4000 years ago. Accepted by Jews, Christians and Muslims
Abraham 99 years old and Sarah 90 years old
The reason for the Muslim veneration of this particular site: Qu’ran links the Prophet Muhammad with Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. The 17th Sura, entitled 'The Night Journey', relates that Muhammad was carried by night ' from the sacred temple to the temple that is most remote, whose precinct we have blessed, that we might show him our signs...' Muslim belief identifies the two temples as being in Mecca and Jerusalem. According to tradition, Muhammad's mystic night journey was in the company of the Archangel Gabriel, and they rode on a winged steed called El Burak (meaning `lightning'), which according to Islamic Hadith tradition was a winged, horse-like creature that was &quot;smaller than a mule, but larger than a donkey.&quot; Stopping briefly at Mt. Sinai and Bethlehem, they finally alighted at Temple Mount in Jerusalem, and there encountered Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets, whom Muhammad led in prayers. Gabriel then escorted Muhammad to the pinnacle of the rock, which the Arabs call as-Sakhra , where a ladder of golden light materialized. On this glittering shaft, Muhammad ascended through the 7 heavens into the presence of Allah, from whom he received instructions for himself and his followers. Following his divine meeting, Muhammad was flown back to Mecca by Gabriel and the winged horse, arriving there before dawn. At this hallowed site, known in Arabic as Haram al Sharif , the 9th Caliph, Abd al-Malik, built the great Dome of the Rock between 687 and 691. Often incorrectly called the Mosque of Umar, the Dome of the Rock, known in Arabic as Qubbat As-Sakhrah , is not a mosque for public worship but rather a mashhad , a shrine for pilgrims. Adjacent to the Dome is the Al-Aqsa Mosque wherein Muslims make their prayers.
First Diaspora. Jews settled throughout Babylonian, Persian, Roman empires. Jews settled in Babylon (Iraq) up until today. Emperor Pompey conquered Jerusalem in 63 BC. Jews made up 10% of the population of the Roman Empire
Picture – relief from Arch of Titus in Rome built to celebrate Titus’ conquest of Judea 66-70
Muhammad saw himself as the successor to Abraham, Moses, David and Jesus and the inheritor of their legacy and position. Thus he expected Jews and Christians to recognise the legitimacy of his revelation and authority as a prophet. By building the Dome of the Rock Muslims were claiming the legacy of Abraham and the Temple. The Qu’ran teaches Muslims to respect Jews and Christians and their scriptures Ibn Khaldun, the greatest of all Islamic historians and a key witness from the period just after the Crusades, compares Islam with Christianity and Judaism in this respect: In the Muslim community, the holy war is a religious duty, because of the universalism of the Muslim mission and the obligation to convert everybody to Islam either by persuasion or force . . . The other religious groups did not have a universal mission, and the holy war was not a religious duty to them, save only for purposes of defence.
Spain invaded in 711. Muslim expansion into Europe halted in 732 at the Battle of Tours by Charles Martel Huge expansion in very short time. Pressure on Europe from east and west. Jihad for 1000 years until temporary stop after defeat at gates of Vienna in 1683 Muslim sharia law has concept of waqf – any land conquered by Muslims has been consecrated as belonging to all future generations of Muslims until day of resurrection and can never be relinquished.
Fatimid caliphs were Ismailis opposed by Sunnis in Baghdad. Al-Hakim bi-Amr was regarded as mad – (totally in MHO) His followers thought he was the incarnation of God. After he disappeared proclaimed founder of Druze religion The Fatimids, however, were the heads of a rival religious movement—the Isma'ili sect of the Shi'i branch—and dedicated to the overthrow of the existing religious and political order in all Islam. Unlike their predecessors, they refused to offer even nominal recognition to the 'Abbasid caliphs, whom they rejected as usurpers. They themselves—as Isma'ili imam s (spiritual leaders), descendants of the Prophet through his daughter Fatimah and his kinsman 'Ali—were, in the eyes of their followers, the rightful caliphs, both by descent and by divine choice the custodians of the true faith and the legitimate heads of the universal Islamic state and community.
Ottoman expansion into Europe for 300 years. 1683 Ottomans besieged Vienna for 2 nd time – a long term target for conquest. Many countries answered Pope’s call to defend Christian Europe. Holy League led by King Sobieski of Poland defeated Ottomans. (French didn’t help but attacked the Germans from the rear)
Root of hatred of Jews is envy and thus ultimately irrational. Better to say judeophobia, Judeophobia is: Oldest hatred Universal Permanent Deep Obsessive Dangerous Based on fantasy Sermons 820 – 1850 Disputations – forced to defend their faith in set piece ‘dialogues’ Book burning 1236 - Last burning of Talmud 1757 in Poland Ghettos 1516 (Venice) – 1796 Expulsions 1290 – No matter how intently and desperately individual Jews tried to de-emphasize these confrontational aspects of their religion, and sought to identify themselves with the imperial powers and their values, the spirit of independence and freedom made the Jews the most rebellious People of the ancient world. The Jews were the group that rebelled against Hellenistic and then Roman rule with greater ferocity and tenacity than any other. Jews differed from other people precisely because they followed norms that seemed subversive to the established order. Jews seemed unwilling to accept &quot;reality&quot; and subordinate themselves to imperial powers. This made them seem threatening to the ruling elites, who sought to make their subjects distrust Jews before they got too friendly with them and heard the Jews' ideals of egalitarian society. Maurice Samuel wrote a series of books between 1924 and 1950 in which Judeophobia is not a Jewish problem, but an affliction of the Gentiles to which Jews had to accustom themselves. Western man hates the Jew because he is the jailer who had bound the world with fetters of moral law. This is &quot;the great hatred&quot; in the amoral pagan soul. A not very different position was taken by Prager and Telushkin in their 1983- Why the Jews? where the higher quality of Jewish life arouses continuous and uncompromising envy of the non-Jewish world. Eliane Amado Levy-Valensi offered her interpretation during the 1960s: Judeophobia is the result of the Gentiles' failure in stealing Jewish history for themselves. &quot;Judaism was already an ancient religion, possessed of a great literature, with great heroes and wise men in its past, and a divine promise of an even more glorious future. Christianity possessed none of these. From the very outset, therefore, the Christians laid claim to the Bible, at first merely as predicting Jesus and later as being exclusively their own.&quot; Also the plight of the Palestinians could be explained from the same perspective. Even Jesus is presented by them as &quot;a Palestinian.&quot; The lack of a long history of their own, brings other peoples to hate Jewish ownership of a past.
Jews generally settled where Arabs didn’t live. Jews attitude to Arabs was arrogant and overbearing.
Break up of Ottoman Empire. Agreement negotiated in November 1915 and signed May 16 1916.
24 October 1915. MacMahon was British High Commissioner in Egypt. He was not aware of Sykes-Picot agreement. Agreement made with Hussein ibn Ali, Sahrif of Mecca
The conflicting agreements are partly the result of changing progress during the war, switching in the earlier correspondence from needing Arab help to subsequently trying to enlist the help of Jews in the United States in getting the US to join the First World War , in conjunction with the Balfour Declaration, 1917 .
Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3 , 1919 . The agreement committed both parties to conducting all relations between the groups by the most cordial goodwill and understanding, to work together to encourage immigration of Jews into Palestine on a large scale while protecting the rights of the Arab peasants and tenant farmers, and to safeguard the free practice of religious observances. The Muslim Holy Places were to be under Muslim control. The Zionist movement undertook to assist the Arab residents of Palestine and the future Arab state to develop their natural resources and establish a growing economy. Early on seemed to have been real possibility of Jews being welcomed by Arabs. British contributed to bad feeling
Due to Arab unhappiness at idea of Jewish homeland Britain restricted Jewish immigration to Palestine and set up beginning of Hashemite Kingdom. Zionists not happy as regarded whole area as future Jewish homeland
Amin al-Husseini studied religious law at al-Azhar University, Cairo, and attended the Istanbul School of Administration. In 1913 he went to Mecca on a pilgrimage, earning the honorary title of &quot;Hajji&quot;. He voluntarily joined the Ottoman Turkish army in World War I but returned to Jerusalem in 1917 and expediently switched sides to aid the victorious British. He acquired the reputation as a violent, fanatical anti-Zionist zealot and was jailed by the British for instigating a 1920 Arab attack against Jews who were praying at the Western Wall. The first Palestine High Commissioner. Sir Herbert Samuel arrived in Palestine on July 1, 1920. He was a weak administrator who was too ready to compromise and appease the extremist, nationalistic Arab minority led by Haj Amin al-Husseini. When the existing Arab Mufti of Jerusalem (religious leader) died in 1921, Samuels was influenced by anti-Zionist British officials on his staff. He pardoned al-Husseini and, in January 1922, appointed him as the new Mufti, and even invented a new title of Grand Mufti. He was simultaneously made President of a newly created Supreme Muslim Council. Al-Husseini thereby became the religious and political leader of the Arabs. The appointment of the young al-Husseini as Mufti was a seminal event. Prior to his rise to power, there were active Arab factions supporting cooperative development of Palestine involving Arabs and Jews. But al-Husseini would have none of that; he was devoted to driving Jews out of Palestine, without compromise, even if it set back the Arabs 1000 years. Al-Husseini represented newly emerging proponents of militant, Palestinian Arab nationalism, a previously unknown concept. Once he was in power, he began a campaign of terror and intimidation against anyone opposed to his rule and policies. He killed Jews at every opportunity, but also eliminated Arabs who did not support his campaign of violence. Husseini was not willing to negotiate or make any kind of compromise for the sake of peace. According to documentation from the Nuremberg and Eichmann trials, the Nazi Germany SS helped finance al-Husseini's efforts in the 1936-39 revolt in Palestine. Adolf Eichmann actually visited Palestine and met with al-Husseini at that time and subsequently maintained regular contact with him later in Berlin. In 1940, al-Husseini requested the Axis powers to acknowledge the Arab right: ... to settle the question of Jewish elements in Palestine and other Arab countries in accordance with the national and racial interests of the Arabs and along the lines similar to those used to solve the Jewish question in Germany and Italy. While in Baghdad, Syria al-Husseini aided the pro-Nazi revolt of 1941. He then spent the rest of World War II as Hitler's special guest in Berlin , advocating the extermination of Jews in radio broadcasts back to the Middle East and recruiting Balkan Muslims for infamous SS &quot;mountain divisions&quot; that tried to wipe out Jewish communities throughout the region. At the Nuremberg Trials, Eichmann's deputy Dieter Wisliceny (subsequently executed as a war criminal) testified: The Mufti was one of the initiators of the systematic extermination of European Jewry and had been a collaborator and adviser of Eichmann and Himmler in the execution of this plan. ... He was one of Eichmann's best friends and had constantly incited him to accelerate the extermination measures. I heard him say, accompanied by Eichmann, he had visited incognito the gas chamber of Auschwitz. From Egypt al-Husseini was among the sponsors of the 1948 war against the new State of Israel . Spurned by the Jordanian monarch, who gave the position of Grand Mufti of Jerusalem to someone else, Haj Amin al-Husseini arranged King Abdullah's assassination in 1951 , while still living in exile in Egypt. King Tallal followed Abdullah as king of Jordan, and he refused to give permission to Amin al-Husseini to come into Jordanian Jerusalem. After one year, King Tallal was declared incompetent; the new King Hussein also refused to give al-Husseini permission to enter Jerusalem. King Hussein recognized that the former Grand Mufti would only stir up trouble and was a danger to peace in the region.
British practiced divide and rule and didn’t try to bring the Jews and Arabs together
Winston Churchill was a prominent Zionist
Always been Jewish people living in area especially in Jerusalem.
After Hitler came to power many Jews left Germany
Source: Cited in Landau, The Nazi Holocaust, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1994. These data originally appeared in Poliakov and Wulf (eds), Das Dritte Reich und die Juden: Documente und Aufsatze (Arani Verlag, GmbH, Berlin, 1955)
After the Holocaust many Jews wanted to go to Israel. They were not welcome and had no desire to go back to their homes which had often been confiscated and the new inhabitants would not give them back.
Important point. Palestine had already been divided into 2. The East Bank - Jordan - was for Palestinan Arabs.
The April 9 Deir Yassin massacre , by Irgun and Lehi forces, of at least 107 Arabs was denounced by Ben Gurion .
The 1949 border is result of armistice - not a border fixed by treaty
Many leaders on both sides Arab and Israeli saw in terms of population exchange as happened between Greece and Turkey in 1920s and India and Pakistan in 1947.
Grand mufti also encouraged Palestinians to leave so wouldn’t be in the way during battle. Jews tried to persuade Arabs to stay
Around 758,000 to 866,000 of the Jews living in Arab countries and territories left or were forced to leave their countries of birth; 600,000 of these people fled or emigrated to Israel , with another 300,000 seeking refuge in various Western countries, primarily France .
UN peace keepers there after 1956 Suez crisis
1967-1973 Soviet Union rearmed Egypt, Syria and Iraq for free as part of their geopolitical strategy. Gave Arabs back self respect. Big shock to Israeli self-esteem
Barak offered 94% of territory excl. greater Jerusalem. Wanted road to Dead Sea from Jersualem which Arafat rejected Palestinians offered custodianship over temple mount but demanded sovereignty -> loss of Western Wall Palestinians want right to return to Israel. Israel says should be able to go to Palestine not Israel
Actually death of al-Durrah is disputed. Could have been staged.
The second largest refugee camp in the West Bank, and lying close to Israeli settlements and the green line , the Jenin camp had come under Palestinian civil and security control in 1995. According to Israeli and Palestinian observers who gave information to the UN, 200 armed men from the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades , Tanzim, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, and Hamas had been using the camp as a base, and of the 100 suicide bombers who had launched attacks since the intifada began in October 2000, 23  or 28  attacks had been launched from the Jenin camp. From the beginning of March until the first week in May 2002, there were approximately 16 bombings in Israel, mostly suicide attacks. More than 100 civilians were killed and scores wounded. 18 Israelis were killed in two separate Palestinian attacks on March 8 and March 9, and a terrorist attack in Netanya killed 30 and injured 140 on March 27. When Jenin came under Palestinian Authority control in 1995 per the Oslo Accords, it was under an agreement to protect Israeli civilians from attacks, including suicide bombings, emanating from areas under its security control. Liberal media claimed a massacre of 100s or 1000s. Led to disbelief in similar Arab claims
In June 2001 a grass roots organization called &quot; Fence for Life - The Public Movement for The Security Fence&quot;  began the grassroots effort for the construction of a continuous security fence. The movement was founded by people from all over Israel following the Dolphinarium terror attack . Barriers not unusual. Exist is China, N. Ireland, Morocco, India, Cyprus, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Thailand, Korea, USA. They exist for a variety of reasons. Usually to keep undesirables/illegals (for whatever reason) out. Rarely to keep people in - Berlin Wall.
PLO tried to take over Jordan and get rid of monarchy
Reaction against Arab domination. Appealed to non Arab Muslim converts. Rule by Persian bureaucracy replaced Arab aristocracy. Weakened by decentralising power.