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THE ORPHANAGE
INDUSTRY
CHILDREN IN CAMBODIA

STATISTICS
•  40% of population
is under age 18
•  1 out of 20 die
before age 5
•  28% suffer from
m...
ORPHANAGES IN CAMBODIA

§ 

Steady decrease in number
of orphans since 1980s

§ 

154 orphanages in 2005

§ 

269 orpha...
TOURISM AND ORPHANAGES

§ 

Concentrated growth of
orphanages in tourist areas

§ 

Tourist donations creating
high dema...
LEGISLATION
UNIT ED NAT IONS GUIDELINES FOR T HE ALT ERNAT IVE CARE OF CHILDREN 2 0 0 9
RGC POLICY ON ALT ERNAT IVE CARE F...
EFFECTS OF RESIDENTIAL CARE

60 years of research
across all continents
Negatively affects
cognitive,
socio-emotional,
and...
INSTITUTIONALIZATION
Youths who have grown up in orphanages are at
significantly higher risk of suffering from:
• 
• 
• 
•...
COSTS OF RESIDENTIAL CARE
Short Term Costs

§  Land and buildings
§  Round the clock
caregivers
§  Cooks, guards, drive...
VOLUNTEERING IN ORPHANAGES
“This was the best experience of my life.
When given the opportunity to be involved
in such an ...
HELP SPREAD THE MESSAGE

RESOURCES
UNICEF
Save the
Children

www.orphanages.no/index.html
www.thinkchildsafe.org/thinkbefo...
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Poverty Alleviation Through Sustainable Tourism Development: An Idea Or Reality? by Hannah Won

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A debate has arisen over the actual effects the tourism industry has within developing countries, and to what extent it helps the poor. The concept of tourism as a means of poverty alleviation has been around for nearly a decade, but there is a continuing debate over its effectiveness. Is tourism actually helping to give families and communities a better life or are here leakages that we do not see? Hear from various credible sources including the people on the ground and decide for yourself.

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Poverty Alleviation Through Sustainable Tourism Development: An Idea Or Reality? by Hannah Won

  1. 1. THE ORPHANAGE INDUSTRY
  2. 2. CHILDREN IN CAMBODIA STATISTICS •  40% of population is under age 18 •  1 out of 20 die before age 5 •  28% suffer from malnutrition VULNERABILITIES •  Poverty •  Abandonment •  Abuse & Neglect •  Child Labor
  3. 3. ORPHANAGES IN CAMBODIA §  Steady decrease in number of orphans since 1980s §  154 orphanages in 2005 §  269 orphanages in 2010 §  Estimated 12,000 children in orphanages §  74% of children in orphanages have parents §  Most orphans are cared for by families and communities
  4. 4. TOURISM AND ORPHANAGES §  Concentrated growth of orphanages in tourist areas §  Tourist donations creating high demand for orphanages §  Sophisticated scams and rampant corruption §  Lack of child protection and violation of child rights
  5. 5. LEGISLATION UNIT ED NAT IONS GUIDELINES FOR T HE ALT ERNAT IVE CARE OF CHILDREN 2 0 0 9 RGC POLICY ON ALT ERNAT IVE CARE FOR CHILDREN 2 0 0 6 & 2 010 S TOC KH OLM DEC LA RAT ION ON C H ILDREN & RES IDEN T IA L CA RE 2 0 0 3 UNIT ED NAT IONS CONVENT ION ON T HE RIGHT S OF T HE CHILD 1 9 8 5 Children have the right to grow up in a family. Families should be supported to care for their own children. Removal of a child from a family should be the last resort and only temporary. Poverty should never be the only reason to remove a child from the family.
  6. 6. EFFECTS OF RESIDENTIAL CARE 60 years of research across all continents Negatively affects cognitive, socio-emotional, and physical development Difficulty entering adult society Higher risk of abuse
  7. 7. INSTITUTIONALIZATION Youths who have grown up in orphanages are at significantly higher risk of suffering from: •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Pover ty Homelessness Discrimination Substance Abuse Gang Activity Criminality Prostitution Isolation Depression Psychotic Disorders Suicidal Behaviors
  8. 8. COSTS OF RESIDENTIAL CARE Short Term Costs §  Land and buildings §  Round the clock caregivers §  Cooks, guards, drivers Long Term Costs §  Specialized services for institutionalized youths •  Counseling •  Rehabilitation •  Life Skills §  Administration §  Incarceration §  Fundraising §  Unemployment
  9. 9. VOLUNTEERING IN ORPHANAGES “This was the best experience of my life. When given the opportunity to be involved in such an outstanding project, we owe it to ourselves to participate.” “It was so sad to say goodbye to all the kids I’d built up a bond with over the few weeks that I was there but I’d definitely like to go back.” “I realized that as I stood in an orphanage surrounded by parentless kids somewhere in the depths of Africa, I’d never felt more joy or happiness in my life.”
  10. 10. HELP SPREAD THE MESSAGE RESOURCES UNICEF Save the Children www.orphanages.no/index.html www.thinkchildsafe.org/thinkbeforevisiting www.replace-campaign.org/index.html www.hopeandhomes.org www.wearelumos.org Royal Government of Cambodia Ministry of Social Affairs Friends International The Bucharest Early Intervention Project

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