so that goods can be produced which are available to all. Hume, 514f. This principle compares to the second Blessing, the establishment of a family which is based on the give and take relationship.
  • Again, it is very inconvenient to have to barter and have simultaneous direct exchange of goods. One person's crops may be ripe in the spring and another's in the autumn. So the third principle is required, performance of promises. If people make promises which are directed towards some future performance, they should keep them. Otherwise there can be no trust, no trade and no society. Ibid., 516f. This compares to the first Blessing, that a person should unite mind and body centred upon God. The words and deeds of such a person would be the same. They would be trustworthy and keep their promises.
  • Jane Jacobs, Systems of survival
  • Good governance powerpoint WH

    1. 1. Good Governance Cleeve House 16 June 2010
    2. 3. What is the purpose of government?
    3. 4. What is it that all human beings want? <ul><li>In view of the fact that all knowledge and every pursuit aims at some good, what is the highest of all goods achievable by action? Verbally there is very general agreement; for both the general run of men and people of superior refinement it is happiness; they identify living well and doing well with being happy. Aristotle </li></ul>
    4. 5. People are social beings <ul><li>&quot;It would be strange to represent the supremely happy man as a recluse. No one would choose to have all possible good things on the condition that he must enjoy them alone; for man is a social being and one whose nature is to live with others; accordingly the happy man must have society, for then he has everything that is naturally good.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul>
    5. 6. How is happiness attained? <ul><li>When our desires are fulfilled. </li></ul><ul><li>Hungry -> food -> happy </li></ul><ul><li>Missing someone -> see them -> happiness </li></ul>
    6. 7. The problem is that . . . <ul><li>Some desires are unrealistic </li></ul><ul><li>Some desires are immature </li></ul><ul><li>Some desires are excessive </li></ul><ul><li>Some desires are wrong </li></ul><ul><li>And this leads to unhappiness </li></ul>
    7. 8. Religions all recognize this <ul><li>Paul - ‘wretched man that I am’ </li></ul><ul><li>Jeremiah - ‘heart is corrupt’ </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism - all suffering caused by craving -> whole way of life based on extinguishing craving </li></ul><ul><li>Paradox - fulfilment of desire leads to both happiness and suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Desires need to be chanelled and controlled so they bring happiness and not suffering </li></ul>
    8. 9. What are the main desires people have? <ul><li>Desire to eat, sleep and be warm </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to experience love </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for social position or power </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to worship </li></ul>
    9. 10. Structures to satisfy these desires Religion To worship Education For knowledge and skills Civil society, politics For position and authority Economy For material things Family To experience love Social system Human desire
    10. 11. What is the purpose of government? <ul><li>Defence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To protect a country from invasion which would destroy a people’s way of life and prevent them from being happy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To maintain the laws necessary to create a realm of freedom so that people can live a moral and meaningful life and thus be happy and fulfilled </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. What is Law? <ul><li>System of rules that mediates the relations between people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates rights and obligations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The rule of law is better than the rule of any individual” Aristotle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom is to have a standing Rule to live by, common to every one of that Society, and made by the Legislative Power erected in it; A Liberty to follow my own Will in all things, where the Rule prescribes not; and not to be subject to the inconstant, uncertain, unknown, Arbitrary Will of another Man. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Where does law come from? <ul><li>Divine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosaic law, Sharia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Custom and judges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English Common law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislature </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. The family system Fulfiling the desire for loving relationships
    14. 15. Family as the locus of meaning <ul><li>Dwelling place of God - the family that prays together stays together </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual life creates hope for the future </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Reason to live and to multiply </li></ul>Shabbat prayer
    15. 16. Family as the school of love <ul><li>Place for love between husband and wife </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction and love between parents and children </li></ul><ul><li>Socialisation and education into the manners, customs and traditions of one’s community </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of culture and the good way of life </li></ul>
    16. 17. Family and culture <ul><li>“ By far the most important channel of transmission of culture remains the family; and when family life fails to play its part, we must expect our culture to deteriorate.” </li></ul><ul><li>T.S. Elliot Notes towards the definition of culture, 1948 </li></ul>
    17. 18. Family as an economic unit <ul><li>Work together to create wealth to support family and community </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a sense of responsible ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and realise creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Culture of giving and sharing </li></ul>
    18. 19. Family is the basis of society Love Life Lineage
    19. 20. Family crimes <ul><li>Adultery - chief cause of divorce and family break up </li></ul><ul><li>Unmarried mothers - every child has the right to a mother and a father </li></ul><ul><li>Child abuse and neglect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially common among step-families </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neglect of parents and grandparents </li></ul><ul><li>Government supplanting role of family in education, health, welfare, finance </li></ul>
    20. 21. Role of government <ul><li>Support traditional family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family and marriage law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tax system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favour marriage and children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inheritance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build up generational wealth and responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social security system should not subsidise unmarried mothers </li></ul><ul><li>Social services should be voluntary sector </li></ul>
    21. 22. The family is the basis of society Familial collapse -> social collapse Society more than just families Social structures and institutions Distinction between family and society family based on affection - forgiveness society based on justice Affection in social relations -> corruption (nepotism) Legalism in family relations -> destruction
    22. 23. Family -> society Family expands -> small society Affection declines as distance increases Scarcity of goods - selfishness/limitations to generosity -scarcity of desirable goods -> destructive conflict => Need framework of commonly accepted rules
    23. 24. The economic system Fulfilling the desire for goods to be able to live a comfortable life
    24. 25. <ul><li>Recognition and respect of ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between person and things </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between people - property is a social convention </li></ul><ul><li>End of disputes - stability of possession </li></ul><ul><li>3rd blessing. Lord of Creation </li></ul>
    25. 26. 2. Transfer of ownership <ul><li>Rights over goods transferred by consent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can give things to someone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can sell things to someone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place where transfer ownershp by exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin of money </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenient unit of exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-> division of labour and specialisation </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom and responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom within the law </li></ul><ul><li>2nd blessing - ethical relationships </li></ul>
    26. 27. 3. Performance of promises <ul><li>“ My word is my bond” </li></ul><ul><li>Promise keeping </li></ul><ul><li>1st Blessing </li></ul><ul><li>Society as moral </li></ul><ul><li>Self-limitation - don’t be greedy </li></ul><ul><li>Natural rational expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Trust people including strangers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free trade between strangers </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. 3 Principles of justice, 3 Blessings, 3 Laws <ul><li>Society of owners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd blessing - dominion over creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not steal/misuse public money </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Society as a market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd blessing - ethical relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not have immoral sexual relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Society as moral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st blessing - mind body unity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not hurt a person’s heart </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Economic crimes <ul><li>Theft, robbery, stealing, fraud, </li></ul><ul><li>Denial of private property - nationalisation without compensation; </li></ul><ul><li>Unreasonable and punitive taxation including taxation for social engineering such as inheritance tax </li></ul><ul><li>Reneging on agreements - not paying salaries, invoices, </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking promises </li></ul>
    29. 30. Role of government <ul><li>Establish and maintain simple legal framework for free market. </li></ul><ul><li>Law of contract, laws against theft, fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain independent judiciary </li></ul><ul><li>Independent central banks </li></ul><ul><li>Limited taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Government should not be involved in finance or the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise bureaucracy and corruption </li></ul>
    30. 31. Two incompatible syndromes <ul><li>Commercial moral syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Shun force </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Be honest </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate with strangers </li></ul><ul><li>Compete </li></ul><ul><li>Respect contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Use initiative and enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Be open to novelty </li></ul><ul><li>Be efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Promote convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Dissent for the task </li></ul><ul><li>Invest for productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Be industrious </li></ul><ul><li>Be thrifty </li></ul><ul><li>Be optimistic </li></ul><ul><li>Guardian moral syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Shun trading </li></ul><ul><li>Exert prowess </li></ul><ul><li>Be obedient and disciplined </li></ul><ul><li>Be exclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Respect hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Be loyal </li></ul><ul><li>Adhere to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Treasure honour </li></ul><ul><li>Be ostentatious </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy leisure </li></ul><ul><li>Deceive to achieve task </li></ul><ul><li>Take vengeance </li></ul><ul><li>Show fortitude </li></ul><ul><li>Dispense largesse </li></ul><ul><li>Be fatalistic </li></ul>
    31. 32. Civil society Fulfiling the desire for social position and power
    32. 33. Civil society <ul><li>Human desire to have position in society where can make a difference, unique contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Multitude of institutions in civil society: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics, businesses, charities, local government, religion, schools, hospitals etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civil society should be law governed </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of speech, movement, living, career </li></ul><ul><li>Meritocracy </li></ul>
    33. 34. Crimes against civil society <ul><li>Achieving position illegitimately </li></ul><ul><li>Murder, coups </li></ul><ul><li>Nepotism </li></ul><ul><li>Cronyism </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption, bribery </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination in public sector </li></ul><ul><li>Totalitarianism </li></ul>
    34. 35. Role of government <ul><li>Maintain an independent judiciary </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain roads, sewers </li></ul><ul><li>National defence </li></ul><ul><li>Safety net welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Government to protect way of life and not to engage in social engineering </li></ul>
    35. 36. Educational system Fulfilling the desire for knowledge and understanding of the world we are to inhabit
    36. 37. What is education? <ul><li>Education is the transaction between the generations when children are initiated into the world which they are to inhabit </li></ul><ul><li>This is not just transfer of knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>It is most fundamentally learning to perform humanly </li></ul>
    37. 38. Where does education take place? <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach children how to behave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To live a spiritual life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to think, not what to think or believe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swimming, gardening, house maintenance, money management etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History, literature, language, religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialised knowledge, skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More complex thinking </li></ul></ul>
    38. 39. Educational crimes <ul><li>Failing to pass on the wisdom of the ages- treason of intellectuals </li></ul><ul><li>Dumbing down </li></ul><ul><li>Indoctrination </li></ul><ul><li>Not graduating with qualifications and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Information without values, purpose, meaning </li></ul>
    39. 40. Schools should be . . . <ul><li>Independent - self-governing and not controlled by the state </li></ul><ul><li>Financed by fees, scholarships, vouchers </li></ul><ul><li>Free to specialise and set curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Not for indoctrination - religious or political </li></ul><ul><li>Follow public exams set by universities and other professional bodies </li></ul>
    40. 41. Religion To satisfy the desire to worship
    41. 42. Religion <ul><li>Acknowledgement of a dependence on a superhuman being expressed through acts of cult - worship of God </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with questions of meaning of life, right and wrong behavior, salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals to give meaning and sanctification to rites of passage such as marriage </li></ul>
    42. 43. Religious crimes <ul><li>Idolatry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mistaking the relative for the absolute </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sectarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Bigotry </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentalism </li></ul>
    43. 44. Role of government <ul><li>Allowing religious freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Enable religious communities to be involved in law making, education and values </li></ul>
    44. 45. Summary Idolatry Religion Worship Falsehood, indoctrination Education Knowledge, thinking Murder Civil society Position Stealing Economy Material things Adultery Family Experience love Crime Social system Human desire

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