The Siege of Sarajevo


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The Siege of Sarajevo

  1. 1. The Siege of Sarajevo: 1992-1996
  2. 2. Bosnia-Herzegovina
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ The siege of Sarajevo, as it came to be popularly known, was an episode of such notoriety in the conflict in the former Yugoslavia that one must go back to World War II to find a parallel in European history. Not since then had a professional army conducted a campaign of unrelenting violence against the inhabitants of a European city so as to reduce them to a state of medieval deprivation in which they were in constant fear of death. In the period covered in this Indictment, there was nowhere safe for a Sarajevan, not at home, at school, in a hospital, from deliberate attack.“ </li></ul><ul><li>-ICTY Stanislav Galic Judgment </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bosnian Independence <ul><li>June 25, 1991: Slovenia and Croatia declare independence </li></ul><ul><li>February 1992: Bosnia sues for Independence from Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Referendum issued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>63.7 % turnout, 99.4% vote for independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boycotted by Bosnian Serbs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>March 1, 1992: Independence Declared </li></ul>
  5. 5. Warfare Begins <ul><li>April 5, 1992: 50,000 to 100,000 protestors take to the street </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serb gunmen fire at the antiwar protestors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 people killed Suada Dilberovic and Olga Sucic, they are the first casualties of the siege </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>April 6, 1992 JNA seizes Ministry Training Academy, Central Tramway Depot, and the Airport </li></ul>
  6. 6. Breadline Massacre <ul><li>May 1992 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shell lobbed from hills into Sarajevo kills 16 standing in a breadline, 100 wounded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bosnian Muslims attack barracks of trapped Yugoslav soldiers (mostly Serbs) in the city. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yugoslav Army official claims massacre was staged by Muslims, in effort to get international support for the Bosniak side. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whether it was an act or not the International community released sanctions against Serbs/JNA. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Snipers <ul><li>By late spring/early summer 1992 snipers are present around city. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sniper Screens and signs pop up, some roads/areas become too dangerous to travel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left: Trash Buildup on dangerous street. Right, sniper warning. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Sarajevo Library 1992
  9. 9. Futile Attempts at Peace <ul><li>Carrington-Cutileiro Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed at European Community(EC) peace conference February 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed weak central government of Bosnia with power passed to the district level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed March 18 th by Alija Izetbegovic of Bosnia, Radovan Karadzic of Serbia, and Mate Boban of Croatia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Izetbegovic pulls signature 10 days later(March 28 th ) and the plan dies. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Continued…. <ul><li>Vance-Owen Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed January 1993 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would have split Bosnia into ten semi-autonomous regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected by Bosnian Serb Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>June 18 th the plan is dead </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Continued…. <ul><li>Owen-Stoltenberg Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July 1993 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would have split Bosnia into 3 ethnic states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority ethnic group(Muslims) would have only received 30% of the territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected August 29, 1993 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Continued…. <ul><li>Contact Group Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devised by the U.S., Russia, France, Britain, and Germany from February to October 1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan presented in July 1994 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolate the Serbs and communicate only with Sloban Milosevic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Centered on the 51/49 proposal Muslim/Serb, Croat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected by the Bosnian Serbs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Markale Market Massacres <ul><li>First Markale Massacre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>February 5, 1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>68 Killed, 144 Wounded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Markale Massacre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>August 28, 1995 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>37 killed, 90 Wounded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NATO responds with bombing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Sarajevo Tunnel <ul><li>Winter 1992-93 gas, water, and electric is sporadic at best </li></ul><ul><li>January 1993 tunnel work begins </li></ul><ul><li>Sarajevans volunteer and work 8-hour shfits </li></ul><ul><li>Finished Mid-1993 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 meters in height and width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>800 meters in length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connected Sarajevo with the airport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed supplies to flow in and out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STATS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>20 million tons of food </li></ul><ul><li>1 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous moment was the transportation of Bosnian President Alija Izebegovic in his wheelchair </li></ul><ul><li>Today 20 meters is open as part of a museum </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sarajevo Tunnel cont……
  16. 16. Dayton Agreement <ul><li>Occurred November 1-21, 1995 at Wright-Patterson AFB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiations led by U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher and negiator Warren Christopher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement reached November 21, treaty signed in Paris December 14 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serbs get 49% of the land(mostly mountains), up from 46% but lose Sarajevo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serbs leave hills around Sarajevo February 19, 1996. Siege Ends. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Siege Stats/Totals <ul><li>Lasted 1,425 days </li></ul><ul><li>10,000+ killed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including 1,500+ children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>56,000+ wounded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15,000+ children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late 1992, early 1993 height of the siege. </li></ul><ul><li>Average of 329 shells per day </li></ul><ul><li>July 22, 1993 is estimated to be heaviest day, 3,777 shells. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost every building damages in some way </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-war population: 650,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Day of Cease Fire: approx 220,000, only 65% of pre-war size </li></ul>
  18. 18. War Crimes Convictions <ul><li>Stanislav Galic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First commander of the Sarajevo Romanija Corp/ Republica Srpska </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicted 1998 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>December 5, 2003 given 20 years imprisonment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appealed November 2006, rejected and sentence increased to life imprisonment </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. War Crimes Convictions cont… <ul><li>Dragomir Milosevic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second commander of Romanija Corp, oversaw second Markale Massacre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed Sarajevo was war zone and civilians got in the way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>December 12, 2006 convicted and sentenced to 33 years imprisonment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>November 12 th 2009 appealed and sentence reduced to 29 years </li></ul></ul>