February 4, 2013 We’ll start off talking about engine works and wears with internal components.
February 4, 2013 Engine electronics offer performance, power, serviceability, fuel economy, emissions control and durability not possible with most mechanically controlled engines. They also help control engine repair expenses. Sensors relay messages about these engine functions to the ECM, which analyzes engine operation to optimize power and economy. The results are increased fuel savings and productivity.
February 4, 2013 Electronic Engine Control The ECM serves as the engine’s governor. It determines when and how much fuel to deliver to the cylinders based on the actual and desired conditions at any given time. By sensing actual engine speed using the Speed/Timing sensor, the ECM then decides how much fuel to inject in order to achieve the desired engine speed. Injection timing depends on the engine rpm, load, and other operating conditions. It decides when injection should occur relative to top-center of the pistons and provides the signal to the injector at the desired time. The Personality Module (PM) in the ECM contains the software which controls how the ECM behaves. The personality module stores the operating maps that define horsepower and torque curves, and smoke and altitude derate maps. The two work together, along with the sensors to see and the injectors to act, to control the engine. Information Management An engine’s electronic system also accurately calculates, tracks, and stores its instantaneous operations, current job totals, histograms, (rpm, percent load), and maintenance information. Engine Monitoring From many sensor inputs, the ECM continuously monitors coolant temperature, coolant level, oil pressure, intake manifold temperature, fuel temperature, and fuel pressure. This information can then be inputted into EMS, an electronic monitoring system designed to display various engine parameters. The EMS is used to display the engine oil pressure, engine coolant temperature, fuel pressure, and battery voltage. Benefits Electronic engine governing serves to improve emissions, performance, and reliability. Electronic information management and engine monitoring improves diagnostic capabilities of Caterpillar engines. Together these features and benefits meet customer needs for new features and advanced technology.
February 4, 2013 During the past decade, advanced designs have played a major role in improving the operation of diesel engines. Customer needs for better performance along with new standards for lower emissions have required more sophisticated engine controls. Caterpillar has taken the challenge and has met and exceeded these demands with the development of electronic engines. Since 1986, more than 500,000 advanced Caterpillar electronic engines have been put in service in truck, marine, petroleum, industrial, and locomotive applications. The above controls show the advancement of Caterpillar electronic controls beginning with PEEC that was introduced in the on-highway truck market in 1987. ADEM III was introduced in trucks in 1998 and will be available for industrial in 2001.
February 4, 2013 What if an ECM Fails? (control failures are rare due to their reliability) Most machines provide different modes to “limp” a machine home There is a process for a mechanic making a repair in the field to download the correct machine specific flash file to the ECM (long term - will use SIS Web) ECM Replacement Options? If the group has questions regarding the availability of Reman ECM’s, apparently there is a limited selection. The best way to find the part number needed is through NPR or calling the Reman Hotline at 1-888-887-3626.
February 4, 2013 The wiring harness is like the “spinal cord” of the electrical system. It is made up of segments joined by connectors. The ideal would be to have one unit, but based on where the harness is located on the machine and other natural connector points, determines harness segments. Harness segments are serviceable. Harnesses are made of hundreds of wires. The repair solution depends on what is practical and cost effective. Many times it requires creativity on the part of the technician. Some locations are very hard to access because the harness is securely mounted to protect the unit. For instance, the main wiring harness on the frame is very hard to get to and may require one to two full days to replace. Typically, when sensors go bad, they are just replaced.
February 4, 2013 First, we will briefly discuss the Caterpillar engine families along with the features and strategies for each.
February 4, 2013 Design is a key differentiator for Caterpillar parts. First, all our parts are designed to operate as a total system and so must meet stringent specifications. For example, Caterpillar rings perfectly match piston ring grooves. Caterpillar bearings exactly fit the journals for long life and superior oil flow . Caterpillar design engineers match the right combination of dimensions, material, finish and manufacturing processes to each part so they work and wear effectively with neighboring and dependent parts. It is very important that you understand that many of the key product differences we will discuss are not apparent to the naked eye. When a parts competitor says their part is “the same as Caterpillar,” take a closer look. While competition has a strategy of low initial price, Caterpillar parts are built to keep engines running over the long term and provide the lowest cost per hour. Our strategy isn’t to sell more parts but to keep the equipment up and running and to help your customers make a profit. Caterpillar dealers provide fast, complete parts availability. If your dealership doesn't have a part in inventory, you know it’s quickly available through Caterpillar's worldwide parts distribution network. Caterpillar continually updates parts to reflect the latest technological advances. Many competitors simply attempt to copy Caterpillar and cannot keep up with the changes. Caterpillar parts are the top quality, built to exact tolerances and undergo rigid testing to meet the tough standards set by by Quality Assurance Program. Competitors may cut quality to lower their costs. Because Caterpillar parts are robustly designed, they often can be reused or remanufactured and have a second life built into the part. Each of these items tell the Caterpillar quality story –how we differentiate ourselves from the competition.
February 4, 2013 Cat head designs are updated often, so buying a Cat head means you get the latest improvements and advancements. These improvements are not available to our competitors unless they attempt to copy our product's dimensions. You are seeing here the inside of a CMM room where the technician is checking to make sure these cylinder heads meet our Rigid Tolerance specifications . Cat Heads are a precisely machined to ensure a tight seal and clean passages throughout. Our head designs are updated regularly and often. So buying a Cat head means you are getting the latest advancements in technology. These improvements are not available to our competitors, so to keep up they are usually forced to reverse engineer our design and try to copy our product's dimensions. We have often seen core sand deposits and holes that are not tapered properly on competitors heads. Just because 2 sets of heads look a like, doesn’t mean they will perform alike.
February 4, 2013 Let's get started with cylinder heads. There are significant differences between Caterpillar's and competitors' manufacturing processes, and they make noticeable and costly differences in quality and efficiency. Many will-fit water holes are often oversized, unthreaded or even completely missing. That leads to leaks and inadequate cooling. Caterpillar machines all water holes to ensure adequate cooling.
February 4, 2013 Blocked water passages in some will-fit heads can lead to hot spots and head cracking. Caterpillar's rigid cleaning process ensures internal water passages are free of core sand and metal shavings. You get proper cooling and a longer lasting cylinder head.
February 4, 2013 To summarize, these are the features we identified for Caterpillar cylinder heads. Properly machined water holes Right design as shown by having the correct (adequate) number of water holes Rigid cleaning Manufactured to rigid tolerances Up-to-date with design changes and improvements ASK - RECORD RESPONSES What are the Advantages to the customer of these features? Optimal cooling Less likelihood of cracks and leaks developing so less chance of problems related to leaking and/or overheating More durable Longer life More reliable operation Less downtime so ultimately lower cost ASK What problems can result if an engine overheats that is preventable by proper cooling? Spoiling the oil … i.e., excessive oxidation NOTE: When you’re in a real selling situation and explaining a series of Features about one Solution, you generally would NOT give make an Advantage statement for each and every feature statement. Doing so would make the sales presentation sound awkward and redundant to the customer. (Remember, there are only a few Task Motives …less down time, longer life, lower costs, more profit, etc.). Instead, you would use one or two statements to “sum up” the series of features and to “close” the deal. Example: ….”so to sum it all up Mr. Customer, wouldn’t you agree that all the Advantages I just mentioned would give you longer component life, less downtime, and ultimately lower cost?” When customer responds positively …CLOSE the deal …ask for the order. “ Good, I am glad you agree! Now when would be the best time to schedule this machine in for a repair, next week or the week after that? “ ASK - RECORD ON FLIPCHART What are possible Benefit statements you might create for this solution? Click to bring up next slide with Benefit examples to compare with group’s suggestions.
February 4, 2013 Will-fit valves have turning marks on the keeper grooves. This is a critical area that needs good fatigue strength. Turning marks can lead to valve cracking and failure. During manufacturing Cat valves are precisely ground to remove all rough notches and edges, leading to longer life. Possible question: Why are 2 materials used on the valve and stem? We require a stronger material in the valve area. The stem and valve are then inertia welded.
February 4, 2013 Competitive manufacturers sometimes don't use any facing material on their valves. If they do, it is, in many cases, inferior in quality and quantity. The result is an increase in strength which allows for reusability. Cat valves have up to 150% more facing material than the industry average. Because of this some exhaust valves can be reused.
February 4, 2013 Differentiating features of Caterpillar valves include: They are precisely ground to remove turning marks, rough notches and edges Manufactured from high strength material In addition, Caterpillar uses more facing material than industry average (up to 150% more) ASK Now, what is the so-what? What are the Advantages to your customer? Increased protection against valve lip cracking and stem breakage Increased strength that allows for reusability through 1 or 2 overhauls High strength material allows head and stem to flex for greater fatigue strength Longer wear life More durable More reliable operation Less downtime so ultimately lower cost ASK Now, give me a possible Benefit statement related to how using Caterpillar valves might give the customer more Recognition within his company. Example responses Recognition: People will want to know who made the decision to use Genuine Caterpillar valves when they see their repair and maintenance costs going down. It will give you added visibility within the company. Recognition: People will recognize you as a positive example for others in the company when they see your decisions result in saving the company money.
February 4, 2013 Most will-fit flanges are not roll burnished, so they are susceptible to flange cracking and breakage. Cat flanges are roll burnished in the radius to increase strength and eliminate cracking. Roll burnishing is a surface hardening method. It is a cold work method to achieve compressive residual stresses in the flange. Cat controls flange head thickness to guarantee a precise match to the block. Will-fit flanges can be over- or undersized, which can cause head gasket misfit and leakage. Sharp edges are reduced and seal life is extended because Caterpillar O-Ring seal grooves are chamfered. Non-chamfered will-fit seal grooves can nick or pinch a seal during liner installation, causing oil and coolant leaks. Many will-fit liners are not heat treated, which shortens wear life and increases the chance of flange cracks. Cat liners are heat treated for long life and reusability, and to eliminate flange cracking. Cat liners are heat treated all the way down the liner. Note: Because of some earlier manufacturing issues and for internal traceability, we now put a groove around the middle of the water jacket area. This denotes which machine manufactured the liner.
February 4, 2013 Many will-fit liners have a random cross hatch pattern, which results in poor oil control, irregular oil distribution and even increased oil consumption. Eventually this can lead to liner damage. The uniform cross hatch pattern on the Cat liners provides faster seating of the piston rings, proper ring seal and uniform oil distribution for longer life. Caterpillar’s computer controlled honing manufacturing process ensures proper honing on every cylinder.
February 4, 2013 The competitive liners were not machined to hone off the microscopic “sawtooth” peaks on the liner surface -- a process called plateauing. This lack will increase the break-in time, as the piston rings do the honing job. This increases wear on the rings and shortens their life and delays proper oil control. All Cat liners are prehoned to preserve life and disperse oil better beginning with hour one. Result: Longer liner and ring life.
February 4, 2013 HAVE TEAM ASSIGNED TO CYLINDER LINERS PRESENT THE LIST OF FEATURES THEY DEVELOPED.
February 4, 2013 HAVE TEAM ASSIGNED TO CYLINDER LINERS PRESENT THE ADVANTAGES THEY COMPILED. COMPARE TO LIST ON SLIDE. IF NOT IDENTIFIED BY TEAM, MAKE FOLLOWING ADDITIONAL POINT: Competitive cylinder liners are priced lower than Caterpillar liners so customer thinks he is saving money. Caterpillar cylinder liners designed to last through 2 wear cycles, meaning they last twice as long as competition – they are reusable at first overhaul – so more cost efficient. When calculated out, the double-life efficiency provided by the Caterpillar genuine liner more than compensates for the 30% higher initial cost. Caterpillar liners actually save the customer money over the longer term.
Electronic Control Module (ECM)Caterpillar’s Electronic Control Module (ECM) and sensors control and monitor key engine function, including:• Fuel temperature.• Engine oil temperature.• Oil pressure.• Atmospheric pressure.• Coolant temperature.• Injection actuation pressure• Throttle position• Injection timing & duration• Logged faults
Features & Benefits of ElectronicsFeatures Benefits•Electronic Engine Control •Improved Emissions Engine Speed Governing •Increased Performance & Torque Shaping Reliability Fuel-air Ratio Control •Improved Diagnostics Cold Mode Strategies •Meet customer needs for Altitude Derating New Features / Advanced Fuel Temperature Compensation Technology•Information Management Accurate Tracking Stored Results•Engine Monitoring Fluid Level Fluid Pressure Fluid Temperature
ADEM 4 Electronic Engine Control Generations of Experience 1987 1991 1993 1998 32-bit 2004 32-bit 8-bit Advanced Two 8-bit ADEM III 8-bit ADEM II ADEM 4PEEC II PEEC III Proven Reliability
Electronic Control ModuleWhat if an ECM Fails?• Troubleshooting guides help identify a component or harness problem• “Limp home” modes• Ability to flash files at repair siteECM Replacement Options?• No serviceable piece parts• Some Reman offerings exist
Electronic Control ModuleWhat if a Sensor or Wiring Harness Fails?• Decision to repair or replace depends on the problem• Sensors and harness segments are serviceable• Replacing an entire harness is a last resort
Agenda• Engine Families• Engine Works & Wears Engine Wear Combustion Process Internal Components External Components Cooling System Lube System Fuel System Air System Electronics• Parts Differentiation• REMAN• Resources
Engine Parts Quality • Total System Design • "Same as Caterpillar" • Motives • Parts Availability • Design Modifications • Quality • Reusability • Repair Solutions New, Reman, Classic, Kits
Cylinder HeadsCompetition Caterpillar• Cut corners to lower costs • Rigid tolerances• Dont meet Cat specs • Design updates
Cylinder HeadsCompetition Caterpillar• Blocked passages • Rigid cleaning process
Cylinder HeadsFeatures• Properly machined parts• Rigid Cleaning Process• Rigid Tolerances• Design Updates• Right design for the systemAdvantages• Optimal cooling• Less likelihood of leaks developing and so less chance of problems related to leaking and/or overheating• More durable• Longer life• More reliable operation• Less downtime so ultimately lower cost
ValvesCompetition Caterpillar• Turning marks • Precisely ground
Exhaust ValvesCompetition Caterpillar• Inadequate facing • More facing material material than industry standard
Valves, Solution – AdvantageFeatures• Precisely ground• High strength material• More facing material than industry standardAdvantages Estimate Repairs• Increased protection against valve lip cracking and stem breakage• Increased strength that allows for reusability through 1 or 2 overhauls• Greater fatigue strength• Longer wear life• More durable• More reliable operation• Less downtime so ultimately lower cost Discussion
Cylinder LinersCompetition• Not roll burnished• Flange thickness out of spec• O-Ring grooves not chamfered• Increased chance of crackingCaterpillar• Roll burnished• Controlled flange head thickness• Chamfered O-Ring seal grooves• Heat treated