Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
D
EPED
C
O
PY
10
Science
Department of Education
Republic of the Philippines
This book was collaboratively developed and r...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
ii
Science – Grade 10
Teacher’s Guide
First Edition 2015
Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copy...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
UNIT 3. Living Things and their Environment
Introduction.......................................................
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Module 2. Heredity: Inheritance and Variation....................................191
Overview..................
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Module 4. Ecosystem: Biodiversity....................................................240
Overview..............
D
EPED
C
O
PY
RepublicofthePhilippines
DepartmentofEducation
DepEdComplex,MeralcoAvenue
PasigCity
December2013
Kto12Curric...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
CONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK
Scienceeducationaimstodevelopscientificliteracyamonglearne...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
TheConceptualFrameworkofScienceEducation
Developingand
DemonstratingScientific...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
CORELEARNINGAREASTANDARD:(SCIENCEFORTHEENTIREKTO12)
Thelearnersdemonstrateunde...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
GRADE/LEVELGrade-LevelStandards
Kindergarten
Thelearnerswilldemonstrateanemerg...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
GRADE/LEVELGrade-LevelStandards
Grade5
AttheendofGrade5,learnerscandecidewheth...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
GRADE/LEVELGrade-LevelStandards
Grade7
AttheendofGrade7,learnerscandistinguish...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
GRADE/LEVELGrade-LevelStandards
Grade10
AttheendofGrade10,learnersrealizethatv...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
SPIRALLINGOFCONCEPTSGRADE3–GRADE10
MATTER
Grade3Grade4Grade5Grade6
PROPERTIESO...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10
PROPERTIESANDSTRUCTUREOFMATTER
InGrade6,learnerslear...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
LIVINGTHINGSANDTHEIRENVIRONMENT
Grade3Grade4Grade5Grade6
PARTSANDFUNCTIONOFANI...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10
PARTSANDFUNCTION:ANIMALANDPLANTS
InGrade7,learnersar...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10
Organismsofthesamekindinteract
witheachothertoformpo...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10
FORCEANDMOTION
Fromasimpleunderstandingofmotion,
lea...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
EARTHANDSPACE
Grade3Grade4Grade5Grade6
GEOLOGY
Learnerswilldescribewhatmakesup...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10
GEOLOGY
Learnerswillexploreandlocateplaces
usingacoo...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
GRADE10
CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS
PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS
LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE
G...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS
PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS
LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE
2.citeexa...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS
PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS
LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE
Grade10–L...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS
PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS
LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE
3.Biodive...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS
PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS
LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE
2.Biomole...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM
CODEBOOKLEGEND
Sample:S8ES-IId-19
LEGENDSAMPLE
FirstEntry
LearningAreaand
Stra...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
163
UNIT 3
Living Things and Their
Environment
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduc...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
164
UNIT 3: Living Things and Their Environment
Introduction
In the past years, the students have learned ab...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
165
Content Standards
The learners demonstrate understanding
of…
Performance Standard
The learners…
the orga...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
166
At the end of this module, students are expected to:
1.	 Describe the parts of the nervous, endocrine, a...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
167
The Nervous System
The Structure of the Nervous System
Activity 1
Break It Down!
In this activity, stude...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
168
Teaching Tips:
•	 Before the students perform the activity, you may show pictures of the
different parts...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
169
	
When teaching about the nervous system, it is essential to go over the neu-
ron. Point out to the stud...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
170
Control of Body Processes through the Nervous System
The Nerve Impulse
Teaching Tips:
•	 Explain to the ...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
171
•	 For fast learners, you may show pictures, animated videos, and
interactive web applications depicting...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
172
Activity 2
How Fast Is Your Reaction?
Teaching Tips:
•	 One way of motivating the students is by actuall...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
173
		
Activity 3
A Nervous Trip
In this activity, the students will be able to explain how the body
process...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
174
•	 When giving instructions to the students, it is important to note that the
organ that will be receivi...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
175
•	 Design a flyer that will disseminate information about the different diseases
affecting the human ner...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
176
The Endocrine System
Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones
Gland Functions Location
Hormones
Released
Pitu...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
177
Activity 4
Who’s in Control?
In this activity, the learners will identify some of the major endocrine
gl...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
178
Answers to Guide Questions:
Q15.	 The pituitary gland controls the output of other glands in the body.
Q...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
179
Activity 5
What Went Wrong?
This activity will get the students familiarized with the different disorder...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
180
The Reproductive System
The Male Reproductive System
Let the students be familiar with the functions of ...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
181
The Role of Hormones in Male and Female
Reproductive System
Feedback Mechanisms Involved in Regulating
P...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
182
•	 As a developmental activity, you may start by correcting myths and
misconceptions about menstruation....
D
EPED
C
O
PY
183
Nervous System Working Together with Endocrine
System to Maintain Homeostasis
Answers to Guide Questions...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
184
Performance Task: Video Making
Topic: Family Planning
Note to the Teacher: You may create your own rubri...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
185
Summary
•	The nervous system is composed of cells, tissues, and organs that regulate
the body’s response...
D
EPED
C
O
PY
186
•	Hormones affect various processes in the body as they regulate and balance
the functioning of organs, ...
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3

6,448 views

Published on

Teacher's Guide

Published in: Education
  • HOW TO UNLOCK HER LEGS! (SNEAK PEAK), learn more... ➤➤ http://ishbv.com/unlockher/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • If you want a girl to "chase" you, then you have to use the right "bait". We discovered 4 specific things that FORCE a girl to chase after you and try to win YOU over. copy and visiting...  http://scamcb.com/unlockher/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • We called it "operation mind control" - as we discovered a simple mind game that makes a girl become obsessed with you. (Aand it works even if you're not her type or she's already dating someone else) Here's how we figured it out... ➤➤ http://t.cn/AijLRbnO
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Settling for less on valentine's? Then you need VigRX pLUS! ▲▲▲ https://bit.ly/30G1ZO1
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • BIG semen gains, stronger, harder erections, and one happy G.F! ■■■ https://tinyurl.com/semenax101
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Deped - Grade 10 -- Science Teacher's Guide_Quarter 3

  1. 1. D EPED C O PY 10 Science Department of Education Republic of the Philippines This book was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at action@deped.gov.ph. We value your feedback and recommendations. Teacher’s Guide Unit All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015. DEPED TAMBAYAN http://richardrrr.blogspot.com/ 1. Center of top breaking headlines and current events related to Department of Education. 2. Offers free K-12 Materials you can use and share.
  2. 2. D EPED C O PY ii Science – Grade 10 Teacher’s Guide First Edition 2015 Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties. Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders. DepEd is represented by the Filipinas Copyright Licensing Society (FILCOLS), Inc. in seeking permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. All means have been exhausted in seeking permission to use these materials. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them. Only institutions and companies which have entered an agreement with FILCOLS and only within the agreed framework may copy from this Teacher’s Guide. Those who have not entered in an agreement with FILCOLS must, if they wish to copy, contact the publishers and authors directly. Authors and publishers may email or contact FILCOLS at filcols@gmail.com or (02) 439-2204, respectively. Published by the Department of Education Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, PhD Printed in the Philippines by: REX Book Store, Inc. Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (DepEd-IMCS) Office Address: 5th Floor Mabini Building, DepEd Complex Meralco Avenue, Pasig City Philippines 1600 Telefax: (02) 634-1054, 634-1072 E-mail Address: imcsetd@yahoo.com Development Team of the Teacher’s Guide Authors: Herma D. Acosta, Liza A. Alvarez, Dave G. Angeles, Ruby D. Arre, Ma. Pilar P. Carmona, Aurelia S. Garcia, Arlen Gatpo, Judith F. Marcaida, Ma. Regaele A. Olarte, Marivic S. Rosales and Nilo G. Salazar. Reviewers: Eligio C. Obille Jr., Marlene Ferido, Ma. Helen DH Catalan, Vic Marie Camacho, Lilia M. Rabago and Cerilina M. Maramag Illustrators: Joseph V. Bales, Ramon C. Gatpo, Regaele A. Olarte, Marivic S. Rosales, Ruel C. Quindoy, Antonio I. Basilla, and Jose Leo Vic O. Albaño DepEd Specialists: Joseph R. Jacob and Maria Amparo R. Ventura Photo Credits: Herma D. Acosta, Dave G. Angeles, Liza A. Alvarez, Ruby D. Arre, Aurelia S. Garcia, Judith F. Marcaida, Regaele A. Olarte, Jane Chavarria and Nilo G. Salazar, Layout Artists: Joselito B. Asi and John Ralph G. Sotto All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  3. 3. D EPED C O PY UNIT 3. Living Things and their Environment Introduction...........................................................................................164 Module 1. Coordinated Functions of the Nervous, Endocrine, and Reproductive System................................165 Pre-assessment..............................................................................166 The Nervous System......................................................................167 Activity 1. Break It Down!........................................................167 The Nerve Cell...............................................................................168 Control of Body Processes through the Nervous System..............170 Activity 2. How Fast Is Your Reaction?....................................172 Activity 3. A Nervous Trip........................................................173 The Endocrine System...................................................................176 Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones.........................................176 Activity 4. Who’s in Control?....................................................177 Activity 5. What Went Wrong?.................................................179 Menstrual Cycle.............................................................................181 Activity 6. Mark My Calendar!..................................................181 Nervouse System Working Together with Endoctrine System to Maintain Homeostasis................................183 Performance Task: Vidoe Making...................................................184 Summary........................................................................................185 Answers to Summative Assessment..............................................187 Glossary..........................................................................................188 References and Links.....................................................................189 TABLE OF CONTENTS All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  4. 4. D EPED C O PY Module 2. Heredity: Inheritance and Variation....................................191 Overview........................................................................................191 Answers to Pre-assessment...........................................................192 Activity 1. Getting to Know the DNA and RNA Structures.......193 Activity 2. DNA Makes DNA....................................................195 Activity 3. What’s the Message...............................................199 Activity 4. Relay the Message.................................................203 Activity 5. Trace the Code.......................................................207 Activity 6. Chromie Change.....................................................210 Summary........................................................................................214 Answers to Summative Assessment..............................................215 Glossary of Terms...........................................................................216 References and Links.....................................................................217 Module 3. Biodiversity and Evolution.................................................221 Overview.........................................................................................221 Answers to Pre-assessment...........................................................222 Sources of Evidences in the Study of Evolution............................223 Activity 1A. Where Do I Belong?.............................................224 Activity 1B. What’s My Age?...................................................226 Evolutionary Patterns from Comparative Anatomy.........................227 Activity 2. AHA! Analogous! Homologous!...............................228 Activity 3. So, Who is My Relative?.........................................229 Activity 4. Let’s Compare.........................................................230 Activity 5. Follow The Track.....................................................232 Activity 6. Survivor....................................................................233 Performance Task..........................................................................235 Summative Assessment.................................................................236 Summary of Concepts....................................................................237 Glossary..........................................................................................238 References.....................................................................................238 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  5. 5. D EPED C O PY Module 4. Ecosystem: Biodiversity....................................................240 Overview.........................................................................................240 Pre-assessment..............................................................................241 Biodiversity and Stability Activity 1. Classifying the Value of Biodiversity....................242 The Ups and Downs of Population Growth....................................242 Limiting Factors..............................................................................243 Activity 2. Dependent of Independent..................................245 Environmental Problems and Issues..............................................246 Activity 3. Analyzing Environmental Issues.........................247 Activity 4. Biodiversity Status in the Community..................248 Activity 5. Product Creation.................................................249 Activity 6. Showcasing of Products.....................................252 Answers to Summative Assessment..............................................253 Glossary of Terms..........................................................................254 References and Links.....................................................................255 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  6. 6. D EPED C O PY RepublicofthePhilippines DepartmentofEducation DepEdComplex,MeralcoAvenue PasigCity December2013 Kto12CurriculumGuide SCIENCE (Grade10) All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  7. 7. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK Scienceeducationaimstodevelopscientificliteracyamonglearnersthatwillpreparethemtobeinformedandparticipativecitizenswhoareabletomakejudgments anddecisionsregardingapplicationsofscientificknowledgethatmayhavesocial,health,orenvironmentalimpacts. Thesciencecurriculumrecognizestheplaceofscienceandtechnologyineverydayhumanaffairs.Itintegratesscienceandtechnologyinthesocial,economic, personalandethicalaspectsoflife.Thesciencecurriculumpromotesastronglinkbetweenscienceandtechnology,includingindigenoustechnology,thuspreservingour country’sculturalheritage. TheKto12sciencecurriculumwillprovidelearnerswitharepertoireofcompetenciesimportantintheworldofworkandinaknowledge-basedsociety.Itenvisions thedevelopmentofscientifically,technologically,andenvironmentallyliterateandproductivemembersofsocietywhoarecriticalproblemsolvers,responsiblestewardsof nature,innovativeandcreativecitizens,informeddecisionmakers,andeffectivecommunicators.Thiscurriculumisdesignedaroundthethreedomainsoflearningscience: understandingandapplyingscientificknowledgeinlocalsettingaswellasglobalcontextwheneverpossible,performingscientificprocessesandskills,anddevelopingand demonstratingscientificattitudesandvalues.Theacquisitionofthesedomainsisfacilitatedusingthefollowingapproaches:multi/interdisciplinaryapproach,science- technology-societyapproach,contextuallearning,problem/issue-basedlearning,andinquiry-basedapproach.Theapproachesarebasedonsoundeducationalpedagogy namely,constructivism,socialcognitionlearningmodel,learningstyletheory,andbrain-basedlearning. SciencecontentandscienceprocessesareintertwinedintheKto12Curriculum.Withoutthecontent,learnerswillhavedifficultyutilizingscienceprocessskillssince theseprocessesarebestlearnedincontext.Organizingthecurriculumaroundsituationsandproblemsthatchallengeandarouselearners’curiositymotivatesthemtolearn andappreciatescienceasrelevantanduseful.Ratherthanrelyingsolelyontextbooks,variedhands-on,minds-on,andhearts-onactivitieswillbeusedtodeveloplearners’ interestandletthembecomeactivelearners. Asawhole,theKto12sciencecurriculumislearner-centeredandinquiry-based,emphasizingtheuseofevidenceinconstructingexplanations.Conceptsandskillsin LifeSciences,Physics,Chemistry,andEarthSciencesarepresentedwithincreasinglevelsofcomplexityfromonegradeleveltoanotherinspiralprogression,thuspavingthe waytoadeeperunderstandingofcoreconcepts.Theintegrationacrosssciencetopicsandotherdisciplineswillleadtoameaningfulunderstandingofconceptsandits applicationtoreal-lifesituations. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  8. 8. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM TheConceptualFrameworkofScienceEducation Developingand DemonstratingScientific AttitudesandValues Brain-based learning Scientific,Technologicaland EnvironmentalLiteracy All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  9. 9. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CORELEARNINGAREASTANDARD:(SCIENCEFORTHEENTIREKTO12) Thelearnersdemonstrateunderstandingofbasicscienceconceptsandapplicationofscience-inquiryskills.Theyexhibitscientificattitudesandvaluestosolve problemscritically,innovatebeneficialproducts,protecttheenvironmentandconserveresources,enhancetheintegrityandwellnessofpeople,makeinformed decisions,andengageindiscussionsofrelevantissuesthatinvolvescience,technology,andenvironment. KEYSTAGESTANDARDS:(STANDARDSFORSCIENCELEARNINGAREASFORK-3,4-6,7-10AND11-2) K–34–67–1011-12 AttheendofGrade3,the learnersshouldhaveacquired healthfulhabitsand havedevelopedcuriosityabout selfandtheirenvironment usingbasicprocessskillsof observing,communicating, comparing,classifying, measuring,inferringand predicting.Thiscuriositywill helplearnersvaluescienceas animportanttoolinhelping themcontinuetoexploretheir naturalandphysical environment.Thisshouldalso includedevelopingscientific knowledgeorconcepts. AttheendofGrade6,thelearners shouldhavedevelopedtheessential skillsofscientificinquiry–designing simpleinvestigations,usingappropriate procedure,materialsandtoolstogather evidence,observingpatterns, determiningrelationships,drawing conclusionsbasedonevidence,and communicatingideasinvariedwaysto makemeaningoftheobservations and/orchangesthatoccurinthe environment.Thecontentandskills learnedwillbeappliedtomaintaingood health,ensuretheprotectionand improvementoftheenvironment,and practicesafetymeasures. AttheendofGrade10,thelearnersshould havedevelopedscientific,technological,and environmentalliteracyandcanmakethat wouldleadtorationalchoicesonissues confrontingthem.Havingbeenexposedto scientificinvestigationsrelatedtoreallife, theyshouldrecognizethatthecentralfeature ofaninvestigationisthatifonevariableis changed(whilecontrollingallothers),the effectofthechangeonanothervariablecan bemeasured.Thecontextoftheinvestigation canbeproblemsatthelocalornationallevel toallowthemtocommunicatewithlearners inotherpartsofthePhilippinesorevenfrom othercountriesusingappropriatetechnology. Thelearnersshoulddemonstratean understandingofscienceconceptsandapply scienceinquiryskillsinaddressingreal-world problemsthroughscientificinvestigations. AttheendofGrade12,thelearners shouldhavegainedskillsinobtaining scientificandtechnologicalinformation fromvariedsourcesaboutglobal issuesthathaveimpactonthe country.Theyshouldhaveacquired scientificattitudesthatwillallowthem toinnovateand/orcreateproducts usefultothecommunityorcountry. Theyshouldbeabletoprocess informationtogetrelevantdatafora problemathand.Inaddition,learners shouldhavemadeplansrelatedto theirinterestsandexpertise,with considerationfortheneedsoftheir communityandthecountry—to pursueeitheremployment, entrepreneurship,orhighereducation. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  10. 10. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM GRADE/LEVELGrade-LevelStandards Kindergarten Thelearnerswilldemonstrateanemergingunderstandingofthepartsoftheirbodyandtheirgeneralfunctions;plants,animalsandvaried materialsintheirenvironmentandtheirobservablecharacteristics;generalweatherconditionsandhowtheseinfluencewhattheywear;and otherthingsintheirenvironment.Understandingoftheirbodiesandwhatisaroundthemisacquiredthroughexploration,questioning,and carefulobservationastheyinferpatterns,similarities,anddifferencesthatwillallowthemtomakesoundconclusions. Grade1 AttheendofGrade1,learnerswillusetheirsensestolocateanddescribetheexternalpartsoftheirbody;toidentify,externalpartsofanimals andplants;totelltheshape,color,texture,taste,andsizeofthingsaroundthem;todescribesimilaritiesanddifferencesgiventwoobjects;to differentiatesoundsproducedbyanimals,vehiclescars,andmusicalinstruments;toillustratehowthingsmove;to,describetheweatherand whattodoindifferentsituations;touseappropriatetermsorvocabularytodescribethesefeatures;tocollect,sort,count,draw,takethings apart,ormakesomethingoutofthethings;topracticehealthyhabits(e.g.,washinghandsproperly,choosingnutritiousfood)andsafety measures(e.g.,helpingtocleanorpackawaytoys,askingquestionsandgivingsimpleanswers/descriptionstoprobingquestions). Grade2 AttheendofGrade2,learnerswillusetheirsensestoexploreanddescribethefunctionsoftheirsenses,comparetwoormoreobjectsand usingtwoormoreproperties,sortthingsindifferentwaysandgiveareasonfordoingso,describethekindofweatherorcertaineventsinthe homeorschoolandexpresshowtheseareaffectingthem,dosimplemeasurementsoflength,tellwhysomethingsaroundthemareimportant, decideifwhattheydoissafeordangerous;givesuggestionsonhowtopreventaccidentsathome,practiceelectricity,water,andpaper conservation,helptakecareofpetsorofplants,andtellshortstoriesaboutwhattheydo,whattheyhaveseen,orwhattheyfeel. Grade3 AttheendofGrade3,learnerscandescribethefunctionsofthedifferentpartsofthebodyandthingsthatmakeuptheirsurroundings---rocks andsoil,plantsandanimals,theSun,Moonandstars.Theycanalsoclassifythesethingsassolid,liquidorgas.Theycandescribehowobjects moveandwhatmakesthemmove.Theycanalsoidentifysourcesanddescribeusesoflight,heat,sound,andelectricity. Learnerscandescribechangesintheconditionsoftheirsurroundings.Thesewouldleadlearnerstobecomemorecuriousabouttheir surroundings,appreciatenature,andpracticehealthandsafetymeasures. Grade4 AttheendofGrade4,learnerscaninvestigatechangesinsomeobservablepropertiesofmaterialswhenmixedwithothermaterialsorwhen forceisappliedonthem.Theycanidentifymaterialsthatdonotdecayandusethisknowledgetohelpminimizewasteathome,school,andin thecommunity. Learnerscandescribethefunctionsofthedifferentinternalpartsofthebodyinordertopracticewaystomaintaingoodhealth.Theycanclassify plantsandanimalsaccordingtowheretheyliveandobserveinteractionsamonglivingthingsandtheirenvironment.Theycaninferthatplants andanimalshavetraitsthathelpthemsurviveintheirenvironment. Learnerscaninvestigatetheeffectsofpushorpullonthesize,shape,andmovementofanobject. Learnerscaninvestigatewhichtypeofsoilisbestforcertainplantsandinfertheimportanceofwaterindailyactivities.Theylearnedaboutwhat makesupweatherandapplytheirknowledgeofweatherconditionsinmakingdecisionsfortheday.TheycaninfertheimportanceoftheSunto lifeonEarth. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  11. 11. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM GRADE/LEVELGrade-LevelStandards Grade5 AttheendofGrade5,learnerscandecidewhethermaterialsaresafeandusefulbyinvestigatingaboutsomeoftheirproperties.Theycaninfer thatnewmaterialsmayformwhentherearechangesinpropertiesduetocertainconditions. Learnershavedevelopedhealthfulandhygienicpracticesrelatedtothereproductivesystemafterdescribingchangesthataccompanypuberty. Theycancomparedifferentmodesofreproductionamongplantandanimalgroupsandconductaninvestigationonpollination.Theyhave becomeawareoftheimportanceofestuariesandintertidalzonesandhelpintheirpreservation. Learnerscandescribethemovementofobjectsintermsofdistanceandtimetravelled.Learnersrecognizethatdifferentmaterialsreact differentlywithheat,light,andsound.Theycanrelatetheseabilitiesofmaterialstotheirspecificuses. Learnerscandescribethechangesthatearthmaterialsundergo.Theycanmakeemergencyplanswiththeirfamiliesinpreparationfortyphoons. TheycanobservepatternsinthenaturaleventsbyobservingtheappearanceoftheMoon. Grade6 AttheendofGrade6,learnersrecognizethatwhenmixedtogether,materialsmaynotformnewonesthusthesematerialsmayberecovered usingdifferentseparationtechniques.Theycanprepareusefulmixturessuchasfood,drinksandherbalmedicines. Learnersunderstandhowthedifferentorgansystemsofthehumanbodyworktogether.Theycanclassifyplantsbasedonreproductive structures,andanimalsbasedonthepresenceorlackofbackbone.Theycandesignandconductaninvestigationonplantpropagation.They candescribelargerecosystemssuchasrainforests,coralreefs,andmangroveswamps. Learnerscaninferthatfrictionandgravityaffecthowpeopleandobjectsmove.Theyhavefoundoutthatheat,light,sound,electricity,and motionstudiedearlierareformsofenergyandtheseundergotransformation. Learnerscandescribewhathappensduringearthquakesandvolcaniceruptionsanddemonstratewhattodowhentheyoccur.Theycaninfer thattheweatherfollowsapatterninthecourseofayear.Theyhavelearnedaboutthesolarsystem,withemphasisonthemotionsoftheEarth asprerequisitetothestudyofseasonsinanothergradelevel. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  12. 12. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM GRADE/LEVELGrade-LevelStandards Grade7 AttheendofGrade7,learnerscandistinguishmixturesfromsubstancesthroughsemi-guidedinvestigations.Theyrealizetheimportanceofair testingwhenconductinginvestigations.Afterstudyinghoworgansystemsworktogetherinplantsandanimalsinthelowergradelevels,learners canuseamicroscopewhenobservingverysmallorganismsandstructures.Theyrecognizethatlivingthingsareorganizedintodifferentlevels: Cells,tissues,organs,organsystems,andorganisms.Theseorganismscomprisepopulationsandcommunities,whichinteractwithnon-living thingsinecosystems. Learnerscandescribethemotionofobjectsintermsofdistanceandspeed,andrepresentthisintables,graphs,charts,andequations.Theycan describehowvariousformsofenergytravelthroughdifferentmediums. LearnersdescribewhatmakesupthePhilippinesasawholeandtheresourcesfoundinthearchipelago.Theycanexplaintheoccurrenceof breezes,monsoons,andITCZ,andhowtheseweathersystemsaffectpeople.Theycanexplainwhyseasonschangeanddemonstratehow eclipsesoccur. Grade8 AttheendofGrade8,learnerscandescribethefactorsthataffectthemotionofanobjectbasedontheLawsofMotion.Theycandifferentiate theconceptofworkasusedinscienceandinlayman’slanguage.Theyknowthefactorsthataffectthetransferofenergy,suchastemperature difference,andthetype(solid,liquid,orgas)ofthemedium. Learnerscanexplainhowactivefaultsgenerateearthquakesandhowtropicalcyclonesoriginatefromwarmoceanwaters.Theyrecognizeother membersofthesolarsystem. Learnerscanexplainthebehaviourofmatterintermsoftheparticlesitismadeof.Theyrecognizethatingredientsinfoodandmedicalproducts aremadeupoftheseparticlesandareabsorbedbythebodyintheformofions. Learnersrecognizereproductionasaprocessofcelldivisionresultingingrowthoforganisms.Theyhavedelveddeeperintotheprocessof digestionasstudiedinthelowergrades,givingemphasisonpropernutritionforoverallwellness.Theycanparticipateinactivitiesthatprotect andconserveeconomicallyimportantspeciesusedforfood. Grade9 AttheendofGrade9,learnershavegainedaadeeperunderstandingofthedigestive,respiratory,andcirculatorysystemstopromoteoverall health.Theyhavebecomefamiliarwithsometechnologiesthatintroducedesiredtraitsineconomicallyimportantplantsandanimals.Learners canexplainhownewmaterialsareformedwhenatomsarerearranged.Theyrecognizethatawidevarietyofusefulcompoundsmayarisefrom suchrearrangements. Learnerscanidentifyvolcanoesanddistinguishbetweenactiveandinactiveones.Theycanexplainhowenergyfromvolcanoesmaybetapped forhumanuse.Theyarefamiliarwithclimaticphenomenathatoccuronaglobalscale.Theycanexplainwhycertainconstellationscanbeseen onlyatcertaintimesoftheyear. Learnerscanpredicttheoutcomesofinteractionsamongobjectsinreallifeapplyingthelawsofconservationofenergyandmomentum. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  13. 13. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM GRADE/LEVELGrade-LevelStandards Grade10 AttheendofGrade10,learnersrealizethatvolcanoesandearthquakesoccurinthesameplacesintheworldandthatthesearerelatedtoplate boundaries.Theycandemonstratewaystoensuresafetyandreducedamageduringearthquakes,tsunamis,andvolcaniceruptions.Learners canexplainthefactorsaffectingthebalanceandstabilityofanobjecttohelpthempracticeappropriatepositionsandmovementstoachieve efficiencyandsafetysuchasinsportsanddancing.Theycananalyzesituationsinwhichenergyisharnessedforhumanusewherebyheatis released,affectingthephysicalandbiologicalcomponentsoftheenvironment.Learnerswillhavecompletedthestudyoftheentireorganism withtheirdeeperstudyoftheexcretoryandreproductivesystems.Theycanexplainingreaterdetailhowgeneticinformationispassedfrom parentstooffspring,andhowdiversityofspeciesincreasestheprobabilityofadaptationandsurvivalinchangingenvironments.Learnerscan explaintheimportanceofcontrollingtheconditionsunderwhichachemicalreactionoccurs.Theyrecognizethatcellsandtissuesofthehuman bodyaremadeupofwater,afewkindsofions,andbiomolecules.Thesebiomoleculesmayalsobefoundinthefoodtheyeat. SEQUENCEOFDOMAIN/STRANDSPERQUARTER G3G4G5G6G7G8G9G10 1stQuarterMatterMatterMatterMatterMatter Force,Motion,& Energy LivingThings andTheir Environment Earth&Space 2ndQuarter LivingThings andTheir Environment LivingThings andTheir Environment LivingThings andTheir Environment LivingThings andTheir Environment LivingThings andTheir Environment Earth&SpaceMatter Force,Motion,& Energy 3rdQuarter Force,Motion,& Energy Force,Motion,& Energy Force,Motion& Energy Force,Motion,& Energy Force,Motion,& Energy MatterEarth&Space LivingThings andTheir Environment 4thQuarterEarth&SpaceEarth&SpaceEarth&SpaceEarth&SpaceEarth&Space LivingThings andTheir Environment Force,Motion,& Energy Matter All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  14. 14. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM SPIRALLINGOFCONCEPTSGRADE3–GRADE10 MATTER Grade3Grade4Grade5Grade6 PROPERTIESOFMATTER Whenlearnersobservedifferentobjects andmaterials,theybecomeawareof theirdifferentcharacteristicssuchas shape,weight,definitenessofvolume andeaseofflow.Usingcharacteristics, objectsandmaterialscanbegrouped intosolids,liquidsorgases. Asidefrombeinggroupedinto solids,liquids,orgases,materials mayalsobegroupedaccordingto theirabilitytoabsorbwater, abilitytofloatorsink,and whethertheydecayornot Afterlearninghowtoreadandinterpret productlabels,learnerscancriticallydecide whetherthesematerialsareharmfulornot. Theycanalsodescribewaysinwhichthey canusetheirknowledgeofsolidsand liquidsinmakingusefulmaterialsand products. InGrade4,thelearnershaveobservedthe changeswhenmixingasolidinaliquidora liquidinanotherliquid. Fromtheseinvestigations,learnerscannow describetheappearanceofmixturesas uniformornon-uniformandclassifythemas homogeneousorheterogeneousmixtures. CHANGESTHATMATTERUNDERGO Usingthecharacteristicsobserved amongsolids,liquids,andgases, learnersinvestigatewaysinwhichsolid turnsintoliquid,solidintogas,liquid intogas,andliquidintosolid,as affectedbytemperature. Changesinsomecharacteristics ofsolidmaterialscanbeobserved whenthesearebent,hammered, pressed,andcut. Afterinvestigatingthechangesin someobservablecharacteristics ofmaterialsduetotemperature inGrade3,learnerscannow inquireaboutchangesobserved whenasolidismixedwitha liquidorwhenaliquidismixed withanotherliquid. Learnerslearnthatsomechanges inthecharacteristicsofaproduct suchasfoodormedicinemay affectitsquality.Onewayof findingoutisbyreadingand interpretingproductlabels.This informationhelpsthemdecide whentheseproductsbecome harmful. InGrade4,learnersinvestigatedchangesin materialsthattakeplaceatcertain conditions,suchasapplyingforce,mixing materials,andchangingthetemperature.In Grade5,theyinvestigatechangesthattake placeunderthefollowingconditions: presenceorlackofoxygen(inair),and applyingheat.Theylearnthatsomeof theseconditionscanresultinanew product.Knowingtheseconditionsenable themtoapplythe“5Rmethod”(recycling, reducing,reusing,recoveringandrepairing) athomeandinschool. Basedonthecharacteristicsofthecomponents ofaheterogeneousmixture,learners investigatewaysofseparatingthese componentsfromthemixture.Theywillinfer thatthecharacteristicsofeachofthe componentsremainthesameevenwhenthe componentispartofthemixture. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  15. 15. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10 PROPERTIESANDSTRUCTUREOFMATTER InGrade6,learnerslearnedhowto distinguishhomogenousfrom heterogeneousmixtures.InGrade7, learnersinvestigatepropertiesof solutionsthatarehomogeneous mixtures.Theylearnhowtoexpress concentrationsofsolutions qualitativelyandquantitatively.They distinguishmixturesfromsubstances basedonasetofproperties. Learnersbegintodoguidedand semi-guidedinvestigations,making surethattheexperimenttheyare conductingisafairtest. Usingmodels,learnerslearnthatmatteris madeupofparticles,thesmallestofwhich istheatom.Theseparticlesaretoosmallto beseenthroughamicroscope.The propertiesofmaterialsthattheyhave observedinearliergradescannowbe explainedbythetypeofparticlesinvolved andtheattractionbetweentheseparticles. Usingtheirunderstandingofatomic structurelearnedinGrade8,learners describehowatomscanformunits calledmolecules.Theyalsolearnabout ions.Further,theyexplainhowatoms formbonds(ionicandcovalent)with otheratomsbythetransferorsharing ofelectrons. Theyalsolearnthattheforcesholding metalstogetherarecausedbythe attractionbetweenflowingelectrons andthepositivelychargedmetalions. Learnersexplainhowcovalentbonding incarbonformsawidevarietyof carboncompounds. Recognizingthatmatterconsistsofan extremelylargenumberofverysmall particles,countingtheseparticlesis notpractical.So,learnersare introducedtotheunit—mole. Learnersinvestigatehowgasesbehavein differentconditionsbasedontheir knowledgeofthemotionofanddistances betweengasparticles.Learnersthen confirmwhethertheirexplanationsare consistentwiththeKineticMolecular Theory.Theyalsolearntherelationships betweenvolume,temperature,and pressureusingestablishedgaslaws. InGrade9,learnerslearnedthatthe bondingcharacteristicsofcarbonresultin theformationoflargevarietyof compounds.InGrade10,theylearnmore aboutthesecompoundsthatinclude biomoleculessuchascarbohydrates,lipids, proteins,andnucleicacids.Further,they willrecognizethatthestructureofthese compoundscomprisesrepeatingunitsthat aremadeupofalimitednumberof elementssuchascarbon,hydrogen, oxygen,andnitrogen. CHANGESTHATMATTERUNDERGO Learnersrecognizethatmaterials combineinvariouswaysandthrough differentprocesses,contributingto thewidevarietyofmaterials.Given thisdiversity,theyrecognizethe importanceofaclassificationsystem. Theybecomefamiliarwithelements andcompounds,metalsandnon- metals,andacidsandbases. Further,learnersdemonstratethat homogeneousmixturescanbe separatedusingvarioustechniques. Learnerslearnthatparticlesarealwaysin motion.Theycannowexplainthatthe changesfromsolidtoliquid,solidtogas, liquidtosolid,andliquidtogas,involve changesinthemotionofandrelative distancesbetweentheparticles,aswellas theattractionbetweenthem. Theyalsorecognizethatthesameparticles areinvolvedwhenthesechangesoccur.In effect,nonewsubstancesareformed. Learnersexplainhownewcompounds areformedintermsofthe rearrangementofparticles.Theyalso recognizethatawidevarietyofuseful compoundsmayarisefromsuch rearrangements. InGrade9,learnersdescribedhowparticles rearrangetoformnewsubstances.In Grade10,theylearnthatthe rearrangementofparticleshappenwhen substancesundergochemicalreaction.They furtherexplainthatwhenthis rearrangementhappens,thetotalnumber ofatomsandtotalmassofnewlyformed substancesremainthesame.Thisisthe LawofConservationofMass.Applyingthis law,learnerslearntobalancechemical equationsandsolvesimplemole-mole, mole-mass,andmass-massproblems. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  16. 16. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM LIVINGTHINGSANDTHEIRENVIRONMENT Grade3Grade4Grade5Grade6 PARTSANDFUNCTIONOFANIMALSANDPLANTS InGrade3,learnersobserveand describethedifferentpartsofliving thingsfocusingonthesenseorgans ofhumansandthemorefamiliar externalpartsofanimalsandplants. Theyalsoexploreanddescribe characteristicsoflivingthingsthat distinguishthemfromnon-living things. InGrade4,thelearnersareintroducedto themajororgansofthehumanbody. Theyalsolearnaboutsomepartsthathelp plantsandanimalssurviveinplaceswhere theylive. AfterlearninginGrade4howthemajor organsofthehumanbodywork together,thelearnersnowfocusonthe organsofthereproductivesystemsof humans,animals,andplants. InGrade6,learnersdescribethe interactionsamongpartsofthemajor organsofthehumanbody. Theyalsolearnhowvertebratesand invertebratesdifferandhownon- floweringplantsreproduce, HEREDITY:INHERITANCEANDVARIATION Learnerslearnthatlivingthings reproduceandcertaintraitsare passedontotheiroffspring/s. Learnerslearnthathumans,animals,and plantsgothroughlifecycles.Some inheritedtraitsmaybeaffectedbythe environmentatcertainstagesintheirlife cycles. Learnerslearnhowfloweringplantsand somenon-floweringplantsreproduce. Theyarealsointroducedtothesexual andasexualmodesofreproduction. Learnerslearnhownon-floweringplants (spore-bearingandcone-bearingplants, ferns,andmosses)reproduce. BIODIVERSITYANDEVOLUTION Differentkindsoflivingthingsare foundindifferentplaces. Learnersinvestigatethatanimalsandplants liveinspecifichabitats. Learnerslearnthatreproductive structuresserveasoneofthebasesfor classifyinglivingthings. Theylearnthatplantsandanimalsshare commoncharacteristicswhichserveas basesfortheirclassification. ECOSYSTEMS Learnerslearnthatlivingthings dependontheirenvironmentforfood, air,andwatertosurvive. Learnerslearnthattherearebeneficialand harmfulinteractionsthatoccuramongliving thingsandtheirenvironmentastheyobtain theirbasicneeds. Learnersareintroducedtothe interactionsamongcomponentsof largerhabitatssuchasestuariesand intertidalzones,aswellasthe conditionsthatenablecertain organismstolive. Learnersareintroducedtothe interactionsamongcomponentsof habitatssuchastropicalrainforests, coralreefs,andmangroveswamps. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  17. 17. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10 PARTSANDFUNCTION:ANIMALANDPLANTS InGrade7,learnersareintroduced tothelevelsoforganizationinthe humanbodyandotherorganisms. Theylearnthatorganismsconsistof cells,mostofwhicharegroupedinto organsystemsthatperform specializedfunctions. InGrade8,learnersgainknowledgeof howthebodybreaksdownfoodintoforms thatcanbeabsorbedthroughthedigestive systemandtransportedtocells. Learnerslearnthatgasesareexchanged throughtherespiratorysystem.This providestheoxygenneededbycellsto releasetheenergystoredinfood. Theyalsolearnthatdissolvedwastesare removedthroughtheurinarysystemwhile solidwastesareeliminatedthroughthe excretorysystem. Learnersstudythecoordinated functionsofthedigestive,respiratory, andcirculatorysystems. Theyalsolearnthatnutrientsenterthe bloodstreamandcombinewithoxygen takeninthroughtherespiratory system.Together,theyaretransported tothecellswhereoxygenisusedto releasethestoredenergy. Learnerslearnthatorganismshave feedbackmechanismsthatare coordinatedbythenervousand endocrinesystems.Thesemechanisms helptheorganismsmaintain homeostasistoreproduceandsurvive. HEREDITY:INHERITANCEANDVARIATION Afterlearninghowfloweringandnon floweringplantsreproduce,Grade7 learnersaretaughtthatasexual reproductionresultsingenetically identicaloffspringwhereassexual reproductiongivesrisetovariation. Learnersstudytheprocessofcelldivision bymitosisandmeiosis.Theyunderstand thatmeiosisisanearlystepinsexual reproductionthatleadstovariation. Learnersstudythestructureofgenes andchromosomes,andthefunctions theyperforminthetransmissionof traitsfromparentstooffspring. Learnersareintroducedtothestructure oftheDNAmoleculeanditsfunction. Theyalsolearnthatchangesthattake placeinsexcellsareinheritedwhile changesinbodycellsarenotpassedon. BIODIVERSITYANDEVOLUTION Learnerslearnthatthecellsinsimilar tissuesandorgansinotheranimals aresimilartothoseinhumanbeings butdiffersomewhatfromcellsfound inplants. Learnerslearnthatspeciesreferstoa groupoforganismsthatcanmatewithone anothertoproducefertileoffspring.They learnthatbiodiversityisthecollective varietyofspecieslivinginanecosystem. Thisservesasanintroductiontothetopic onhierarchicaltaxonomicsystem. Learnerslearnthatmostspeciesthat haveonceexistedarenowextinct. Speciesbecomeextinctwhentheyfailto adapttochangesintheenvironment. Learnersrevisitthemechanismsinvolved intheinheritanceoftraitsandthe changesthatresultfromthese mechanisms.Learnersexplainhow naturalselectionhasproduceda successionofdiversenewspecies. Variationincreasesthechanceofliving thingstosurviveinachanging environment. ECOSYSTEMS Learnerslearnthatinteractionsoccur amongthedifferentlevelsof organizationinecosystems. Learnerslearnhowenergyistransformed andhowmaterialsarecycledin ecosystems. Learnerslearnhowplantscapture energyfromtheSunandstoreenergyin sugarmolecules(photosynthesis).This Learnersinvestigatetheimpactofhuman activitiesandotherorganismson ecosystems. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  18. 18. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10 Organismsofthesamekindinteract witheachothertoformpopulations; populationsinteractwithother populationstoformcommunities. storedenergyisusedbycellsduring cellularrespiration.Thesetwoprocesses arerelatedtoeachother. Theylearnhowbiodiversityinfluencesthe stabilityofecosystems. FORCE,MOTIONANDENERGY Grade3Grade4Grade5Grade6 FORCEANDMOTION Learnersobserveandexploreand investigatehowthingsaroundthem moveandcanbemoved.Theyalso identifythingsintheirenvironment thatcancausechangesinthe movementofobjects. Learnersnowlearnthatifforceisapplied onanobject,itsmotion,size,orshape canbechanged.Theywillfurther understandthatthesechangesdepend ontheamountofforceappliedonit (qualitative).Theyalsolearnthat magnetscanexertforceonsomeobjects andmaycausechangesintheir movements. Thistime,learnersbegintoaccurately measuretheamountofchangeinthe movementofanobjectintermsofits distancetravelledandtimeoftravel usingappropriatetools. Asidefromtheidentifiedcausesof motioninGrade3,suchaspeople, animals,wind,andwater,learners alsolearnaboutgravityandfrictionas othercausesorfactorsthataffectthe movementofobjects. ENERGY Learnersobserveandidentifydifferent sourcesoflight,heat,sound,and electricityintheirenvironmentand theirusesineverydaylife. Learnerslearnthatlight,heat,andsound travelfromthesource.Theyperform simpleactivitiesthatdemonstratehow theytravelusingvariousobjects. Note:ElectricityisnotincludedinGrade 4becausetheconceptof‘flowof charges’isdifficulttounderstandatthis gradelevel. Thistime,learnersexplorehowdifferent objectsinteractwithlight,heat,sound, andelectricity(e.g.,identifyingpoorand goodconductorsofelectricityusing simplecircuits). Theylearnabouttherelationship betweenelectricityandmagnetismby constructinganelectromagnet. Theyalsolearnabouttheeffectsoflight, heat,sound,andelectricityonpeople. Atthisgradelevel,learnersare introducedtotheconceptofenergy. Theylearnthatenergyexistsin differentforms,suchaslight,heat, soundandelectricity,anditcanbe transformedfromoneformto another.Theydemonstratehow energyistransferredusingsimple machines. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  19. 19. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10 FORCEANDMOTION Fromasimpleunderstandingofmotion, learnersstudymorescientificwaysof describing(intermsofdistance,speed, andacceleration)andrepresenting (usingmotiondiagrams,charts,and graphs)themotionofobjectsinone dimension. Thistime,learnersstudytheconceptof forceanditsrelationshiptomotion. TheyuseNewton’sLawsofMotionto explainwhyobjectsmove(ordonot move)thewaytheydo(asdescribedin Grade7).Theyalsorealizethatifforce isappliedonabody,workcanbedone andmaycauseachangeintheenergy ofthebody. Todeepentheirunderstandingofmotion, learnersusetheLawofConservationof Momentumtofurtherexplainthemotion ofobjects. Frommotioninonedimensioninthe previousgrades,theylearnatthislevel aboutmotionintwodimensionsusing projectilemotionasanexample. Fromlearningthebasicsofforcesin Grade8,learnersextendtheir understandingofforcesbydescribing howbalancedandunbalancedforces, eitherbysolidsorliquids,affectthe movement,balance,andstabilityof objects. ENERGY Thistimelearnersrecognizethat differentformsofenergytravelin differentways—lightandsoundtravel throughwaves,heattravelsthrough movingorvibratingparticles,and electricalenergytravelsthroughmoving charges. InGrade5,theylearnedaboutthe differentmodesofheattransfer.This time,theyexplainthesemodesinterms ofthemovementofparticles. Learnersrealizethattransferredenergy maycausechangesinthepropertiesof theobject.Theyrelatetheobservable changesintemperature,amountof current,andspeedofsoundtothe changesinenergyoftheparticles. Learnersexplainhowconservationof mechanicalenergyisappliedinsome structures,suchasrollercoasters,andin naturalenvironmentslikewaterfalls.They furtherdescribethetransformationof energythattakesplaceinhydroelectric powerplants. Learnersalsolearnabouttherelationship betweenheatandwork,andapplythis concepttoexplainhowgeothermalpower plantsoperate. Aftertheyhavelearnedhowelectricityis generatedinpowerplants,learners furtherdeveloptheirunderstandingof transmissionofelectricityfrompower stationstohomes. Learnersacquiremoreknowledgeabout thepropertiesoflightasappliedin opticalinstruments. Learnersalsousetheconceptofmoving chargesandmagneticfieldsinexplaining theprinciplebehindgeneratorsand motors. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  20. 20. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM EARTHANDSPACE Grade3Grade4Grade5Grade6 GEOLOGY Learnerswilldescribewhatmakesup theirenvironment,beginningwith thelandformsandbodiesofwater foundintheircommunity. Afterfamiliarizingthemselveswith thegenerallandscape,learnerswill investigatetwocomponentsofthe physicalenvironmentinmoredetail: soilandwater.Theywillclassifysoils intheircommunityusingsimple criteria.Theywillidentifythe differentsourcesofwaterintheir community.Theywillinferthe importanceofwaterindaily activitiesanddescribewaysofusing waterwisely. Inthisgradelevel,learnerswilllearnthat oursurroundingsdonotstaythesame forever.Forexample,rocksundergo weatheringandsoiliscarriedawayby erosion.Learnerswillinferthatthesurface oftheEarthchangeswiththepassageof time. Learnerswilllearnthatasidefromweathering anderosion,thereareotherprocessesthat mayalterthesurfaceoftheEarth:earthquakes andvolcaniceruptions.Onlytheeffectsof earthquakesandvolcaniceruptionsaretaken upinthisgradelevel,nottheircauses(which willbetackledinGrades8and9).Learners willalsogatherandreportdataonearthquakes andvolcaniceruptionsintheircommunityor region. METEOROLOGY Learnerswilldescribethedifferent typesoflocalweather, Aftermakingsimpledescriptions abouttheweatherintheprevious grade,learnerswillnowmeasurethe componentsofweatherusingsimple instruments.Theywillalsoidentify trendsinasimpleweatherchart. Learnerswilllearnthattheweatherdoes notstaythesamethewholeyearround. Weatherdisturbancessuchastyphoons mayoccur.Learnerswilldescribethe effectsoftyphoonsonthecommunityand thechangesintheweatherbefore,during, andafteratyphoon. Afterlearninghowtomeasurethedifferent componentsofweatherinGrades4and5, learnerswillnowcollectweatherdatawithin thespanoftheschoolyear.Learnerswill interpretthedataandidentifytheweather patternsintheircommunity. ASTRONOMY Learnerswilldescribethenatural objectsthattheyseeinthesky. Afterdescribingthenaturalobjects thatareseeninthesky,learnerswill nowfocusonthemainsourceof heatandlightonEarth:theSun,its roleinplantgrowthand development,anditseffectonthe activitiesofhumansandother animals. AfterlearningabouttheSun,learnerswill nowfamiliarizethemselveswiththeMoon andthestars.Theywilldescribethe changesintheappearanceoftheMoonand discoverthatthechangesarecyclical,and thatthecycleisrelatedtothelengthofa month.Learnerswillidentifystarpatterns thatcanbeseenduringcertaintimesofthe year. InGrade6,learnerswillturntheirattentionto Earthasanothernaturalobjectinspace(in additiontotheSun,Moon,andstars). Learnerswilllearnaboutthemotionsofthe Earth:rotationandrevolution.Learnerswill alsocomparethedifferentmembersthat makeuptheSolarSystemandconstruct modelstohelpthemvisualizetheirrelative sizesanddistances. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  21. 21. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10 GEOLOGY Learnerswillexploreandlocateplaces usingacoordinatesystem.Theywill discoverthatourcountry’slocation neartheequatorandalongtheRingof Fireinfluenceselementsofup Philippineenvironment(e.g.,natural resourcesandclimate). AsaresultofbeinglocatedalongtheRing ofFire,thePhilippinesisproneto earthquakes.Usingmodels,learnerswill explainhowquakesaregeneratedby faults.Theywilltrytoidentifyfaultsinthe communityanddifferentiateactivefaults frominactiveones. BeinglocatedalongtheRingofFire,the Philippinesishometomanyvolcanoes.Using models,learnerswillexplainwhathappens whenvolcanoeserupt.Theywilldescribethe differenttypesofvolcanoesanddifferentiate activevolcanoesfrominactiveones.They willalsoexplainhowenergyfromvolcanoes maybetappedforhumanuse. Usingmaps,learnerswilldiscover thatvolcanoes,earthquake epicenters,andmountainrangesare notrandomlyscatteredindifferent placesbutarelocatedinthesame areas.Thiswillleadtoan appreciationofplatetectonics—a theorythatbindsmanygeologic processessuchasvolcanismand earthquakes. METEOROLOGY Learnerswillexplaintheoccurrenceof atmosphericphenomena(breezes, monsoons,andITCZ)thatare commonlyexperiencedinthecountry asaresultofthePhilippines’location withrespecttotheequator,and surroundingbodiesofwaterand landmasses. BeinglocatedbesidethePacificOcean,the Philippinesispronetotyphoons.InGrade 5,theeffectsoftyphoonsweretackled. Here,learnerswillexplainhowtyphoons develop,howtyphoonsareaffectedby landformsandbodiesofwater,andwhy typhoonsfollowcertainpathsastheymove withinthePhilippineAreaofResponsibility. Inthisgradelevel,learnerswilldistinguish betweenweatherandclimate.Theywill explainhowdifferentfactorsaffectthe climateofanarea.Theywillalsobe introducedtoclimaticphenomenathatoccur overawidearea(e.g.,ElNiñoandglobal warming). Note:Thetheoryofplatetectonics isthesoletopicinEarthandSpace inGrade10.Thisisbecausethe theorybindsmanyofthetopicsin previousgradelevels,andmore timeisneededtoexplore connectionsanddeepenlearners’ understanding. ASTRONOMY Learnerswillexplaintheoccurrenceof theseasonsandeclipsesasaresultof themotionsoftheEarthandthe Moon.Usingmodels,learnerswill explainthatbecausetheEarthrevolves aroundtheSun,theseasonschange, andbecausetheMoonrevolvesaround theEarth,eclipsessometimesoccur. Learnerswillcompletetheirsurveyofthe SolarSystembydescribingthe characteristicsofasteroids,comets,and othermembersoftheSolarSystem. LearnerswillnowleavetheSolarSystemand learnaboutthestarsbeyond.Theywillinfer thecharacteristicsofstarsbasedonthe characteristicsoftheSun.Usingmodels, learnerswillshowthatconstellationsmovein thecourseofanightbecauseofEarth’s rotation,whiledifferentconstellationsare observedinthecourseofayearbecauseof theEarth’srevolution. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  22. 22. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM GRADE10 CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE Grade10–EarthandSpace FIRSTQUARTER/FIRSTGRADINGPERIOD 1.PlateTectonics 1.1Distribution 1.1.1volcanoes 1.1.2earthquakeepicenters 1.1.3mountainranges 1.2Plateboundaries 1.3Processesandlandformsalong plateboundaries 1.4InternalstructureoftheEarth 1.5Mechanism(possiblecausesof movement) 1.6Evidenceofplatemovement Thelearnersdemonstrate anunderstandingof: therelationshipamongthe locationsofvolcanoes, earthquakeepicenters,and mountainranges Thelearnersshallbeable to: 1.demonstratewaysto ensuredisaster preparednessduring earthquakes,tsunamis, andvolcaniceruptions 2.suggestwaysbywhich he/shecancontribute togovernmentefforts inreducingdamagedue toearthquakes, tsunamis,andvolcanic eruptions Thelearnersshouldbeable to… 1.describethedistributionof activevolcanoes,earthquake epicenters,andmajor mountainbelts; S9ES–Ia-j- 36.1 2.describethedifferenttypesof plateboundaries; S9ES–Ia-j- 36.2 3.explainthedifferent processesthatoccuralong theplateboundaries; S9ES–Ia-j- 36.3 4.describetheinternalstructure oftheEarth; S9ES–Ia-j- 36.4 5.describethepossiblecauses ofplatemovement;and S9ES–Ia-j- 36.5 6.enumeratethelinesof evidencethatsupportplate movement S9ES–Ia-j-36.6 Grade10–Force,Motionand,Energy SECONDQUARTER/SECONDGRADINGPERIOD 1.ElectromagneticSpectrum Thelearnersdemonstrate anunderstandingof: thedifferentregionsofthe electromagneticspectrum Thelearnerss hallbeableto: Thelearnersshouldbeable to… 1.comparetherelative wavelengthsofdifferent formsofelectromagnetic waves; S10FE-IIa-b-47 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  23. 23. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE 2.citeexamplesofpractical applicationsofthedifferent regionsofEMwaves,such astheuseofradiowavesin telecommunications; S10FE-IIc-d-48 3.explaintheeffectsofEM radiationonlivingthingsand theenvironment; S10FE-IIe-f-49 2.Light 2.1ReflectionofLightinMirrors 2.2RefractionofLightinLenses theimagesformedbythe differenttypesofmirrors andlenses 4.predictthequalitative characteristics(orientation, type,andmagnification)of imagesformedbyplane andcurvedmirrorsand lenses; S10FE-IIg-50 5.applyraydiagramming techniquesindescribingthe characteristicsandpositions ofimagesformedbylenses; S10FE-IIg-51 6.identifywaysinwhichthe propertiesofmirrorsand lensesdeterminetheirusein opticalinstruments(e.g., camerasandbinoculars); S10FE-IIh-52 3.ElectricityandMagnetism 3.1Electromagneticeffects therelationshipbetween electricityandmagnetismin electricmotorsand generators 7.demonstratethegeneration ofelectricitybymovement ofamagnetthroughacoil; and S10FE-IIi-53 8.explaintheoperationofa simpleelectricmotorand generator. S10FE-IIj-54 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  24. 24. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE Grade10–LivingThingsandTheirEnvironment THIRDQUARTER/THIRDGRADINGPERIOD 1.CoordinatedFunctionsofthe Reproductive,Endocrine,and NervousSystems Thelearnersdemonstrate anunderstandingof: 1.organismsashaving feedbackmechanisms, whicharecoordinated bythenervousand endocrinesystems 2.howthesefeedback mechanismshelpthe organismmaintain homeostasisto reproduce Thelearnersshouldbe ableto: Thelearnersshouldbeable to… 1.describethepartsofthe reproductivesystemand theirfunctions; S10LT-IIIa-33 2.explaintheroleofhormones involvedinthefemaleand malereproductivesystems; S10LT-IIIb-34 3.describethefeedback mechanismsinvolvedin regulatingprocessesinthe femalereproductivesystem (e.g.,menstrualcycle); S10LT-IIIc-35 4.describehowthenervous systemcoordinatesand regulatesthesefeedback mechanismstomaintain homeostasis; S10LT-IIIc-36 2.Heredity:Inheritanceand Variation 1.theinformationstoredin DNAasbeingusedto makeproteins 2.howchangesinaDNA moleculemaycause changesinitsproduct 3.mutationsthatoccurin sexcellsasbeing heritable 5.explainhowproteinismade usinginformationfrom DNA; S10LT-IIId-37 6.explainhowmutationsmay causechangesinthe structureandfunctionofa protein; S10LT-IIIe-38 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  25. 25. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE 3.BiodiversityandEvolutionhowevolutionthrough naturalselectioncanresult inbiodiversity writeanessayonthe importanceof adaptationasa mechanismforthe survivalofaspecies 7.explainhowfossilrecords, comparativeanatomy,and geneticinformationprovide evidenceforevolution; S10LT-IIIf-39 8.explaintheoccurrenceof evolution; S10LT-IIIg-40 4.Ecosystems 4.1FlowofEnergyandMatterin Ecosystems 4.2BiodiversityandStability 4.3PopulationGrowthand CarryingCapacity 1.theinfluenceof biodiversityonthe stabilityofecosystems 2.anecosystemasbeing capableofsupportinga limitednumberof organisms 9.explainhowspecies diversityincreasesthe probabilityofadaptation andsurvivaloforganismsin changingenvironments; S10LT-IIIh-41 10.explaintherelationship betweenpopulation growthandcarrying capacity;and S10LT-IIIi-42 11.suggestwaystominimize humanimpactonthe environment. S10LT-IIIj-43 Grade10–Matter FOURTHQUARTER/FOURTHGRADINGPERIOD 1.GasLaws 1.1KineticMolecularTheory 1.2Volume,pressure,and temperaturerelationship 1.3Idealgaslaw Thelearnersdemonstrate anunderstandingof… howgasesbehavebased onthemotionandrelative distancesbetweengas particles Thelearnersshallbeable to: Thelearnersshouldbeable to… 1.investigatetherelationship between: 1.1volumeandpressureat constanttemperatureof agas; 1.2volumeandtemperature atconstantpressureofa gas; 1.3explainsthese relationshipsusingthe kineticmoleculartheory; S10MT-IVa-b- 21 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  26. 26. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE 2.Biomolecules 2.1Elementspresentinbiomolecules 2.2Carbohydrates,lipids,proteins, andnucleicacids 2.2.1FoodLabels thestructureof biomolecules,whichare madeupmostlyofalimited numberofelements,such ascarbon,hydrogen, oxygen,andnitrogen 2.recognizethemajor categoriesofbiomolecules suchascarbohydrates, lipids,proteins,andnucleic acids; S10MT-IVc-d-22 3.Chemicalreactionsthechemicalreactions associatedwithbiological andindustrialprocesses affectinglifeandthe environment usinganyformofmedia, presentchemical reactionsinvolvedin biologicalandindustrial processesaffectinglife andtheenvironment 3.applytheprinciplesof conservationofmassto chemicalreactions;and S10MT-IVe-g- 23 4.explainhowthefactors affectingratesofchemical reactionsareappliedin foodpreservationand materialsproduction, controloffire,pollution, andcorrosion. S10MT-IVh-j-24 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  27. 27. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CODEBOOKLEGEND Sample:S8ES-IId-19 LEGENDSAMPLE FirstEntry LearningAreaand Strand/Subjector Specialization Science S8 GradeLevelGrade8 UppercaseLetter/s Domain/Content/ Component/Topic EarthandSpaceES - RomanNumeral *Zeroifnospecificquarter QuarterSecondQuarterII LowercaseLetter/s *Putahyphen(-)inbetween letterstoindicatemorethana specificweek WeekWeekfourd - ArabicNumberCompetency InferwhythePhilippines ispronetotyphoons 19 DOMAIN/COMPONENTCODE LivingthingsandtheirEnvironmentLT Force,Motion,andEnergyFE EarthandSpaceES MatterMT All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  28. 28. D EPED C O PY 163 UNIT 3 Living Things and Their Environment All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  29. 29. D EPED C O PY 164 UNIT 3: Living Things and Their Environment Introduction In the past years, the students have learned about the coordinated func- tions of the digestive, respiratory, and circulatory systems. It has been explained that nutrients enter the bloodstream and combine with oxygen taken in through the respiratory system. They have also understood the structure of genes and chromosomes, and the functions they perform in the transmission of traits from parents to offspring. They have discovered that most species that have existed before are now extinct, and have realized that species become extinct when they fail to adapt to changes in the environment. The students have become familiar about how plants capture energy from the sun and store energy in sugar molecules through photosynthesis, and have learned that stored energy is used by cells during cellular respiration. They have found out that these two processes are related to each other. All modules in Grade 10 Unit 3-Living Things and Their Environment present mental and hands-on activities that are learner-centered to enable the students to apply science concepts and skills in addressing real-world problems through scientific investigations. These instructional activities are designed to enhance their knowledge, understanding, skills, and ability to transfer learning. There are four modules in this quarter, namely: Module 1: Coordinated Functions of the Reproductive, Endocrine, and Nervous Systems Module 2: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation Module 3: Biodiversity and Evolution Module 4: Ecosystems The role of K-12 science teachers is to effectively facilitate learning by guiding the students in performing every task and initiating an inquiry-based learning phase rather than merely making the students passive recipients of information. At the end of Grade 10, the learners should have already developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that will lead them to rational choices on any issue that they will face in life. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  30. 30. D EPED C O PY 165 Content Standards The learners demonstrate understanding of… Performance Standard The learners… the organisms as having feedback mechanisms, which are coordinated by the nervous, endocrine, and reproductive systems. how these feedback mechanisms help the organism maintain homeostasis to reproduce and survive. create a campaign advertising video about the common and effective contraceptive measures used in family planning, in line with the Reproductive Health Law Overview By going through Module 1, the students will realize that for whatever action they do from the moment they get up in the morning to the time they go to bed, there is always a part of the body that requires the support of another part to achieve its purpose. Take note that our body is made up of different systems that coordinate with one another in order to perform their functions well; if any part of these organ systems malfunctions, the body will become unbalanced. The students have already studied from the past that human body systems are the combined functional units composed of various organs working in full coordination with each other. Emphasize that the instability caused by the impairment of one system cannot be compensated by other systems because each system has its own function in the body. In Grade 9, they have already studied how the circulatory and respiratory systems work together, and how a person’s lifestyle affects these systems. Now they will learn about the coordinated functions of the reproductive, endocrine and nervous systems. This module will enable the students to show understanding of organisms as having feedback mechanisms, which are coordinated by the nervous and endocrine systems. They will also understand how these feedback mechanisms help the organism maintain homeostasis to reproduce and survive. Unit 3 MODULE 1 Suggested time allotment: 12 to 14 hours Coordinated Functions of the Nervous, Endocrine, and Reproductive Systems All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  31. 31. D EPED C O PY 166 At the end of this module, students are expected to: 1. Describe the parts of the nervous, endocrine, and reproductive sys- tems, along with their functions. 2. Explain the role of hormones involved in the female and male repro- ductive systems. 3. Describe the feedback mechanisms involved in regulating processes in the female reproductive system. 4. Describe how the nervous system coordinates and regulates feed- back mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. In Module 1, students will answer the following key questions: Pre-assessment Odd Organ Out (Answers) Odd One Out Reason HEART The heart is a part of the circulatory system, while all the rest are parts of the nervous system. LUNGS The lungs are a part of the respiratory system, while the rest are parts of the female reproductive system. SKULL The skull is a part of the skeletal system, while the rest are parts of the endocrine system. INTESTINE The intestine is a part of the digestive system, while the rest are parts of the male reproductive system. The students have studied in the past that cells make up a tissue, tissues make up an organ, and organs make up a system. Now, they will first try to understand the organ system before going to the cellular level to know how the individual cells of the nervous system work. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  32. 32. D EPED C O PY 167 The Nervous System The Structure of the Nervous System Activity 1 Break It Down! In this activity, students will be able to identify the components of the nervous system by filling in the missing parts of the graphic organizer. Answers in the Activity: All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  33. 33. D EPED C O PY 168 Teaching Tips: • Before the students perform the activity, you may show pictures of the different parts of the nervous system. • Three-dimensional models of the nervous system may also be shown to the class so that the students can have a more realistic visualization. • You may choose to use the provided template for the graphic organizer or allow the students to map the concepts on their own. • It will also be useful to search for web resources of videos showing animated visual exploration of the nervous system. • For a more engaging activity, you may let the students create their own model of the nervous system or the brain using clay, paper mache, recyclables, food, or anything. • Let the students use different colors to indicate different structures and identify each part. Answers to Guide Questions: Q1. The Central Nervous System (CNS) serves as the main processing center for the entire nervous system while the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects the central nervous system to the organs and limbs by relaying information through the nerves. Q2. All the other parts of the nervous system will not be able to carry out their corresponding functions, and the other body systems will be affected as well. The Nerve Cell Teaching Tips: • Let the students study Figure 1 and look at the different parts of the nerve cell or neuron. Explain to them that there are billions of neurons in the body. Let them distinguish the parts such as dendrites, cell body, and axon. Note that the axon shown in the figure is covered by glial cells, which are the most abundant cell types in the central nervous system. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  34. 34. D EPED C O PY 169 When teaching about the nervous system, it is essential to go over the neu- ron. Point out to the students that neurons are similar to other types of cells because they perform basic cellular functions and have the same components, like a nucleus, cell membrane and other organelles; but their primary function is to receive and transmit signal. • You can use the simplest model to illustrate a neuron using only your hand and arm, so that the students can understand its structure better. Simply hold out your arm and spread your fingers as shown in the figure below. Your hand represents the “cell body” (also called “soma”); your fingers represent “dendrites”, bringing information to the cell body, your arm represents the “axon”, taking information away from the cell body. • For enrichment activity, you may also ask the students to create their own nerve cell models out of different materials, such as beads, strings, or clay. Let them label the structures of the model they made and use it to remember the parts and function of a neuron. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  35. 35. D EPED C O PY 170 Control of Body Processes through the Nervous System The Nerve Impulse Teaching Tips: • Explain to the students that neurons have the special ability to carry sig- nals or impulses. Tell the students that their thoughts, emotions, learn- ing, and many body functions are controlled by nerve impulses carried by the neurons. • Make the students imagine that you have a board with a row of switches. You may also show to the class an actual board of light bulbs and quickly click each switch in the row on and off. This will give the students an idea of how a nerve impulse travels along a neuron. • Let the students understand that nerve impulses have a domino effect. Explain how each neuron receives an impulse and passes it on to the connecting neuron or to an effector cell such as a muscle. Through a chain of chemical reactions, the dendrites receive an impulse that is transported through the axon and transmitted to the next neuron. • Another suggested illustration during discussion is doing the following simple exercise to show how neurons connect with other neurons. As a developmental activity, instruct the students to draw ten (10) dots on one side of the paper. Let these dots represent neurons, and assume that each neuron makes connections with the 10 dots on the other side of the paper. Ask the students to connect each dot on one side with the ten dots on the other side. As you can see from Figure 6, only four of the “neurons” have been connected, and it gets very complicated after awhich. • Remind the students that the given exercise is quite simple. Each neuron that is represented by a dot may actually make thousands of connections with other neurons. Let them know that if they finish all the dots, the paper would be really dirty. Figure 3. “Connect the Dots” exercise, showing the complexity of neuron connections. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  36. 36. D EPED C O PY 171 • For fast learners, you may show pictures, animated videos, and interactive web applications depicting Action Potential Depolar- ization as enrichment for the concept of nerve impulse being an electrochemical charge. Suggested web links for Action Potential Depolarization are: 1. http://brainu.org/files/movies/action_potential_cartoon.swf 2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ifD1YG07fB8 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U0NpTdge3aw 4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7EyhsOewnH4 5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6t_n6kTj1A The next activity that the students will perform will enable them to understand more of the concepts on the control of body processes through the nervous system. Students build upon what they have already learned by testing their visual and auditory senses. Tell them to use their senses to detect the stimuli in the environment and make the corresponding response. As they do Activity 2 and record their reaction times, they will quickly learn that there are different skills and strategies involved in reacting to something when seeing and listening are required. Nevertheless, they will also learn that greater self-awareness, strategy development, and ongoing practice of these skills can improve their visual and auditory reaction times and ultimately, their survival and success in life.  All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  37. 37. D EPED C O PY 172 Activity 2 How Fast Is Your Reaction? Teaching Tips: • One way of motivating the students is by actually getting a quick reac- tion from the class and then discussing it. For example, you can throw a small object such as a candy or a ball into a group of students, catch- ing them off-guard, drop a book, or make a loud noise. Lead a general discussion of reaction time by asking students how they usually react to different situations. • Get students to think critically what draws objects toward the earth. Inte- grate the concept of “Free Fall” as what they have learned in Grade 9 to the activity that they will perform. For more advanced classes, you may use the formula t = √(2d/g) • After the students have performed the activity about reaction time, make them realize the value of practice, which may also be discussed in terms of the concept of long term memory. Ask them, “What other skills has practicing helped you learn and master?” (Examples may include doing math problems, typing, reading music, and various sports activities). • Give practical examples of knowing one’s reaction time. In sports, re- action time, the interval between stimulation and reaction, often deter- mines who wins and who loses. Even more importantly, in real-life situ- ations, like when driving a car, it can mean the difference between life and death.  Answers to Guide Questions: Q3. Answers will depend on whether the person is left-handed or right-handed. Q4. Answers will depend on whether the person is left-handed or right-handed. Q5. The ruler was caught faster with eyes open. Q6. The message travels from one neuron to another until it reaches the brain. Then, the brain’s response is also transmitted by another set of neurons. Q7. First, the eye sees the ruler, then sends a message to the brain. The brain sends a response through the muscles in the hand. Finally, the muscles contract to allow the person to catch the ruler. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  38. 38. D EPED C O PY 173 Activity 3 A Nervous Trip In this activity, the students will be able to explain how the body processes are controlled through the nervous system Teaching Tips: • Since this is a kinesthetic activity, the class needs more space to work with their team, so it is advisable to move the chairs a little to allow the members to move freely. Another option is to make the two teams line up at each side of the classroom. • You may decide to do the activity simultaneously for all groups or one after another, with the aid of a timer or stopwatch. • You may creatively think of different situations that you may write down on the card to show different stimuli. Suggested ideas to be written on the card are: 1. Touching a hot stove 2. Smelling spoiled food 3. Stepping on a thumb tack 4. Hearing a loud bang • Refer to the following illustration to see how you will position the students in the game. KEY CONCEPT TO EMPHASIZE: Neurons have the special ability to carry signals or impulses. A nerve impulse is an electrochemical signal moving along an active neuron. The space between neurons is called synapse. A stimulus is any factor in the environment that influences behavior. A response is a reaction to a condition or stimulus. To survive, an organism must be able to respond to a stimulus. Reaction time is the length of time between application of a stimulus and detection of a response. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  39. 39. D EPED C O PY 174 • When giving instructions to the students, it is important to note that the organ that will be receiving the stimuli may or may not be the same organ to make the response from the brain to the motor neurons. Point out that it could be another part of the body or a muscle that will carry out the action. Explain the difference between the receptor and the effector. • You may ask the students how anesthesia enables loss of sensation to avoid the feeling of pain. Explain that anesthesia disrupts the nerve im- pulse transmission in sensory neurons, leading to a temporary numbness or loss of sensation. • The suggested enrichment activities in the learners’ module may or may not be given to the students, depending on their level of mastery. These enrichment activities may also be given to the students as project or cul- minating task. Suggested Enrichment Activities: • During the first three years, a child’s brain triples in weight and establishes about 1,000 trillion nerve connections. Thus, the child’s experiences dur- ing the first three years of life are crucial to brain development. Gather and write down information about the different ways of stimulating brain development in children. * Suggested web references for the enrichment activity: 1. http://www.kidsgrowth.com/resources/articledetail.cfm?id=259 2. http://www.my-newborn-baby-care.com/infant-brain-development. html 3. http://www.zerotothree.org/child-development/brain-development/ Figure 7. The game setup showing the relay course from start to end All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  40. 40. D EPED C O PY 175 • Design a flyer that will disseminate information about the different diseases affecting the human nervous system. * In assessing the informational flyers created by the learners, it would be helpful to create a rubric to be shown to the class as a guide in doing the activity Answers to Guide Questions: Q8. The brain receives the information through the sensory neurons that transmit the message from one neuron to another. Q9. As soon as the brain receives the information, it processes the message and come up with a response to be sent through the neurons. Q10. The message from the brain is relayed by the motor neurons that transmit the message from one neuron to another going to the effector. Q11. The sensory neurons transmit impulses from the receptor to the brain while the motor neurons transmit impulses from the brain to the effector. Q12. Information travels in the nervous system through the neurons that transmit the impulse. The sense organ receives the message, and the information is sent by the sensory neurons to the brain. The brain then processes the information and sends a response through the motor neurons to the organ, gland or muscle. Q13. Any damage in the nervous system affects the function of other body parts, since messages are not properly transmitted throughout the body. Q14. Answers may vary depending on the students’ locality. Some examples of public health care programs that deal with the nervous system are National Mental Health Program, Epilepsy Camp, Universal Health Care, Rabies Prevention and Control Program, and many others. After learning about the structure and funtions of the nervous system, students are now ready to learn that there is another system that controls and regulates body processes. Emphasize to the students that the endocrine system is in control of the body mechanisms that slowly take place, unlike the nervous system that controls rapid body processes. The given table lists all the major glands with their functions, locations, and the hormones they release. KEY CONCEPT TO EMPHASIZE: When a receptor such an organ perceives a stimulus, the impulse is sent to the brain by the sensory neurons, transmitting information from one nerve cell to another. As the message reaches the brain, it processes the information and commands an effector such as a muscle or an organ to respond. The message coming from the brain is sent through the motor neurons. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  41. 41. D EPED C O PY 176 The Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones Gland Functions Location Hormones Released Pituitary stimulates growth and controls the functions of other glands at the base of the brain Oxytocin, Vasopressin, Growth Hormone, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Prolactin, Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Thyroid regulates body metabolism and causes storage of calcium in bones below the voice box Thyroxin, Calcitonin Parathyroid controls the calcium levels in your body and normalizes bone growth in the neck Parathyromone Thymus enables the body to produce certain antibodies in front of the heart Thymosin Adrenal prepares the body for action, and controls the heart rate and breathing in times of emergency at the top of the kidneys Adrenaline Pancreas regulates blood sugar levels between the kidneys Insulin, Glucagon Reproductive - Testes (Males) - Ovaries (Females) control maturation and male characteristics influence female traits and support reproductive function lower abdomen lower abdomen Androgen, Testosterone Estrogen, Progesterone All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  42. 42. D EPED C O PY 177 Activity 4 Who’s in Control? In this activity, the learners will identify some of the major endocrine glands in the human body and their functions. Let them study each picture that shows the role of a particular gland in the endocrine system, write down the name of the endocrine gland, and explain its effect according to its function. Answers in the Activity: 1. Ovaries Secrete more progesterone and estrogen to promote pregnancy 2. Adrenal Gland Produces adrenaline to activate short-term stress response 3. Pituitary Gland Produces growth hormones 4. Thymus Gland Secretes thymosin to stimulate production of T- cells against infection 5. Pancreas Secretes insulin that regulates blood sugar levels All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  43. 43. D EPED C O PY 178 Answers to Guide Questions: Q15. The pituitary gland controls the output of other glands in the body. Q16. The thyroid gland is located below the voice box and regulates body metabolism by producing calcitonin that reduces blood calcium level; while parathyroid gland is located on the thyroid glands and produces parathormone that increases blood calcium levels and normalizes bone growth. Q17. The person’s pancreas is possibly involved when blood sugar level becomes unstable. Q18. The thymus gland enables the body to produce T- cells that help in fighting infections and diseases. Q19. A person born without a thymus gland will not develop an adaptive immune system and may eventually die. Q20. The adrenal gland produces adrenaline that enables the body to have the energy in doing spontaneous work during emergency situations. Q21. Because the diabetic person’s pancreas does not produce enough insulin for the body, insulin injections must be administered to the body to regulate blood sugar levels. Q22. During menopause there is a significant change of hormone levels produced by the ovaries which eventually stops the menstrual cycle. Q23. Birth control pills contain hormones that control the functioning of the ovaries and the uterus. Most pills have the combination of the hormones estrogen and progesterone to prevent ovulation (the release of an egg during the monthly cycle). Q24. Oxytocin and prolactin enable milk production that provides the required nourishment for the baby. KEY CONCEPT TO EMPHASIZE: The endocrine system consists of glands that secrete chemicals called hormones that control various body processes. This control system usually brings about slow changes in the body because hormones move through the circulatory system more slowly than the nerve impulses. The major glands in the body are the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries and testes. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  44. 44. D EPED C O PY 179 Activity 5 What Went Wrong? This activity will get the students familiarized with the different disorders in the endocrine system due to hormonal imbalance and the hormones responsible. After doing the activity, they will be able to explain the effect of a particular hormone in the body, if not properly regulated. Answers in the Activity: 1. Dwarfism There is too little secretion of growth hormones by the pituitary gland, thus resulting to stunted growth. 2. Gigantism There is an excessive secretion of growth hormones by the pituitary gland causing too much growth to the person. 3. Goiter There is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland due to too much or too little amount of secreted hormone. Answers to Guide Questions: Q25. Dwarfism may arise if the pituitary gland is not producing enough growth hormones. Q26. A person with excessive secretion of growth hormones by the pituitary gland will have a condition called gigantism. Q27. The thyroid gland of the person is inflamed as there is an underlying abnormality in thyroid secretion. Q28. The gland cannot make enough thyroid hormone if it does not have enough iodine in the blood, so taking iodized salt is helpful. Q29. Answers may vary. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  45. 45. D EPED C O PY 180 The Reproductive System The Male Reproductive System Let the students be familiar with the functions of each part using the table: Part Function Testis Produces sperm cells Scrotum Sac that holds the testis Penis Deposits sperm cells into the vagina during mating Vas deferens (Tube) Passage of sperm cells from testes to urethra Urethra Passage of sperm cells and urine out of the body Glands a. seminal vesicle b. prostate gland c. bulbourethral gland (Cowper’s gland) Provide liquid in which sperm can swim - Secretes a fluid that makes up most of the components of the semen - Secretes a slightly alkaline milky fluid that is dis charged as part of the semen - Secretes a thick and clear mucus that lubricates and neutralizes the any trace of acidic urine in the urethra The Female Reproductive System Let the students study each part and its corresponding function: Part Function Ovary Produces egg cells Oviduct Serves as passageway of eggs from the ovary to the uterus; site of egg fertilization Uterus Site of egg implantation; serves as the place where fertilized egg develops Vagina Receives the penis of male during mating All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  46. 46. D EPED C O PY 181 The Role of Hormones in Male and Female Reproductive System Feedback Mechanisms Involved in Regulating Processes in the Female Reproductive System The Menstrual Cycle Activity 6 Mark My Calendar! In this activity, the learners will describe the feedback mechanisms involved in regulating processes in the female reproductive system. Teaching Tips: • You may want to separate students into groups of females and males for this learning activity. However, if you decide to separate them, make sure that both groups receive the same information. • For procedure number three in the learners’ module, you may simply photocopy Figure 14 showing different episodes in the menstrual cycle or redraw the figure in bond paper to be cut out later on. You may also download pictures from the internet for a clearer and more accurate representation. • Be aware that there might be cultural sensitivities regarding this activity for individual learners, so you have to be cautious in facilitating the discussion. • You may use an overhead or LCD projector in explaining the menstrual cycle to the class before the activity proper. KEY CONCEPT TO EMPHASIZE: Hormones play an important role in both male and female reproductive systems.The pituitary gland controls the functions of both the testes and the ovaries. These hormones keep the reproductive system properly functioning. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  47. 47. D EPED C O PY 182 • As a developmental activity, you may start by correcting myths and misconceptions about menstruation. A checklist of statements to be answered with fact or myth may be given to the students to check their prior understanding on the topic to be discussed. Answers to Guide Questions: Q30. The average length of a menstrual cycle is 28 days. However, it varies greatly among women (ranging from 21 to 35 days). Q31. The young egg in the ovary begins to mature. Estrogen is secreted by the ovary. Uterus thickens to prepare for the attachment of fertilized egg. The mature egg is then released by the ovary. Q32. Ovulation takes place and the egg enters the uterus. Meanwhile the uterus continues to thicken. If no fertilization of egg occurs, the cells of the thickened uterus break off and leave the vagina as menstruation. Q33. After fertilization, pregnancy takes place. The egg attaches to the uterus and continues to grow inside the womb. Q34. It is important to study the menstrual cycle to be able to understand the natural changes that occur in the ovary and the uterus as essential part of sexual reproduction. The information is also useful in family planning to prevent unwanted pregnancy. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  48. 48. D EPED C O PY 183 Nervous System Working Together with Endocrine System to Maintain Homeostasis Answers to Guide Questions: Q35. Failure in homeostasis can be potentially dangerous to a person as it may lead to various diseases and even death. Q36. Glucagon is released in response to low blood glucose level due to skipped lunch, thus increasing blood sugar into normal level. Q37. Insulin is released in response to an increase in blood glucose level due to eating sweets, thus decreasing blood sugar into normal level. Q38. The nervous and endocrine systems work together to lower the temperature of the internal organs such as by producing sweat to cool the body down. Q39. The following are some examples of the coordinated functions of the nervous, endocrine, and reproductive systems: Breastfeeding The brain commands the mother’s body to be nurturing towards the baby through breastfeeding. In order to produce milk, hormones such as prolactin and oxytocin are needed. The secretion is stimulated by the sucking of the infant at the breast of the mother. Pregnancy and Child Birth Correct balance of sex hormones progesterone and estrogen is required throughout pregnancy with levels steadily rising until the birth of the baby. Until the mother’s body has adapted to the higher levels of these hormones, mood swings can be very common as they also act on the nervous system, specifically the brain. Oxytocin levels rise at the onset of labor, causing regular contractions of the womb and abdominal muscles. When the baby is born, oxytocin continues to contract the womb in order to reduce the risk of bleeding and to help detach the placenta which is delivered shortly afterwards.  Copulation As the brain processes physical stimulation, the sex organs perform their corresponding biological functions. The sex glands in the endocrine system then produce secretions that are necessary for reproduction. Menstrual Cycle Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) stimulates the ovaries to release estrogen. High levels of estrogen then prevent the further production of FSH. Estrogen also stimulates the release of Luteinizing Hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn controls the production of progesterone. High levels of progesterone then inhibit the further release of LH. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  49. 49. D EPED C O PY 184 Performance Task: Video Making Topic: Family Planning Note to the Teacher: You may create your own rubric or scoring guide for this performance task or use the suggested rubric that is given below. Suggested Rubric to be used in rating: CATEGORY 4 3 2 1 Presentation The video clearly communicates the main idea, and is strongly persuasive The video communicates some of the important ideas, and is slightly persuasive The video indirectly communicates the idea, and is hardly persuasive The video does not sufficiently communicate any idea that can persuade the audience Creativity and Originality All the wordings and melody reflect an exceptional degree of students’ ingenuity in their creation. Most of the wordings and melody used in the jingle reflect students’ ingenuity in their creation. The wordings and melody were made by the student but were copied from the ideas of others. The wordings and melody were not made by the student. Accuracy and Relevance of the Content The contents of the video are accurate and related to the topic. Most of the contents of the video are accurate and related to the topic. Some contents in the video are accurate and related to the topic. The contents of the video are neither accurate nor related to the topic. Required Elements (persuasiveness, musicality, language, etc.) The campaign advertising includes all required elements as well as additional details. All required elements are included. Few required elements are included. Required elements are missing. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  50. 50. D EPED C O PY 185 Summary • The nervous system is composed of cells, tissues, and organs that regulate the body’s responses to internal and external stimuli. Each component of the nervous system has a specific role to do as an important part of a team. • The nervous system has two main divisions, which are the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). • The Central Nervous System (CNS) serves as the main “processing center” for the entire nervous system. It has two main components, which are the brain, and the spinal cord. • The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) contains all nerves that extend outside the brain and spinal cord. It has two main divisions, which are the Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System. • The basic unit of the nervous system is the nerve cell, called neuron. Neurons have dendrites and axons that aid in transmitting the message. • Neurons have the special ability to carry signals or impulses.A nerve impulse is an electrochemical gradient moving along a neuron. The space between neurons is called synapse. A stimulus is any factor in the environment that may induce a nerve impulse that initiates physiological and behavioural changes. A response is a reaction to a condition or stimulus. To survive, an organism must be able to respond to a stimulus. Reaction time is the length of time between application of a stimulus and detection of a response. • When a receptor such as an organ perceives a stimulus, the impulse is sent to the brain by the sensory neurons, transmitting information from one nerve cell to another.As the message reaches the brain, it processes the information and commands an effector such as a muscle or an organ to respond. The message coming from the brain is sent through the motor neurons. • The Endocrine System consists of glands that secrete chemicals called hormones which control various body processes. This control system usually brings about slow changes in the body because chemical agents move more slowly than nerve impulses. The major glands in the body are the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries and testes. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  51. 51. D EPED C O PY 186 • Hormones affect various processes in the body as they regulate and balance the functioning of organs, tissues, and cells. Hormones greatly influence growth, appearance, emotions, and reproductive functions. It plays an essential role in the prevalence of disorders such as diabetes, thyroid disease, growth and/or sexual dysfunction. Hormones act in very small amounts. An increase or decrease in the said amount may result in a body disorder due to hormonal imbalance. • The Reproductive System is a collection of organs in an organism that function together for sexual reproduction. The male reproductive organs are the penis, the testicles, the epididymis, the vas deferens, and the prostate gland. The female reproductive organs are the vagina, uterus (womb), fallopian tubes and ovaries. • Hormones play an important role in both male and female reproductive systems. The pituitary gland controls the functions of both the testes and the ovaries. These hormones keep the reproductive system properly functioning. • Hormones secreted by the ovaries and a small gland in the brain called the pituitary gland control the menstrual cycle. • A feedback mechanism is the process through which the level of one substance influences the level of another substance. A negative feedback affects the production of hormones in the menstrual cycle. High levels of one hormone may inhibit the production of another hormone. • Homeostasis is the state reached when each part of the body functions in equilibrium with every other part. This is attained through the regulation of the bodily functions by the endocrine and nervous systems. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

×