Russia's Contribution to Conservation Globally-Significant Wilderness, by Olga Krever


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Olga Krever, expert adviser for the Upper Environmental Council of the Committee for Natural Resources, Nature Use and Ecology, Russian Federal Parliament, spoke during the Saturday (7 November) WILD9 plenary on Global Wilderness commitments, specifically on "Russia's Contribution to Conserving Globally-Significant Wilderness."

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  • Russia is the largest country in the world and provides the chance to conserve biological diversity at large scales. Russia covers 9 time zones and has a variety of landscapes. To give you an idea of its sheer size, a flight traveling the nearly 4000 mile distance from Moscow to Kamchatka takes nine hours (click). If you were to draw a line the same distance south from Moscow, you would end up in South Africa. A line to the west would take you beyond New York City.
  • All the biomes of the northern hemisphere can be found in Russia: arctic deserts, tundra, coniferous forests, mixed and deciduous, forest steppe, steppe, deserts V irgin forests have importance for g lobal ecology comparable to rain forests (click) Intact areas of wilderness allow large-scale animal migrations (click) 3 of the world’s nine major migratory bird routes extend across Russia
  • Темно зеленые – это как далеко лосось проникает на суше – The dark green represents how far salmon penetrate into land, while the dark blue is the marine range. One of the few species that links terrestrial and marine ecosystems
  • Russia's Contribution to Conservation Globally-Significant Wilderness, by Olga Krever

    1. 1. <ul><li>RUSSIA'S CONTRIBUTION </li></ul><ul><li>TO CONSERVING </li></ul><ul><li>GLOBALLY-SIGNIFICANT WILDERNESS </li></ul>Olga Krever , Expert on Protected Areas and Biodiversity Conservation in Russia , Member of the Upper Environmental Council of the Russian Federal Parliament
    2. 2. Russia is the largest country in the world
    3. 3.
    4. 4. Biodiversity Richness in Russia <ul><li>65% of Russia’s territory are qualified by UNEP as having little economic influence (unfragmented ecosystems) </li></ul><ul><li>22% of world’s forest cover; 25% of the world’s virgin forests; </li></ul><ul><li>sink for roughly 15% of the world’s carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Number of a reas of international importance: </li></ul><ul><li>- 8 natural World Heritage Sites </li></ul><ul><li>- 35 Ramsar Sites </li></ul><ul><li>- 39 UNESCO Biosphere Reserves </li></ul><ul><li>- 3 international Zapovedniks (strictly protected reserves) </li></ul><ul><li>- 4 PAs have European Council Diplomas </li></ul><ul><li>Three of the world’s 9 bird migration routes pass through Russia </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>The status of Protected Areas in Russia </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Russian National System of Protected Areas 101 Strict Nature Reserves / Zapovedniks (IUCN Ia, Ib) - 33,8 mln . ha 41 National Parks (IUCN II) - 7, 8 mln. ha 69 federal-level Refuges / Zakazniks - 12,7 mln . ha 50 Natural Parks - 15,28 mln . ha 4276 regional-level Refuges / Zakazniks - 101,4 mln . ha 9235 Natural Monuments - 4,1 mln . ha
    7. 7. <ul><li>Two-thirds of all of Russia’s wild flora is represented in PAs </li></ul><ul><li>Over three-quarters of all of Russia’s fauna is represented in PAs </li></ul>
    8. 8. Program of Work on Protected Areas <ul><li>Implementation of Program of Work on Protected Areas adopted at the COP 7 CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and development of representative networks of protected areas at the national and regional levels </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Natural Resources began to assess representativeness of existing federal PAs network and elaborate a framework for expansion in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>GAP analysis successfully finished in 2008 by a coalition of 300 experts led by WWF-Russia </li></ul>
    9. 9. GAP analysis of federal-level PAs in Russia Priority areas for federal-level PAs designation geographical representativeness biodiversity representativeness habitat of threatened species areas of international importance existing federal PAs
    10. 10. Network of existing and pro spective PA s Results of GAP analysis <ul><li>519 terrestrial and terrestrial/marine PAs ( 122 m ln. ha) </li></ul><ul><li>47 marine PAs ( 61 m ln. ha) </li></ul><ul><li>includ ing : </li></ul><ul><li>141 strict nature reserves ( zapovedniks ) </li></ul><ul><li>76 national parks </li></ul><ul><li>236 refuges (zakazniks) </li></ul><ul><li>79 natural monuments </li></ul><ul><li>43 PAs with category to be determined </li></ul>
    11. 11. The Status of Endangered Species in Russia
    12. 12. Main threats : poaching, habitat degradation ( shrinkin g sea ice due to climate change ) Polar Bear
    13. 13. Far Eastern Leopard P opulation - no more than 30 individuals Main threats : fragmentation of habitat from economic development, deforestation, roads
    14. 14. Main threats : declining numbers of Caprinae (main food of Snow Leopard) due to poaching Snow Leopard N umber of population – 150-200 individuals
    15. 15. Species was extinct in the wild in the 1920s and was conserved only ex situ in breeding centers. At present two wild herds were reintroduced in central part of Russia. Conservation of European Bison Success and results in endangered species conservation
    16. 16. Conservation of Amur Tiger Through joint efforts of governmental structures and NGOs the number of Amur Tigers in Russia has stabilized at level of 450 individuals
    17. 17. Strategies for Conservation of Endangered Species in Russia <ul><li>Under development: </li></ul><ul><li>Polar Bear </li></ul><ul><li>Oriental White Stork </li></ul><ul><li>others </li></ul>Approved : 1996 – Amur Tiger 1999 – Far Eastern Leopard 2002 – European Bison 2002 – Snow Leopard 2008 – Sakhalin Musk Deer 2004 - Strategy for Conservation of Endangered Species in Russia
    18. 18. Conservation of Amur Tiger 3 new National Parks (2007) Existing Tiger PAs ~ 25% of Tiger habitat now under protection 22
    19. 19. The status of wilderness in Russia’s Kamchatka
    20. 20.
    21. 21.
    22. 22.
    23. 23. Kamchatka’s Wild Salmon <ul><li>A ll 7 species of wild salmon </li></ul><ul><li>S pawning grounds for one-quarter of all wild Pacific salmon.  </li></ul><ul><li>R ivers well pres erved from development . </li></ul><ul><li>Growing threats of illegal fishing for roe, road construction, mining, and natural gas and oil development.  </li></ul><ul><li>137 species depend directly benefit from salmon.   </li></ul>
    24. 24. Planned PAs in Priority Wild Salmon Rivers Globally important salmon ecosystems and priority salmon river basins identified for protection
    25. 25. Arctic and Climate Change
    26. 26. <ul><li>Russian Arctic covers more than 25% of Arctic area </li></ul><ul><li>About 90% of all arctic species are found in Russian Arctic </li></ul><ul><li>10 Arctic seas and coasts in Russia provide habitat for red-listed and economically valuable species </li></ul><ul><li>Warming in the Russian Arctic was 1.29 °С over the last 100 years (1907 – 2006), whereas global warming for the same period was 0 . 74°С </li></ul><ul><li>Warming trend in the Arctic is higher than the global average. Temperature increases in the Russian Arctic were 0 . 7-4°С from 1976 – 2006. Winter warming greater than summer warming </li></ul>Russian Arctic and Climate Change: Several Facts
    27. 27. Changes in annual surface air temperature averaged over Russia <ul><li>Temperature changes relative to its mean value </li></ul><ul><li>for the period 1961–1990 </li></ul>
    28. 28. Changes in Sea Ice Area Observed and projected changes in sea ice area in Russian Arctic in 1979-2007
    29. 29. <ul><li>Thawing permafrost, reduction of ice cover, rising sea level </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation of pack ice and glaciers, coastline erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of sandbanks, laids </li></ul><ul><li>Salting of lagoons, transformation into gulfs </li></ul><ul><li>Discernable shifts in phenological dates in plants and animals (e.g., seasonal migration in birds), in spatial limits of vegetation zones and ecosystem structure, appearance of forest into tundra areas </li></ul>Climate change consequences for Arctic terrestrial ecosystems
    30. 30. Measures for mitigation of and adaptation to climate change <ul><li>Obligations of Russia on restriction and reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases according to Article 3.1 of the Kyoto Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>In the last 2 years: 5 Russian Governmental decrees on Kyoto Protocol related issues </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in discussions under UNFCCC, EU-RUS dialogue, G8 </li></ul><ul><li>Federal decision to develop a Renewable Energy Program and other Climate-related programs </li></ul>
    31. 31. Measures for mitigation of and adaptation to climate change <ul><li>Approved National Arctic Action Plan: </li></ul><ul><li>- measures on mitigation and adaptation to consequences of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>- special measures on unique arctic ecosystem conservation </li></ul><ul><li>- monitoring system on environment status </li></ul><ul><li>- scientific research of possible consequences of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>- creating new PAs and expansion of current PAs taking into account changed species ranges and new climate conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Regional adaptation Plans </li></ul>
    32. 32. Recommendations for wilderness conservation <ul><li>Considering that only in Russia opportunities still exist to preserve large areas of intact wilderness, and that the legislation allows for protection of wilderness only through creation of protected areas, we recommend that the Russian Government strive to create the maximum number of protected areas for conservation of wilderness as determined by the results of the gap analysis. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Recommendations for wilderness conservation <ul><li>Considering that endangered and migratory species are a key component of wilderness and that their conservation cannot be accomplished in one country alone, we recommend that countries work together to create as many transboundary wilderness protected areas as possible. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Recommendations for wilderness conservation <ul><li>Considering the importance of Pacific salmon for biological, economic, and cultural reasons, we recommend that Russia, the United States, Canada and Japan establish protected area networks for conservation of key salmon rivers. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Recommendations for wilderness conservation <ul><li>In order to produce objective estimates of climate change effects, and to provide information for developing adequate adaptation measures, we recommend that provisions are made for further systematic collection and analysis of scientific information on climatic changes and effects on wilderness, particularly in the Arctic, as well as to understand the irreversibility and magnitude of these effects. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Thank you for your attention!