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Lesson about Capitalizing for grade 9

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  1. 1. P i T al iz A t I O N C a
  2. 2. CLUE: The action of writing in big letters or initial big letters in a sentence.
  3. 3. CAPITALIZATION •As important as the punctuation marks in composing writing. •This provides a key message to the readers as to the meaning of the text.
  4. 4. RULES IN CAPITALIZATION 1. Always capitalize the first letter of the first word in a sentence. Ex.The man walk in the seaside last night.
  5. 5. RULES IN CAPITALIZATION 2.Capitalize proper nouns. Ex. theTower Bridge the Pasig River a Shakespearean play
  6. 6. RULES IN CAPITALIZATION 3. Capitalize titles when they are used before names, unless the title is followed by a comma. Do not capitalize the title if it is used after a name or instead of a name.
  7. 7. Ex. Congress Honorato David will grace the event. Chairman of the boardWilliam Bly will preside at the conference. The chairman of the board,William Bly, will preside. The senators of the 35th congress are now ready for the planetary session.
  8. 8. RULES IN CAPITALIZATION 4. Capitalize a formal title when it is used as a direct address. Ex.Will you take my temperature, Doctor? We’re sorry to report, Captain, that we are headed for choppy waters.
  9. 9. RULES IN CAPITALIZATION 5. Capitalize kinship names when they immediately precede a personal name, or when they are used alone in place of a personal name. Ex. I found out that Mom is here. You look good, Grandpa.
  10. 10. RULES IN CAPITALIZATION 6. Capitalize specific geographical regions. Do not capitalize points of the compass. Ex.We had three relatives visit from theWest. Go west three blocks and then turn left.
  11. 11. RULES IN CAPITALIZATION 7. Always capitalize the first word in a complete quotation, even midsentence. Ex. Lamarr said, “The case is far from over, and we will win.”
  12. 12. RULES IN CAPITALIZATION 8. Capitalize the names of specific course titles, but not general academic subjects. Ex. I must take history and English 42. He has a double major in European cultural studies and philosophy.
  13. 13. RULES IN CAPITALIZATION 9. Capitalize the names of art movements. Ex. I like Surrealism, but I never understoodAbstract Expressionism.
  14. 14. RULES IN CAPITALIZATION 10. Capitalize titles of a composition. The following rules for capitalizing composition titles are virtually universal. • Capitalize the title’s first and last word. • Capitalize all adjectives, adverbs, and nouns. • Capitalize all pronouns(including it). • Capitalize all verbs, including the verb to be in all forms(am, is, are, was, were, has, been, etc.)
  15. 15. • Capitalize no, not and the interjection O. Ex. How long must I wait, O Lord? • Do not capitalize an article (a, an, the) unless it is first or last in the title. • Do not capitalize the word to, with or without an infinitive, unless it is first or last in the title. • Do not capitalize a coordinating conjunction (and, or, nor, but, yet, so) unless it is first or last in the title.
  16. 16. • Otherwise, styles, methods, and opinions vary; for instance, certain short conjunctions (Examples: as, if, how, that) are capped by some, lowercased by others. • A major bone of contention is prepositions.The Associated Press Stylebook recommends capitalizing all preposition of more than three letters(e.g., with, about, across). Other authorities advise lowercase until a preposition reaches five or more letters. Still other say not to capitalize any preposition even big words like regarding or underneath.
  17. 17. Yey!