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Creative arts – lesson 1

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Creative arts – lesson 1

  1. 1. By: Elizabeth W. Santos *
  2. 2. Creative Arts Includes the following : Art: Children express and represent what they observe, think, imagine, and feel through two- and three-dimensional art. Music: Children express and represent what they observe, think, imagine, and feel through music. Movement: Children express and represent what they observe, think, imagine, and feel through movement. Pretend play: Children express and represent what they observe, think, imagine, and feel through pretend play. Appreciating the arts: Children appreciate the creative arts.
  3. 3. * - It identifies four elements: art, music, movement, and dramatic play. - Teaching teams learn about effective classroom strategies that stimulate active involvement in the creative arts and promote learning and brain development in young children. - The domain elements and indicators support children’s imaginative thinking and self-expression, and enhance their progress in other domains.
  4. 4. For example, - children may count musical beats, - experiment with mixing colors to make a new one, - create dialogue for a story drama, - or move like the animal characters in a story. In such activities, they are learning in several domains and using a variety of social, cognitive, and creative processes.
  5. 5. The creative arts engage children's minds and senses. They invite children to…  listen,  observe,  move,  solve problems,  and imagine, using multiple modes of thought and self-expression.
  6. 6. Active involvement in the creative arts stimulates brain connections that support children's learning. A growing body of research on the effects of early arts experiences shows their positive relationship to improved, overall academic performance. Research in the arts also demonstrates that when creativity is developed at an early age, its benefits are continual and are transferred to many intellectual tasks (Arts Education Partnership 2000).
  7. 7. All areas of creative arts can incorporate the diversity of children in the program. Dance, art, pantomime, and creative expression are areas where English language learners can be Included without needing to rely on language skills in English.
  8. 8. Music can be particularly effective since it can be fun for children to learn a song in either English or another language. Music experiences for young children involve listening to, learning about, and making music.
  9. 9. Music Children can listen and respond to different kinds of music by moving, dancing, painting, or  talking about  how it makes them feel,  what instruments they hear,  how it compares to other pieces they have heard,  or what they do /do not like about it.
  10. 10. Music Children also enjoy..  singing favorite songs,  learning new ones,  and making up their own.
  11. 11. Arts experiences allow children to convey their ideas, feelings, and knowledge in visual forms.
  12. 12. Arts Individually and in groups, children use materials such as  crayons, paint, Play dough, clay, found objects, glue, tape, and paper, along with tools such as  scissors,  brushes,  rolling pins,  cookie cutters, and more.
  13. 13. They explore the Arts processes of art using  materials, tools, and techniques  and create products such as …  drawings,  paintings,  sculptures, mobiles, and  collages.
  14. 14. Movement includes … dancing to music and moving in various ways to learn what the body can do or to express an idea or feeling. Children might imagine how an animal moves, then try to imitate it. They could focus on a specific feeling, such as joy or fear, and create movements to express the feeling. Movement facilitates spatial awareness and sensory integration, contributes to overall health and fitness, and promotes development of physical skills.
  15. 15. Movement includes …  dancing to music and moving in various ways…  to learn what the body can do or  to express an idea or feeling. Children might imagine how an animal moves, then try to imitate it.
  16. 16. drama includes … Dramatic play and drama involve make-believe. Children take on roles such as … mother, waiter, mail carrier, or doctor. They put objects to imaginative uses— for example, transforming a large box into a spaceship or cave
  17. 17. drama includes … Dramatic play also offers a wide range of opportunities for children to use and expand their  cognitive,  language,  literacy, and  social skill.
  18. 18. need to focus on what it means to be creative.  Individuals are creative when they take existing objects or ideas and combine them in different ways for new purposes.  They use their ever-growing body of knowledge to generate new and useful solutions to everyday challenges.  Early childhood teachers are creative when they invent new ways to individualize the environment, curriculum, and interactions with young learners. *
  19. 19. * - should understanding and recognizing the creative process—in themselves and in children. - should encourage learning through the creative arts by introducing children to excellent and varied examples of art forms. - should involve children in noticing, thinking about, and discussing artistic productions.
  20. 20. *  should use open-ended questions,  should invite children to  examine,  critique,  evaluate,  and develop their own aesthetic preferences.
  21. 21. *  should provide raw materials, props, tools, and appropriate spaces so that children can create in their own ways.  should observe and respond to children in ways that communicate acceptance for creative expression.  should plan and offer integrated experiences to take advantage of the many ways creative arts support learning in other domains.
  22. 22. * To support children's development in the creative arts  Maintain a supportive atmosphere in which all forms of creative expression are encouraged, accepted and valued. Participation in any art activity should always be a choice. There is no wrong answer.  Plan a flexible environment that offers a sufficient range of materials, props, tools, and equipment for creative expression.
  23. 23. * To support children's development in the creative arts  Plan a variety of open-ended creative arts activities that foster children's imaginative thinking, problem solving, and self-expression.  Adapt materials and experiences so children with disabilities can fully engage in the creative arts.
  24. 24. * To support children's development in the creative arts  Model their own creative thinking and expression by making up voices and sound effects and using gestures when reading or telling stories, by using recycled items for new purposes, and by thinking out loud when solving a problem.  Encourage children by making positive, specific comments ("I see you've made a pattern—green, yellow, green, yellow"), rather than offering broad general praise, such as "Good job."
  25. 25. * To support children's development in the creative arts  Introduce a new character, prop, or problem into children's play to broaden their awareness and encourage creative thinking.  Lead children through the thinking and problem-solving process by asking open-ended questions such as, "What will you need?," "How might you …?,"and "What could you do first?"  Involve families served by inviting them to share something from their own culture in the creative arts.
  26. 26. * 1- 4 . What are the four elements of creative arts ? 5 –9 . What are the things that you should encourage your students to do so that you can help them be engaged in creative arts? 10. __________ can be particularly effective since it can be fun for children to learn a song in either English or another language.
  27. 27. Answer key 1. Music 2. Art 3. Movement 4. Dramatic Play 5. listen 6. Observe 7. Move 8. Solve problems 9. Imagine 10.10. music
  28. 28. * Application - Hands-on Learning 1. Using the following materials I want you to create something . 1. You will only be given 15 minutes . 2. Your work will be graded using the rubric below Criteria 1 2 3 4 Elements of Designs The student did the minimum or the art work was never completed. The student did The assignment in a satisfactory manner but lack of planning was evident. The art work shows that the student applied the principles discussed in class adequately. The art work shows that the student applied the principles discussed in class in unique manner Creativity The piece shows little or no evident of original work. The student work lacks originality. The student work demonstrates originality. The student work demonstrates a unique level of originality. Effort The student did not finish the work in a satisfactory manner The student finishes the project but it lacks finishing touches or can be improved upon with little effort. The student completed the project in an above average manner yet more could have been done The student exert an effort far beyond the requirements of the project. Skill The student shows poor craftsmanship The student shows average craftsmanship The student shows above average craftsmanship The art work is outstanding and it was finished with great deal of patience Responsivenes s The student displayed a negative response throughout the development of the piece The student displayed a negative response at time during the development of the piece The student displayed a positive response most of the time during the development of the piece The student displayed a positive response all of the time during the development of the piece Total Teacher Comments :
  29. 29. By: Elizabeth W. Santos *
  30. 30. * Domain Element: Music Children's experiences and associations with music begin in infancy. Some babies are comforted by the slow rhythms of lullabies, and others are excited by music with a lively beat. By the time they reach the toddler years, many children have favorite songs and musical pieces.
  31. 31. * Domain Element: Music They listen attentively, sing along with a familiar chorus, and begin making their own music by shaking a tambourine or banging on a drum. As language skills grow, toddlers begin making up their own songs. If they have had many opportunities to listen to and talk about music, they can identify the sounds made by specific instruments—trumpet, drum, or violin.
  32. 32. pre-schoolers  can recall enough of the words and tune of a simple song to sing along quite well.  can learn to listen and play along with music using rhythm instruments such as sand blocks.  can learn about basic musical concepts such as pitch, duration, tempo, and loudness, and  can understand and use musical vocabulary.
  33. 33. pre-schoolers  Their singing skills continue to grow, along with their ability to play rhythm instruments.  An increased attention span allows pre-schoolers to listen to recorded music and talk about what they hear.
  34. 34. pre-schoolers When young children take part in developmentally appropriate music experiences as part of their daily routines and activities, they can (Isenberg & Jalongo 1997) :  listen, identifying the sounds made by different instruments;  respond by clapping to the beat or marching around the room quickly or slowly in response to different kinds of music;  create (explore the sounds made by different keys on a thumb piano and make up a tune);
  35. 35. pre-schoolers When young children take part in developmentally appropriate music experiences as part of their daily routines and activities, they can (Isenberg & Jalongo 1997) :  understand (determine whether a piece of music has a slow or fast beat);  make up (create a new song or a verse for a familiar song); and  play (shake maracas to accompany a song).
  36. 36. Domain element - music Indicators…  Experiments with a variety of musical instruments.  Participate with increasing interest and enjoyment in a variety of music activities, including listening, singing, finger plays, games, and performances.
  37. 37. music strategies To encourage musical expression and appreciation  Incorporate the music of children's cultures and home languages in the curriculum.  Sing songs suggested by children's families.  Sing along with a recorded version of a song until everyone learns the words. Introduce real or homemade versions of instruments that are typical of children's cultures.
  38. 38. music strategies To encourage musical expression and appreciation  Share and discuss a variety of musical forms and styles.  Sing traditional and contemporary children's songs and folk songs from our country and other countries.  Introduce different kinds of classical music—piano sonatas, lullabies, ballets, and operas.  Listen and move to jazz, reggae, and marches
  39. 39. music strategies To encourage musical expression and appreciation  Encourage children to share and compare their responses to different kinds of music—  how it makes them feel,  what they do or do not like about it,  how it is similar to and different from other music they have heard,  what instruments they hear in different pieces of music.
  40. 40. music strategies To encourage musical expression and appreciation  Enjoy making and listening to music.  Most songs for pre-schoolers have a range of about five notes, so they are simple to sing.  Learn new ones by listening to and singing along with recordings.  Share favorite kinds of music with children and let them catch the enthusiasm.
  41. 41. music strategies To encourage musical expression and appreciation  Provide an environment that supports making music and listening to music.  Include rhythm instruments, xylophones, bells, and materials for making instruments.  Provide a child-friendly tape player with a variety of music tapes and headphones.
  42. 42. music strategies To encourage musical expression and appreciation  Use music to enhance routines and activities.  For example, play the same piece of music to signal it is time to clean up and go outdoors.  Play music in the art area and encourage children to listen and paint according to the way the music makes them feel.
  43. 43. music strategies To encourage musical expression and appreciation  Share a book version of a song, such as Pete Seeger's Abiyoyo or Simms Taback's There Was an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly.  Make a tune to go with a book that has a rhythmic, repetitive text such as Chicka, Chicka, Boom, Boom by Bill Martin, Jr. and John Archambault or Uno, Dos, Tres: One, Two, Three by Pat Mora.
  44. 44. Elizabeth W. Santos *
  45. 45. *  Everything about good music is positive, with the power to affect our lives forever.  In our hurry-up dot-com world, musical experiences provide a sense of community and belonging. A simple song, readily available, can help slow things down.
  46. 46. * Children are born musicians, dancers, artists and storytellers, and the opportunities for healthy development are endless. Verbal play is what helps children develop their language, through sounds, rhymes and melodies. “When children learn to listen carefully and attend while singing and playing instruments, this will help in their speech development.”
  47. 47. *  Nourish the brain while affecting all areas of development  Strengthen listening, motor skills, language, problem solving, spatial-temporal performance and literacy  Help develop critical listening skills  Create space for emotional well-being
  48. 48. *  Provide opportunities to practice social skills  Support phonemic awareness  Instil acts of kindness and cooperation  Calm and focus the mind  Encourage interaction in non-threatening ways
  49. 49. *  Children with a strong sense of beat are more likely to read well.  Music stimulates all the senses, helping children learn to recognize patterns and sequence.  Early music exposure helps children learn by promoting language, creativity, coordination, social interaction, self-esteem and memory.
  50. 50. *  Singing games support children’s need to socialize and play, instead of “pre-academic” skills.  Music helps “wire” the brain, supporting a higher level of thinking. So sing, sing, sing to your baby. Recite nursery rhymes and poetry while rocking, so body and ear can work together and don’t forget that the changing table is a great place for rhymes and massage.
  51. 51. *  First of all, request to come in at a time when the kids are likely to be a bit settled - not after they've just had to sit still for story time or another lesson.  They'll never pay any attention to you. Plan a mix of activities, so that when they get restless (as they inevitably will), you can get them up and moving a little bit.
  52. 52. *  Make sure that everything you have is large and brightly-colored, because it will catch their attention better.  Have plenty of interesting music for them to listen to, including some that is already familiar to them.  Don't be afraid to get down on the floor and play with them.  They won't understand what you're trying to do with them unless you show them and do it, too. Once they do understand, they'll likely be very good at their new skill.
  53. 53. * Creative Movement –  Put on a classical piece that changes dynamic levels fairly often.  Demonstrate for the children making yourself as small as you can when the music's quiet, and as big as you can when the music's loud.  Demonstrate "growing" with the music, then ask the children to do it. Talk to them as the music's on, and "grow" and "shrink" with them. It will give them a sense of dynamics in the music.
  54. 54. * Interpretation in drawing –  Give the kids a crayon and paper, and ask them to draw what they hear in the music.  Expect scribbling from kids three or under, but actual pictures from older kids.  Don't tell them the title of the music, because this can affect their interpretation of the music.
  55. 55. * Rhythm sticks –  Hand each child (three or older) a pair of rhythm sticks (one foot long, a half inch in diameter, and brightly colored) and ask them to repeat after you.  Play a simple rhythm and ask them to play it, too. They can also clap, if you'd rather not use rhythm sticks.
  56. 56. * Follow the leader –  Use rhythm sticks or hand clapping for this, too.  Ask one child to lead around the room, clapping or tapping at the same speed as they're walking (demonstrate). This will give them a sense of rhythm throughout their bodies.
  57. 57. * Sing a longs –  Put on a familiar song and ask the children to sing with you.  Then, try putting a new song on and singing that.  Songs that are about some aspect of life they're trying to learn (such as tying shoes) are often a good choice.  You can also find songs that talk about some aspect of life they're not familiar with yet, like kids in other cultures  Use songs to help them learn.
  58. 58. * Dancing –  Ask the children to dance to music.  Encourage them to find the beat and hop to it, or sway to it. Bells or other toys –  Use bells or other inexpensive, tuned instruments to teach the children about basic scales and how to play songs  Teach them to sing the songs, then to play them.  You can also teach them solfege (do re mi) to help them learn
  59. 59. By: Elizabeth W. Santos *
  60. 60. * Domain Element: Arts  Children pass through several stages as they progress in drawing and painting.  These stages are related to early writing skills.  They begin with scribbles, random marks that go in many directions. As their fine motor skills improve, they learn to control the tools of art—crayons, markers, paintbrushes—and make circles, lines, and zigzags, sometimes covering the whole paper.
  61. 61. * Domain Element: Arts  Next come basic shapes such as crosses, squares, and rectangles.  A child at this stage might repeat the same shapes over and over.  Children then combine shapes, placing crosses inside circles or rectangles and making sun-like objects using circles and lines.  Soon children use shapes and lines to make figures that represent humans, animals, and trees.
  62. 62. * Domain Element: Arts  As skills continue to grow, children's artwork becomes more and more representational.  They can discuss both the process used to create their artwork and what it represents.  And, increasingly, they are able to plan what to create and determine what materials, tools, and techniques they need to carry out their plans.
  63. 63. * Domain Element: Arts  Artistic skills are closely related to physical development.  Art experiences such as finger painting, sculpting with soft wire, or using clay allow children to use their senses to explore the properties of the materials, build fine motor skills, and practice eye-hand coordination.  Painting and drawing invite children to explore concepts— color, shape, size, cause and effect, and same and different.
  64. 64. * Domain Element: Arts  They can make sense of experiences by creating physical representations of events, people, and objects.  By exploring a single idea in various media, such as drawing, painting, and sculpting a tree, children develop focus and deepen their level of understanding.  Art can help children build a sense of competence because there are no right or wrong ways to use materials, and all products are valued.
  65. 65. Domain Element: Arts  Another important part of this Domain Element is art appreciation. Pre-schoolers can observe, compare, and respond to the properties of artistic works. With a teacher's guidance they can discuss the artist's use of color, shapes, texture, and more
  66. 66. Domain Element: Arts  Pre-schoolers can learn to notice and appreciate the elements of art  color,  line,  shape, or pattern —  In everyday items, such as the colors of leaves, the brickwork of a nearby building, or a spider's web.
  67. 67. Domain Element: Arts  Indicators…  Gains ability in using different art media and materials in a variety of ways for creative expression and representation.  Progresses in abilities to create drawings, paintings, models, and other art creations that are more detailed, creative, or realistic.
  68. 68. Domain Element: Arts  Indicators…  Develops growing abilities to plan, work independently, and demonstrate care and persistence in a variety of art projects.  Begins to understand and share opinions about artistic products and experiences.
  69. 69. Arts Strategies To encourage children's development in art  Provide a wide variety of open-ended materials and tools children can explore and use to create art.  Include periods of time in the daily schedule when children can choose what they want to do and what materials to use.  Offer sufficient space for creating and storing completed work and work-in-progress.
  70. 70. Domain Element: Arts To encourage children's development in art  Designate an area where children can be messy; provide clean-up items and help children to use them.  Display children's work, with their permission, at eye-level, in a variety of places throughout the classroom.  Encourage children to take art home to share with families.
  71. 71. Domain Element: Arts To encourage children's development in art  Encourage children to talk about their art by commenting on colors, textures, techniques, and patterns and saying, "Tell me about your…." Ask questions about the process, "How did you make these shapes?"  Introduce new materials and techniques that children can use in their art, such as how to work with real potter’s clay.
  72. 72. Domain Element: Arts To encourage children's development in art  Include various art forms, materials, and techniques representing children's cultures.  Invite local artists to share and discuss with the children a work-in-progress or to display their work in your program.
  73. 73. Domain Element: Movement As children explore movement, cognitive, social, and emotional development is also going on.  Movement experiences involve children in creating, representing, and expressing their interpretations of events, ideas, and feelings.
  74. 74. Domain Element: Movement Children's thinking skills are activated when teachers ask ….  "How can you jump and land quietly?" or  "How might a family of ducks get across the street?" Both questions require children to use what they already know to come up with several possible solutions.  Movement activities can foster cooperation and consideration of other people’s ideas.
  75. 75. Domain Element: Movement Creative movement can help children  feel more competent and capable when their ideas are accepted and valued and  when experiences help them build physical skills used in other activities.
  76. 76. Domain Element: Movement Movement experiences …  prompt vocabulary,  language, and  conceptual development. Their vocabulary expands as they learn to …  "turn around,"  "twirl," or  "rotate."
  77. 77. Domain Element: Movement Movement experiences …  Their understanding of concepts deepens as they learn to …  jump "high," "higher," and "highest"; to grow from "teeny," "itsy bitsy," or "small," to "big," "large," "enormous," "gigantic," "tremendous," or "humongous";  express their interpretations of "sad," "melancholy," "disappointed," "scared," "frightened," "petrified," "happy," "delighted," "excited," or "ecstatic."
  78. 78. Domain Element: Movement Indicators …  Expresses through movement and dancing what is felt and heard in various musical tempos and styles.  Shows growth in moving in time to different patterns of beat and rhythm in music.
  79. 79. Movement Strategies To encourage creative movement  Incorporate dances from children's cultures in the curriculum.  Ask families to share traditional music and dances from their cultures.  Once children know the basic steps, encourage variations so they can use their creativity.
  80. 80. Domain Element: Movement To encourage creative movement  Provide an environment that supports movement.  Offer open-ended props such as scarves, wrist bells, and foam balls that children can use on their own.  Provide an open area where children can move to music or just explore different ways to move their bodies.  When leading a small group activity, be sure to have enough materials for each child so nobody has to watch and wait.
  81. 81. Domain Element: Movement To encourage creative movement  Use movement to enhance other routines and activities (Pica 1997) and vocabulary.  Walk like a… "Pretend you are walking across hot sand, or through the jungle, or up some stairs."  Or ask children to walk as if they were brave, tired, excited, or proud. This encourages them to use divergent thinking and to recognize and express their feelings.
  82. 82. Domain Element: Movement To encourage creative movement  Use movement to enhance other routines and activities (Pica 1997) and vocabulary. What's the opposite of …?  Gather a small group of children in a space that provides plenty of room such as a grassy area outdoors, the gym, or the group meeting area of the classroom.  Ask them to make their bodies as small as they can, then as large as they can. Have them reach for the sky, then touch the ground. They can balance on one foot, then on all fours (hands and feet). Invite the children to suggest some of their own opposites and to demonstrate them.
  83. 83. Domain Element: Movement To encourage creative movement Use what you know about…  Ask the children to think about a specific animal—one they have studied. Perhaps they read some books about it or saw it on a trip to the zoo or a farm.  Have them recall whatever they know about the animal, what it looks like, where it lives, what it eats, and so on.  Then, ask the children to imagine how it moves and to move that way themselves.
  84. 84. By: Elizabeth W. Santos *
  85. 85. Domain Element: Dramatic Play  Pretend play begins to emerge even before children are two years old. Toddler  pick up an empty plastic cup, lift it to her mouth, and pretend to drink from it Child  use a can or block to symbolize the cup.
  86. 86. Domain Element: Dramatic Play  A pre-schooler’s ability to create mental images—of objects, people, actions, clothing, conversation, and more— leads to rich dramatic play.
  87. 87. Domain Element: Dramatic Play  Children who are skilled in dramatic play use both their imagination and their knowledge of the world to recreate familiar experiences and create new ones.  They use social and cognitive skills such as negotiating and problem solving to plan and carry out complex scenarios. Indeed, dramatic play and teacher-guided drama are attuned to the way in which young children learn.
  88. 88. Domain Element: Dramatic Play  Dramatic play and teacher-guided drama support development across Domains.  The links with language are evident.  Children learn language, in part, by practicing drama and dramatic play provide for the use of and practice of language in a natural and spontaneous environment. Acting out a variety of roles gives young children the opportunity to experiment with various kinds and uses of language.
  89. 89. Domain Element: Dramatic Play  Children must listen and talk to each other in planning their play and carrying out their roles.  A drama session can be structured by a teacher to promote the specific language skills needed (Brown & Plydell 1999).  As children make signs for a store, read to dolls, or write a shopping list, they step into the world of literacy.
  90. 90. Domain Element: Dramatic Play  Many of their scenarios, whether child-initiated or teacher-directed, are retellings of familiar stories and recreations of known characters from literature. When counting out change or measuring the width of an imaginary river, children also see mathematics in action. In dramatic play, they have many reasons to use language, literacy, and mathematics – reasons that matter to them.
  91. 91. Domain Element: Dramatic Play  Dramatic play and teacher-guided drama promote all elements of the social and emotional Domain and help children gain greater understanding of themselves, their peers, and their families.  In the symbolic world of make-believe, children often express thoughts and concerns that might otherwise go undiscovered or remain repressed. Within the world of play that they themselves control, children are able to cope with fears and matters that trouble them.
  92. 92. Domain Element: Dramatic Play  Positive approaches to learning also develop as children engage in dramatic play and drama.  These experiences can stir a child’s …  curiosity,  provoke questions,  and develop initiative, persistence, reasoning and problem solving .
  93. 93. Domain Element: Dramatic Play  Research suggests that dramatic play is good for children in all these ways, but it also tells us that many children have very limited dramatic play skills (Smilanksy & Sheftaya 1990).  They have had few experiences with make-believe and lack the skills to build a play episode and keep it going.
  94. 94. Domain Element: Dramatic Play  English language learners may not want to participate in dramatic play until they are more comfortable with the dominant language.  To help these children become capable players and gain the many benefits of dramatic play, at times adults will need to join them in their play to model behaviors just beyond their present level.
  95. 95. Domain Element: Dramatic Play  Participates in a variety of dramatic play activities that become more extended and complex.  Shows growing creativity and imagination in using materials and in assuming different roles in dramatic play situations. *
  96. 96. Domain Element: Dramatic Play * To promote dramatic play …  Dramatize stories from children's cultures.  Ask families to share traditional stories from their cultures.  Create a flexible environment that stimulates children's imaginations with appropriate and varied …  props,  furniture,  materials and  enough space and time for children to get fully involved.
  97. 97. Domain Element: Dramatic Play *  Provide props of varying realism to meet the needs of both inexperienced and capable players, including realistic props (cash register, stethoscopes, dolls, coins, and a variety of dress-up clothes) and open-ended objects (cardboard tubes, unit blocks, or pieces of cloth).
  98. 98. Domain Element: Dramatic Play *  Observe children's play to learn what they might need to enhance their play—additional props, a suggested action for one of the players, or a subtle comment to take the play to the next level.  Observe children to determine what they might need to join in the play.
  99. 99. Domain Element: Dramatic Play * To promote dramatic play  Help children identify emotions or problems that are surfacing in their dramatic play or drama work.  Encourage recall and sequencing skills by asking them to tell you what happened in their drama: "How did the story start?" "What happened next?"  In teacher-guided drama, ask questions that encourage problem solving such as, “How can we get past the cave without waking up the bear?”
  100. 100. Domain Element: Dramatic Play * To promote dramatic play Use scaffolding to provide just the right amount of support. For example, teachers can (Davidson 1996): o model how to pretend or act out a part through words and actions; o model how to use a prop;
  101. 101. Domain Element: Dramatic Play * To promote dramatic play Use scaffolding to provide just the right amount of support. For example, teachers can (Davidson 1996): o model the type of conversation that takes place in the setting ("Dr., I have a sore arm. Can you x-ray it for me?"); o make comments that help children notice what each other is doing;
  102. 102. Domain Element: Dramatic Play * To promote dramatic play Use scaffolding to provide just the right amount of support. For example, teachers can (Davidson 1996): o assume a role and join in to show children that pretend play is important and to introduce new ideas they might want to use in their play; and o intervene in disagreements when necessary to prevent physical harm.
  103. 103. Domain Element: Dramatic Play * To promote dramatic play Use scaffolding to provide just the right amount of support. For example, teachers can (Davidson 1996):  Create prop boxes focused on a specific theme such as  post office,  firehouse,  health clinic, or  pet store. 
  104. 104. Domain Element: Dramatic Play * To promote dramatic play Use scaffolding to provide just the right amount of support. For example, teachers can (Davidson 1996):  Structure the activities to accommodate young children's involvement and encourage creativity when leading a story dramatization. For example, o allow for the story plot to change as you encourage and include the children's ideas; o break the story plot into a series of short scenes or experiences to keep the children focused and involved.
  105. 105. Domain Element: Dramatic Play * To promote dramatic play Use scaffolding to provide just the right amount of support. For example, teachers can (Davidson 1996): • Engage each child by having all of them play the same role. In Maurice Sendak'sWhere the Wild Things Are, all children can pretend to be Max, making mischief, transforming his room, and sailing on an imaginary boat. When they arrive at the place where the wild things are, they all can switch roles and become "Wild Things" making a wild rumpus.
  106. 106. Domain Element: Dramatic Play * To promote dramatic play Use scaffolding to provide just the right amount of support. For example, teachers can (Davidson 1996): Allow children to create their own ending for a story; "How do you think the cap seller got those monkeys to give him back his cap? Show me!" This encourages creativity.
  107. 107. Domain Element: Dramatic Play * To promote dramatic play Use scaffolding to provide just the right amount of support. For example, teachers can (Davidson 1996):  Consider having the children act out a story before you read the book to them.  Compare the children's dramatization of a story with the illustrated book (Brown & Pleydell 1999).  Discuss how they were the same and different.
  108. 108. Domain Element: Dramatic Play Many adults wish their teachers had provided more opportunities for self-expression through music, art, movement, drama, and dramatic play. These experiences are fun and engaging ways for children to build language, numeracy, and literacy skills; to learn about their own and other cultures; and to develop social skills. They also set the stage for using the creative arts to solve problems, express ideas, and gain self-knowledge in the school years and beyond.
  109. 109. Domain Element: Dramatic Play Many adults wish their teachers had provided more opportunities for …  self-expression through  music,  art,  movement,  drama, and  dramatic play.
  110. 110. Domain Element: Dramatic Play  These experiences are fun and engaging ways for children to build  language,  numeracy, and  literacy skills;  to learn about their own and other cultures;  and to develop social skills.
  111. 111. Domain Element: Dramatic Play  They also set the stage for using the creative arts to…  solve problems,  express ideas,  and gain self-knowledge in the school years and beyond.
  112. 112. *
  113. 113. Dramatic Play Activities for Pre-schoolers When pre-schoolers pretend by engaging in dramatic play, they are actually developing a variety of skills.  Dramatic play allows kids cognitive opportunities for thinking through problems creatively, planning and organizing, and using language effectively.  Socially, dramatic play is important because kids learn to cooperate and interact appropriately with others.  Both large and small motor skills are enhanced through all sorts of dramatic play.
  114. 114. Dramatic Play Activities for Pre-schoolers Storekeeping  Pre-schoolers enjoy acting out shopping experiences of all sorts. Adults can help children learn how to set up stores using household items: a grocery store using cans and empty boxes, a book and/or toy store in which they "sell" their own possessions, or perhaps an "art" studio where their drawings can be bought.
  115. 115. Dramatic Play Activities for Pre-schoolers Storekeeping  Encourage kids to take turns as both storekeeper and shopper.  A toy cash register adds to the fun and the realism of the dramatic play, although an empty box can serve the same purpose.  Use play money with large coins as even 4-year-olds are sometimes tempted to taste pennies.
  116. 116. Dramatic Play Activities for Pre-schoolers Re-enacting Stories  Pre-schoolers can enhance their understanding of the narrative form and of character when they act out versions of their favorite stories or movies.  Kids will experiment with getting the action in the proper sequence and imitating the qualities of the various characters. If no other children are around to join in this kind of dramatic play, an adult might encourage a child by suggesting the use of stuffed animals and/or dolls to take on the assorted role
  117. 117. Dramatic Play Activities for Pre-schoolers Playing School  Often when children play school they actually practice the very skills they have been taught in a preschool or day-care setting.  Providing kids with plenty of school supplies, such as paper headed for the recycler, pencils, and crayons or markers will enhance the dramatic play.  An adult overseeing play should ensure that one child does not always take on the role of the teacher and that kids are not going overboard correcting each other's "assignments" or behavior.
  118. 118. Dramatic Play Activities for Pre-schoolers Dressing Up  Kids are spurred on to create their own plays when they have access to a dress-up box filled with no longer used fancy dresses and/or tops, old suit jackets and ties, assorted hats and pieces of costume jewelry.  Adults can check out garage sales for these items as well as child-sized doctor coats, fire-fighter outfits, tutus, and anything else kids might have fun with.  Dramatic play using these items may continue for days and adults may be expected to serve as an on going audience.
  119. 119. Dramatic Play Activities for Pre-schoolers Using Boxes  The variety of uses a child can find for a large box, such as the one in which a refrigerator has been delivered, is amazing.  Kids turn them into garages, tents, houses, stores, forts, castles and more.  Adults should hesitate to give suggestions as kids will come up with their own ideas.  Providing markers for decorating or signs and being ready to cut out any doors or windows they request are supportive roles adults can play.
  120. 120. *
  121. 121. *  Through dramatic play, children develop and learn important social skills.  They learn how to take turns, have an opportunity to exercise manners, and learn how to communicate and interact effectively with one another.  The social skills that children gain through dramatic play they can then apply to the real world -- the classroom, the home, in public settings and later, in the work world.
  122. 122.  Dramatic play is an ideal way to promote language development in children.  When acting out different scenarios, children use words that they may never otherwise have an opportunity to use in a meaningful way.  For example, when a child assumes the role of a parent or a teacher, he may use words that he hears his father or teacher use, giving them a purpose and making them a significant part of his vocabulary.  He uses his words as a means of communication, helping to build his language skills
  123. 123. *  Although adults know how to use their words to express their feelings and emotions, most children are unaware of how to do so.  Dramatic play provides children with an opportunity to express how they feel about events they have experienced in a safe environment.  For example, if a child is coping with the loss of a grandparent, she may act out her feelings and internalize her emotions, helping her understand them better.
  124. 124.  Dramatic play helps children develop both their fine and gross motor skills. When a child jumps, hops, runs or dances while playing, he is exercising and building the large muscles of his body, increasing his agility, balance and coordination.  The buttoning, zippering and tying that he may do when putting different costumes on himself or on figures helps to develop his fine motor skills, as he uses the small muscles of his hands to do so *
  125. 125. *  Dramatic play encourages children to think creatively and exercise their imaginations.  When a child uses different objects to represent specific items -- a sheet as the sea or cotton balls as ice cream -- she is exercising her creativity.  Additionally, when playing dramatically, children pretend they are someone or something else in different settings, which in and of itself promotes creative thinking.

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