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# Menggunakan AlisJK : Equating

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### Menggunakan AlisJK : Equating

1. 1. Menggunakan AlisJK Equating http://www.negeripelangi.org/index.php/id/produk/alisjk Wildan Maulanawildan.m@openthinklabs.com
2. 2. Sasaran● Explain why testing organizations report scaled scores instead of raw scores.● State two important considerations in choosing a score scale.● Explain how equating differs from statistical prediction● Explain why equating for individual test-takers is impossible.● State the linear and equipercentile definitions of comparable scores and explain why they are meaningful only with reference to a population of test-takers.
3. 3. Sasaran● Explain why linear equating leads to out-of-range scores and is heavily group-dependent and how equipercentile equating avoids these problems.● Explain why equipercentile equating requires “smoothing.”● Explain how the precision of equating (by any method) is limited by the discreteness of the score scale.● Describe five data collection designs for equating and state the main advantages and limitations of each.
4. 4. Sasaran● Explain the problems of “scale drift” and “equating strains.”● State at least six practical guidelines for selecting common items for anchor equating.● Explain the fundamental assumption of anchor equating and explain how it differs for different equating methods.● Explain the logic of chained equating methods in an anchor equating design.● Explain the logic of equating methods that condition on anchor scores and the conditions under which these methods are biased.
5. 5. Pembahasan● Penyetaraan Tes● Rancangan Penyetaraan Tes● Metode Penyetaraan● Bentuk-Bentuk Penyetaraan Tes
6. 6. Scaled Scores
7. 7. Scaled Scores
8. 8. Choosing the Score Scale
9. 9. Limitations of Equating● Equating cannot adjust scores correctly for every individual test-taker.● Equating cannot adjust scores correctly for every possible group of test-takers.
10. 10. Yang Harus Diperhatikan Lord (Hambleton & Swaminathan, 1985)● Perangkat tes yang mengukur sifat dan kemampuan berbeda tidak dapat disetarakan● Skor mentah perangkat tes yang tidak sama realibilitasnya tidak disetarakan● Skor mentah perangkat tes yang memiliki tingkat kesukaran berbeda tidak dapat disetarakan● Skor perangkat tes X dan Y tidak dapat disetarakan tanpa adanya bukti bahwa kedua perangkat tes pararel● Skor-skor yang berasal dari dua perangkat tes yang berbeda materi tidak disetarakan
11. 11. Equating Is Symmetric
12. 12. A General Definition of Equating A score on the new form and a score on the reference form are equivalent in agroup of test-takers if they represent the same relative position in the group.
13. 13. A Very Simple Type of Equating
14. 14. Linear Equating
15. 15. Linear Equating
16. 16. Linear EquatingProblems with linear equating
17. 17. Equipercentile Equating● To equate scores on the new form to scores on the reference form in a group of test-takers, transform each score on the new form to the score on the reference form that has the same percentile rank in that group.
18. 18. Equipercentile Equating
19. 19. Equipercentile EquatingA problem with equipercentile equating and a solution
20. 20. Equipercentile EquatingA problem with equipercentile equating and a solution
21. 21. Equipercentile EquatingA problem with equipercentile equating and a solution
22. 22. Equipercentile EquatingA problem with equipercentile equating and a solution
23. 23. A limitation of equipercentile equating
24. 24. Equipercentile equating and the discreteness problem
25. 25. Test: Linear and Equipercentile Equating
26. 26. Test: Linear and Equipercentile Equating
27. 27. Test: Linear and Equipercentile Equating
28. 28. Equating Designs● The single-group design● The counterbalanced design● The equivalent-groups design● The internal-anchor design● The external-anchor design
29. 29. Test: Equating Designs
30. 30. Test: Equating Designs
31. 31. Test: Equating Designs
32. 32. Selecting “Common Items” for an Internal Anchor● Include enough questions from the reference form● Choose a set of questions that resembles the full test in content and format● Include questions that represent the full range of difficulty● Don’t include any questions that have been changed.● Try to avoid breaking up an “item set.”
33. 33. Selecting “Common Items” for an Internal Anchor● Don’t use questions at the end of the test as anchor items, unless the time limit is very generous● Put each anchor item in approximately the same position in the new form as it was in the reference form● Other things being equal, choose common items that correlate well with the total score.
34. 34. Scale Drift
35. 35. The Standard Error of Equating
36. 36. Equating Without an Anchor
37. 37. Equating in an Anchor Design
38. 38. Two ways to use the anchor scores● chained equating● conditioning on the anchor
39. 39. Chained Equating
40. 40. Chained Equating
41. 41. Conditioning on the Anchor:Frequency Estimation Equating
42. 42. Frequency estimation equating when the correlations are weak
43. 43. Conditioning on the Anchor: Tucker Equating
44. 44. Tucker equating when the correlations are weak
45. 45. Correcting for Imperfect Reliability: Levine Equating
46. 46. Choosing an Anchor Equating Method
47. 47. Test: Anchor Equating● A test developer is assembling a new form of a test that will be equated to a previous form by means of an internal anchor consisting of repeated questions (“common items”). The reference form included a set of four questions based on a particular reading passage, and the test developer wants to include those questions in the anchor. However, one of those questions has been changed. What should the statistician tell the test developer to do?●
48. 48. Test: Anchor Equating● In what part of the score distribution does the standard error of equating tend to be smallest?● In chained equipercentile equating, what statistical relationship is assumed to generalize from the equating sample to the target population?● In Tucker equating, what statistical relationship is assumed to generalize from the equating sample to the target population?● Name an anchor equating method that equates the new form to the anchor in one group of test-takers and equates the anchor to the reference form in another group of test- takers.
49. 49. Test: Anchor Equating● Name an anchor equating method that uses data from the anchor test to estimate the mean and standard deviation of the scores on each form in the target population.● Name an anchor equating method that tends to give better results if the score distributions are smoothed before the method is applied.● Name an anchor equating method that requires reliability estimates for the full test and the anchor.
50. 50. Test: Anchor Equating● Name an anchor equating method that produces an equating conversion that is correct for every examinee in the new form equating sample.● Briefly describe the conditions under which the Tucker equating method is heavily biased.
51. 51. Hubungan (Linking) Antar Tes (Kollen dan Brennan, 2004)● Penyetaraan (Equiting)● Concordance● Prediksi (Prediction)
52. 52. ● Rancangan Kelompok Tunggal (RKT) / Single Group Decision● Rancangan Kelompok Ekuivalen (RKE) / Equivalen Group Design● Rancangan dengan Butir Jangkar (RBJ)
53. 53. Equating Designs● The single-group design● The counterbalanced design● The equivalent-groups design● The internal-anchor design● The external-anchor design
54. 54. Metode Penyetaraan
55. 55. Metode Penyetaraan Tes (Anghoff, 1982; Lord, 1980)● Metode Regresi● Metode Rerata Sigma● Metode Rerata dan Sigma Tegar● Metode Kurva Karakteristik
56. 56. Metode Penyetaraan Tes Metode Regresi
57. 57. Metode Penyetaraan Tes Metode Rerata Sigma
58. 58. Metode Penyetaraan Tes Metode Rerata dan Sigma Tegar
59. 59. Metode Penyetaraan Tes Metode Kurva Karakteristik
60. 60. Bentuk-Bentuk Penyetaraan Tes● Penyetaraan Tes Vertikal ● Penyetaraan tes yang digunakan antar level yang berbeda● Penyetaraan Tes Horizontal ● Penyetaraan tes dimana terdapat dua paket tes atau yang dikembangkan berdasarkan isi dan item tes yang sama, namun lazimnya setiap paket tes memiliki perbedaan tingkat kesulitan.
61. 61. Empat Aspek Kesetaraan yang Harus Diperhatikan● Interferensi● Konstruk● Populasi● Karakteristik dan Kondisi Pengukuran
62. 62. Prosedur Penyetaraan Tes● Uji Prasyarat ● Hasil Uji Post Hoc – Dengan Uji Scheffe – Dengan Uji Tukey – Dengan Uji Bonferroni – Dengan Uji LSD (Least Significance Differences) ● Hasil Uji Homogenitas Varians ● Hasil Uji Normalitas Skor Tiga Kelompok● Estimasi Parameter Butir dan Kemampuan● Estimasi Persamaan Penyetaraan
63. 63. Referensi● Equating Test Scores (Without IRT), Samuel A. Livingston. Educational Testing Services (ETS), 2004● Penyetaraan Tes UAN : Mengapa dan Bagaimana, Sukirno DS, FISE Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta
64. 64. Terimakasihwildan.m@openthinklabs.com http://www.openthinklabs.com@wildanmaulana @openthinklabs Untuk berdiskusi, silahkan bergabung di milis AlisJK : http://groups.google.com/group/alisjk?hl=id