Planning a Successful Digital Project


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Slides from the "Planning a Successful Digital Project" start-to-finish session presented at the Wisconsin Library Association annual conference, Green Bay, October 25, 2013. Presenters: Sarah Grimm, Electronic Records Archivist, Wisconsin Historical Society and Emily Pfotenhauer, Recollection Wisconsin Program Manager, WiLS.

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  • We are…Sarah Grimm, Electronic Records Archivist, Wisconsin Historical SocietyEmily Pfotenhauer, Recollection Wisconsin Program Manager, WiLSYou are…What organization do you represent? What digital projects are you currently working on or thinking about?
  • As part of that, they developed 6 modules regarding different aspects of managing e-records and have trained several groups of people to bring those modules to groups dedicated to working with e-records.
  • We are looking to digital preservation for an answer because we realize that being in digital form is not the same as being digitally preserved. Digital preservation is active management of digital content over the long term with access as it’s ultimate goal. With books or documents – We can read it and put it on the shelf and continue to open it and read it for decades with proper handling. However, once something is digitized, we can’t expect to set it aside and then open it in 10 years much less 50 without active management. We must find ways to ensure that the digital item is accessible. In order determine how we are going to preserve something, we must first have an understanding of what we have. We must IDENTIFY it
  • Once you have your selection criteria, it may not be possible to review/select everything at once, so how might you sequence the process? Again, the answer will be different for each organization.Think about what’smost significant to your organization?most extensive? (and therefore a more coherent body of material to manage)most requested/used?Easiest to tackle (e.g. most familiar, most ready for ingest – a quick win for your digital preservation process; very helpful when you are having to prove the value of your efforts to a reluctant administration)Oldest (possible historical importance)Newest(possible immediate interest)Mandated (via local policies, legislation, etc.)At risk? If it were no longer available, what digital files would be the hardest to replace? Some formats become obsolete a lot faster than other formats. PDFs are viable for a really long time – video files, however, get old very quickly.
  • If you answered “no” to any of these questions, the item may not be a good candidate for digitization.
  • Copyright demo
  • As you are going through the selection process, you will need to establish how you are going to name and organize your files. find things in many places and named in many different ways depending on who worked on the item. Digital items are so much easier to save psychologically for people. 100 items on your hard drive doesn’t take up as much visual space as 100 items in your office. A file that is 1 kb looks pretty much like the one that is 1 MB or 1 GB. There also tends to be more copies of digital items, everyone keeps a draft, or it gets attached to an email and sent to 10 people, or it gets filed in two places. Everybody keeps their own items…project documentation is rarely one person managing the group’s information anymore. Its multiplied by the number of people working on the projectAs a result – EVERYTHING IS SAVED – “just in case” and its often saved more then once
  • Standards – Need a baseline so that everyone knows how to name items as well as how NOT to name themOR where and how items will be stored
  • Short and Descriptive – My record is a file name with 167 characters. While really descriptive, it was too hard to work with. Couldn’t read the entire title in a file list and couldn’t copy it since it was buried in several layers of folders. We tend to name things in ways that make sense to us at the time, but this is not handy for long term preservation. You need to name things in a way that will make sense 20 years from now. Has anyone inherited files from previous employees or projects – do they make any sense? “My stuff” “Important” “To Read”
  • Searching is really difficult if you have to search through multiple layersMany types of documents will be easier to find if you can come up with a consistent date naming convention
  • This slide contains links to both the web version and the You Tube version of 4 videos created by the State Library of North Carolina about File Naming procedures. They total about 10 minutes and provide some great tips.
  • Co-locate – It’s OK to move things around if it makes sense to do so. Layers – If you have several layers to hunt through, it can be really hard to find anything – Shallow is better Searching is really difficult if you have to search through multiple layersBreadcrumbs – OK to leave “sticky notes” (AKA “READ ME”) files in folders. Can give a brief description of contents, retention schedule, any naming conventionsDon’t know – unknown file formats, files on old media (floppies), password protected
  • File backups – EX: Speeches had multiple drafts  Final + copies in several different font sizes Supplementary files – folder of images that were used in a power point. Files you can’t open – CorruptedFormats – may receive Word and pdf – May not want to keep both. As you are creating your inventory, you are likely to discover a lot of really simple places you can clean up the files you are reviewing. Co-locate – It’s OK to move things around if it makes sense to do so. Bury – If you have several layers to hunt through, it can be really hard to find anything – Shallow is better
  • Once you’ve decided how you want to handle file naming issues and have made file management decisions – Document itIt doesn’t have to be long….. You can distribute it in your organization – post it on an intranet, place it in a procedures manual WHY – You will not be the only keeper of the information. (You weren’t here to ask)It will help others who may be helping you with the inventoryYou can hand it out to organizations/departments you receive information from In order to better manage our files, we will accept these file types and formats, they will be named this way. Do not give us password protected documentsYou don’t have to organize and fix everything, but you do need to give other people the tools to help you.
  • We’ve learned that it is essential to remove duplicates first. Once you start using other tools and changing things, the duplicate finder applications are no longer as accurate. These are all FREEWe have used all three of these and they all work a little bit differently under the covers so the results vary a bit. Auslogics has a number of products that are for sale, but this one falls under their “freebie” categoryWe found it really helpful with documents and wanted to try it with the images. Similar Images - It creates a database, so consecutive runs go faster but the first run while it is creating the database can be really slow. This application works with lots of file formatsVisipics – This application only works with a handful of file formats, but it hits the main ones and does it really well. It will detect two different resolution files of the same picture as a duplicate (we had a number of photos that were corrected with Photoshop and this picks those up), or the same picture saved in different formats, or duplicates where only minor cosmetic changes have taken place.
  • Resulting MD5 file can be opened in any text editor…..
  • WHAT are you going to store it on? WHERE you are going to store it?HOW MANY COPIES are you going to make?
  • WHERE are you going to store it? What are your Options? Decisions can be determined by a number of things…….Size – The options you consider will vary depending on how much you have to store. Media – CDs – on average 5 years Gold CDs - moreIf you’ve burned it – as little as 2 depending among other things on the quality of the CD to begin with. Magnetic Tape – could last 30 years but its very sensitive to heat, magnetic fields and dust. Is the company producing the hardware you are using to run the storage media still around? Cloud – what’s it going to cost to rent space. Sometimes it costs more when you pull it out than when you put it in. You also need to determine where you don’t want to store it and migrate it off those devices accordingly USB drives, old media,
  • Three copies is a happy medium if you are able
  • RAID = Redundant Array of Independent Disks = multiple hard drives in one package
  • [COSTS]The cost of buying/maintaining/upgrading hardware; Technical staff are transferred to the service provider [
  • [lifecycle]Does it have archive capabilities?Can it maintain “restricted access” on appropriate records? Does “delete” actually MEAN “delete? Can the contractor delete or purge electronic records in accordance with approved retention schedules? [security]How many people have access to your records via the network? How many people have access to the servers your records live on? Does your contractor work with subcontractors (who you don’t know?)[where]Does the data reside in this state, country?[accessibility]Network availability across large distances can be a problem service outages, power outages, severed cables, unspecified network outages[costs]Sometimes the storage fees for holding the data are fairly low – the charges are different (and usually higher) for each time you access your data.
  • Some ideas: Think about providing an online survey instrument at various strategic points within your access environment. Implement some free web analytics – find out where people are linking into your site, what are they requesting, how much time do they spend on what materials. If you have email subscribers– solicit some inquiries from your regular users about their visits to your digital collections and how they might be finding them useful, as well as ways of improving upon your existing levels of service. If you are only providing access on-site, make sure you add some lines on your visitor forms that account for their use of your digital collections. So, you may get very good at serving your digital collections up to your current stakeholders through these different monitoring measures. But what about new users, users who could really benefit from exposure to your materials but may require it in a different form or through different means, like tablets or cell phones. Maybe near-future users will want to run all sorts of sophisticated services over the top of your materials along with materials from all sorts of other institutions. How might you be able to track trends or use cases from other similar institutions to find out where access needs are heading?
  • Mention funding with media replacement
  • Planning a Successful Digital Project

    1. 1. Supported by WHRAB DESIGNING A SUCCESSFUL DIGITAL PROJECT W I S C O N S I N L I B R A R Y A S S O C I AT I O N C O N F E R E N C E OCTOBER 25, 2013 Sarah Grimm, Electronic Records Archivist, Wisconsin Historical Society Emily Pfotenhauer, Recollection Wisconsin Program Manager, WiLS
    2. 2. TODAY’S AGENDA • Planning • Selecting materials • Copyright considerations • Cost considerations • Creating • Scanning • Metadata • Maintaining • File naming and organization • Storage • Providing Access • Access options • Marketing • Roles and timelines
    3. 3. WHAT DO YOU MEAN, DIGITIZE? • Selecting materials • Reformatting materials (scanning or photographing) • Adding metadata (descriptive information) • Making available online • Storing and maintaining digital files and data (digital preservation) Wisconsin Historical Society
    4. 4. DIGITAL PRESERVATION The Library of Congress started the Digital Preservation Outreach and Education (DPOE) program in order to foster national outreach and education to encourage individuals and organizations to actively preserve their digital content. http://www.digitalpreservation. gov/education/ Waterford Public Library/University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
    5. 5. DIGITAL PRESERVATION Digital preservation combines policies, strategies and actions to ensure access to reformatted and born digital content regardless of the challenges of media failure and technological change. The goal of digital preservation is the accurate rendering of authenticated content over time. Working group on Defining Digital Preservation, ALA Annual Conference, 6/24/2007
    6. 6. WHAT IS DIGITAL CONTENT? • Digital content is any content that is published or distributed in a digital form, including text, data, sound recordings, photographs and images, motion pictures, and software. • Digital materials created from analogue sources • Born-digital content • Digital materials you currently have or create – or expect to have – that you want to preserve.
    7. 7. DEFINING A DIGITAL COLLECTION • A good digital collection… • Is publicly accessible • Is searchable - Includes keywords and other descriptive information (metadata) so users can find what they’re looking for • Uses software that is sustainable (will be around for a long time) and interoperable (can be migrated or shared) • Remains true to the original materials • Respects intellectual property rights • A digital collection is not… • An inventory • An online exhibit/gallery/slideshow
    8. 8. WELL-MANAGED COLLECTIONS • Characteristics of well-managed digital content: • • • • • Basic information about each collection Minimal metadata for objects Common file formats Controlled and known storage of content Multiple copies in at least 2 locations
    9. 9. BEFORE YOU EVEN START….. • Don’t scan a mess! Take the time to assess and organize your originals first. • A digital project can be an ideal time to evaluate collection conditions and rehouse materials as needed. • Resources for collections care and organization: • Wisconsin Historical Society Field Services staff • Wisconsin Archives Mentoring Service • National Park Service Conserve-O-Grams Richland County History Room
    10. 10. PROJECT PLANNING WORKSHEET Philharmonic Chorus Members Image ID: WHi-92113
    11. 11. PLANNING Postal workers sorting mail, 1955 Wisconsin Historical Society WHi-36392
    12. 12. DEFINING GOALS • Connect to your community • Reach new audiences • Improve access to “invisible” materials • Protect fragile or heavily used materials • Learn more about your collections • Contribute to our collective knowledge South Wood County Historical Museum
    13. 13. POTENTIAL AUDIENCES • Local residents • Students and teachers • Genealogists • Specialists (e.g. Civil War re-enactors, railroad buffs) • Academic researchers • Curious Wisconsinites • Everyone! College of Menominee Nation
    14. 14. SELECTING MATERIALS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Photographs Postcards Letters Diaries Scrapbooks Yearbooks Newspaper clippings City directories Local histories Magazines Pamphlets Maps Artifacts/3-D objects Oral histories Sound recordings Moving images (video, film) Other? Appleton Public Library
    15. 15. DEVELOPING SELECTION CRITERIA When developing a selection policy, consider… • Your organization’s mission statement and collecting policies • Appeal and interest (is this of value to researchers? To other audiences?) • Uniqueness of materials (is this the only source or does it also exist elsewhere? Avoid duplication) • Focusing on a specific subject, theme or creator • Manageability – tackle a project of appropriate size and scope
    16. 16. SETTING PRIORITIES Ask yourself which materials are… • most significant to your organization? • most extensive? • most requested/used? • easiest? • oldest? • newest? • at risk? Neville Public Museum of Brown County
    17. 17. SELECTION – YES OR NO? • • • • This item is rare or unique to our collection. This item is frequently requested by our patrons/visitors. This item or very similar items are not found anywhere else on the Internet. There is enough accurate information available about the item to add useful context for our audience (for example, we know or can find out names of people, locations, dates). • We have the appropriate equipment to create an accurate, high-quality digital copy of this item (for example, item is not too large to fit on scanner), or funding to outsource if needed. • This item is in stable condition and will not be damaged by scanning or other handling. • This item is in the public domain or we have secured permission from the rights holder to make it available online.
    18. 18. DOCUMENT YOUR DECISIONS…. Sinclair Lewis Typing Image ID: WHi-51874
    19. 19. CONSIDERING COPYRIGHT • Disclaimer: We are not lawyers. • Owning a physical item does not necessarily mean you hold the copyright to that item. • Public domain = no longer under copyright. In the US in 2013 that means the item was: • Published before 1923 –OR– • Unpublished; creator died before 1943 –OR– • Unpublished; unknown creator; made before 1893 UW-Milwaukee Libraries
    20. 20. CONSIDERING COPYRIGHT • Works under copyright, copyright holder is known: • Contact copyright holder IN WRITING to request permission to make available online. • Works presumed to be under copyright; copyright holder is unknown or cannot be located: • Due diligence has been made to identify and locate copyright holder. • Be prepared to remove item from digital collection if challenged. Three Lakes Historical Society
    21. 21. SAMPLE COPYRIGHT STATEMENTS • For an item presumed to be in the public domain: 
This item is in the public domain. There are no known restrictions on the use of this digital resource. Contact [your institution] to purchase a highresolution version of this image. • For an item under copyright; copyright holder has granted permission to put online:
This image has been made available with permission of the copyright holder and has been provided here for educational purposes only. Commercial use is prohibited without permission. Contact [your institution] for information regarding permissions and reproductions. • For an item in which copyright status is undetermined:
This material may be protected by copyright law. The user is responsible for all issues of copyright. Contact [your institution] for information regarding permissions and reproductions.
    22. 22. COPYRIGHT TOOLS • Public Domain Sherpa: Public Domain Calculator • • Copyright Advisory Network • Copyright Slider: • Copyright Genie:
    23. 23. POTENTIAL PROJECT COSTS • Scanner • Outsourcing imaging to a commercial vendor • Digital camera and related equipment • Internet access • Storage for digital files • Software for online access • Archival storage supplies • Be sure to budget for TIME and SPACE Merrill Historical Society
    24. 24. FUNDING • Grants • LSTA Digitization of Local Resources grants (Dep’t of Public Instruction) • Local corporations or foundations • Wisconsin Humanities Council • In-kind contributions • Tech support • Equipment use • Biggest expense is TIME • Paid staff time • “Free” volunteer time • Students/interns Ripon College
    25. 25. DISCUSSION • What’s one digitization project you’re currently working on or thinking about? • What are your goals and audience for this project? • How did you/will you determine selection criteria? • How will you fund the project? Eager Free Public Library/University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
    26. 26. CREATING DIGITAL IMAGES Computer center, 1972 St. Norbert College
    27. 27. DIGITAL IMAGING • Goals of imaging: • Create a digital representation that’s faithful to the original item • Create the highest quality image you can with available resources • Anticipate multiple uses (online, print publication, exhibit, etc.) • Scan once—don’t expect to return to re-digitize UW-Madison Archives
    28. 28. CHOOSING A SCANNER • Some features to look for: • Transparency unit --for scanning slides and negatives • Size of scanning bed • Image editing software --many new scanners come with Photoshop Elements • Compatible with your computer’s operating system • Is your computer fast enough to process large image files?
    29. 29. SCANNING PHOTOGRAPHS • Scan all photographs in 24-bit color, even if image is black and white • Scanning resolution (ppi) depends on size of original item • Longest side of item longer than 7” = 300ppi • Shorter than 7” = 600ppi • 35mm sides or other small items = 1200ppi • Save two copies of each scan: • Master file: TIFF (20-40MB) for archiving and printing • Access copy: JPEG (1-5MB) for editing, online viewing, email, social media UW-La Crosse
    30. 30. SCANNING DOCUMENTS • Handwritten texts • Scan in 24-bit color to retain character of original • 300-400ppi is generally sufficient • If feasible, create a transcription • Use care when unfolding papers or handling tightly bound volumes Wisconsin Historical Society
    31. 31. SCANNING DOCUMENTS • Printed texts • Scan in 8-bit grayscale or 1bit black and white • 300ppi is generally sufficient • Use OCR (Optical Character Recognition) software to make the text computersearchable • May be provided with your scanner software • ABBYY Fine Reader • Adobe Acrobat • OCR is never 100% accurate, but that’s ok L. E. Phillips Memorial Library, Eau Claire
    32. 32. WORKING WITH PRINTED TEXT? OCR! • OCR = Optical Character Recognition • Software that makes printed text computer-readable and fully searchable • Very valuable when scanning books, yearbooks, city directories, newspaper clippings, etc. • A couple of options… • ABBYY Finereader ($100-$170) • Adobe Acrobat ($45 through
    33. 33. WHEN NOT TO SCAN IT YOURSELF • Look to a vendor for scanning… • Oversized materials --maps, blueprints, etc. • Fragile books or scrapbooks --bindings can be damaged by laying flat to scan • Anything with flaking, cracked or otherwise fragile surface • Microfilm --newspapers • Potential vendors • Northern Micrographics, La Crosse • A/E Graphics, Milwaukee • Wisconsin Historical Society (for microfilm)
    34. 34. CREATING METADATA Syl carving his name in tree, 1902 Wisconsin Historical Society WHi-69022
    35. 35. METADATA: WHAT IS IT? • Information about stuff • Technical metadata = information about the digital file (size, type, etc.) • Descriptive metadata = information about the content of the item (what are we looking at?) • Helps users find what they’re looking for • Organized, standardized, consistent, searchable Grant County Historical Society
    36. 36. SAMPLE METADATA Field Name Sample Data Title DiVall barber shop, Middleton, 1925 Subjects Barbers; Barbershops Type Still image Format image/tiff Rights statement This material may be protected by copyright law. The user is responsible for all issues of copyright. File name 2006_01_12.tif Submitter Middleton Area Historical Society Date digitized 2013-04-05 Middleton Area Historical Society
    37. 37. SAMPLE METADATA Field Name Sample Data Creator Bartle, F. C. Date Created 1925-09-12 OR 1920-1930 Materials Photographs Description Ralph DiVall (left) and Edwin T. Baltes (right) shave two men seated in barber chairs. According to a family history on file at the Society, DiVall operated this barber shop from the 1920s until his retirement on July 1, 1966. Location Middleton, Dane County, Wisconsin Collection DiVall Family Collection Identifier 2006.01.12 Middleton Area Historical Society
    38. 38. TITLES FOR HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPHS The photograph may already have a title.
    39. 39. EXISTING TITLES If the photograph contains a title or caption, transcribe it exactly. Birds-eye-view, No. 4, 1908, Barneveld, Wis.
    40. 40. WHAT MAKES A GOOD TITLE? If the photo does not already have a title, you’ll need to create one. A useful title is… • Descriptive and specific • Brief • Follows specific formatting rules • Capitalize first word and proper names (people, places, institutions) • Don’t start with “A” or “The” • Period not needed at the end
    41. 41. BASIC FORMULA FOR CREATING TITLES SUBJECT, LOCATION, DATE Person, object, building, etc. City OR township OR county Year or date range Only include an element IF KNOWN
    42. 42. PEOPLE & PORTRAITS • Identify…Who? Where? When? • • • • • • • • Women Children Babies Carriages/strollers Stores/shops Boardwalk Marathon County 1890-1899
    43. 43. Women and children with babies in carriages, Manitowoc County, 1890-1899 (SUBJECT, LOCATION, DATE)
    44. 44. BUILDINGS AND CITYSCAPES • Identify the name of the street or view • Identify the location (City OR Township OR County) • Identify the date (Year? Date range?)
    45. 45. 100 block of South Main Street, Fort Atkinson, 1940-1949 (SUBJECT, LOCATION, DATE)
    46. 46. EXPANDED FORMULA FOR CREATING TITLES SUBJECT, ACTIVITY, LOCATION, DATE Person, object, building, etc. Action or event City OR township OR county Year or date range Only include an element IF KNOWN
    47. 47. ACTIVITIES AND EVENTS Identify…Who? What are they doing? Where and when? • Circus elephant • Trainer • Woman on swing • Evansville • 1940-1949
    48. 48. Trainer with circus elephant holding woman on swing, Evansville, 1940-1949 (SUBJECT, ACTIVITY, LOCATION, DATE)
    49. 49. ASSIGNING SUBJECT HEADINGS • Subject headings are terms or phrases assigned to an item to facilitate searching and browsing a collection. • Consistent use of subject headings helps link related content in your collection and across disparate collections.
    50. 50. CONTROLLED VOCABULARIES • A controlled vocabulary is a standardized, pre-determined list of subject headings. • Some examples of controlled vocabularies: • Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials • Library of Congress Subject Headings • Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus • Nomenclature 3.0 New Berlin Historical Society
    51. 51. TIPS FOR ASSIGNING SUBJECT HEADINGS • Consider the following elements to help select terms: • WHO? People - age, gender, occupation, ethnicity • WHERE? Building or other setting • WHAT? Activities or events • Always copy terms exactly from the controlled vocabulary. • Think of your own “tags,” then search the controlled vocabulary list for correct terms. • How did others do it? Look at similar photos for examples/ideas. • Aim for 1-5 terms. • There is no one right answer!
    53. 53. SAMPLE SUBJECT HEADINGS Railroads; Railroad stations; Carts & wagons
    55. 55. SAMPLE SUBJECT HEADINGS Students; Music education; Youth orchestras
    56. 56. EXERCISE - ASSIGNING TITLES AND SUBJECTS Work in small groups to assign a title and subjects to a historic photograph. Remember the basic title formulas: • SUBJECT, LOCATION, DATE • SUBJECT, ACTIVITY, LOCATION, DATE Select terms from the short list extracted from the Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials. The full version of this controlled vocabulary is available online: • choose a maximum of 5 terms
    57. 57. FILE NAMING AND ORGANIZATION Sixty Years of Quality Canning by the Lakeside Packing Company, ca. 1947. Manitowoc Public Library/ University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
    58. 58. WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? • To create organizational standards • To help you find it again • To prevent accidental overwriting • To eliminate (minimize) duplication of files Train Wreck Image ID: WHi-2011
    59. 59. FILE NAMING • Keep folder / document titles short and descriptive • Use only lower case letters, numbers, and dashes or underscores • Don’t use spaces or punctuation • Don’t use special characters in your file/folder titles (^”<>|? / : @’* &.) (Just because you CAN doesn’t mean you SHOULD…..) Typing at Dickinson Secretarial School Image ID: WHi-19562
    60. 60. FILE NAMING • Date your documents consistently • • Use leading zeroes for consecutive numbering. For example, a multi-page letter could have file names mac001.tif, mac002.tif, mac003.tif, etc. • Tie your file names to existing catalog numbers if possible
    61. 61. EXAMPLES • Photograph with accession # 2011.32.1 = 201132001.tif –OR– 2011_32_001.tif • Series of images by photographer John Smith = smith001.tif, smith002.tif, smith003.tif • Not so good: Glassplate16039 Auto repair in basement 025.tif
    62. 62. RESOURCES • State Library of North Carolina – • Web • YouTube
    63. 63. FILE ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT • Centralize your files • Minimize your layers • Leave breadcrumbs (AKA “READ ME”) • Determine what you don’t know IH General Office Mail Room Image ID: WHi-12016
    64. 64. WHAT NOT TO KEEP? • Backups/copies/drafts • Supplementary files that provide no additional long-term value • Corrupted files • Same item – different file formats • Items that don’t fit your organization’s purpose Boy on Curb near Trash Pile Image ID: WHi-57208
    65. 65. DOCUMENT YOUR DECISIONS…. Sinclair Lewis Typing Image ID: WHi-51874
    66. 66. TOOLS Guitar Maker's Shop Image ID: WHi-27234
    67. 67. REMOVE DUPLICATE FILES • Auslogics Duplicate File Finder • Similar Images • VisiPics
    68. 68. IMAGE VIEWER IrfanView • Tool with many different capabilities for image manipulation/editing • For photos, we can easily view an entire folder’s worth of images at one time
    69. 69. CHECKSUMS • Checksums (AKA “Hash Sums”) are created by programs running an algorithm against the contents of a file. (there are many free utilities that will perform this function for you) • The resulting checksum is a short sequence of letters and/or numbers that uniquely identifies that file. (think “electronic fingerprint”) Unix cksum utility
    70. 70. WHY IS THIS A GOOD THING? • Checksums help maintain the INTEGRITY of your collections because they will tell you when things change over time. • If two files are exactly the same, the checksums of those files will also be exactly the same (generally speaking ) • If a file becomes corrupted, degraded or is changed in some way, the next time you run the utility on it, the checksum will change
    71. 71. MD5SUMMER • MD5summer • This tool will give you a couple of options for the hashing algorithm MD5 SHA-1 • Other tools will give you other options……
    72. 72. HOW DOES IT WORK? • Open MD5summer • Select your root folder • Select “Create Sums”
    73. 73. CREATE LIST OF FILES TO SUM • Select the files to be added • Click “Add” or “Add recursively” • Click “OK”
    75. 75. SAVE THE FILE
    76. 76. VERIFY HASH VALUES • Copy files to another directory (think “backup”) • Open MD5Summer • Select the files in the new location • Click “Verify Sums”
    77. 77. OPEN THE MD5SUM FILE • Find your MD5 file • Click “Open”
    80. 80. THINGS TO REMEMBER Things that will NOT affect checksums • Moving items from one place to another • Changing the file name Run on the master files when a collection is completed Set up a schedule to run “verify checks” periodically St. Mary of the Lake Parish School First Day Image ID: WHi-98433
    81. 81. STORAGE
    82. 82. KEY DECISION POINTS • • • • How are you going to organize it? What are you going to store it on? Where are you going to store it? How many copies do you need? Post Office Image ID: WHi-9135
    83. 83. FACTORS TO CONSIDER • Immediate Costs • Quantity (size and number of files) • Number of copies • Media (life span, availability, $$) • Other resources • Expertise (skills required to manage) • Services (local vs. hosted) • Partners (achieving geographic distribution) • Institutional constraints
    84. 84. HOW MANY AND WHERE? • Multiple • Minimum: two (2) copies in two locations • Optimum: six (6) copies • Geographically distributed • Don’t keep your copies onsite if possible
    85. 85. LOCAL STORAGE OPTIONS • • • • Local network RAID device External hard drive Archival quality (gold) CDs or DVDs Take into account potential future storage needs. Villa Terrace Decorative Arts Museum
    86. 86. CLOUD STORAGE OPTIONS Commercial options: • Google Drive • Up to 5GB free (approx. 140 high-resolution TIFF files) • 25GB = $2.50/month • Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) • $.095 per GB/month Institutional options: • DuraCloud
    87. 87. THE (MOSTLY) GOOD….. Responsibilities and costs are transferred to the cloud provider • Installation / replacement / upgrades of hardware and software • Backup and recovery of data are part of the package • No local physical presence (valuable space) • No local environmental requirements (power or cooling costs)
    88. 88. THE (POTENTIALLY) BAD There are potential disadvantages however….. • Can records be managed correctly throughout their entire lifecycle? • Can it support Open Records requests? • Security concerns • Do you know where your data is? • Accessibility – more “points of failure” when the data is remote • Costs for accessing data can be high
    89. 89. RESOURCES State of Wisconsin Public Records Board has created two documents which can be found at: • Public Records Board Guidance on the Use of Contractors for Records Management Services • Use of Contractors for Records Management Services (Both docs are in the Reference Materials section)
    90. 90. DOCUMENT YOUR DECISIONS…. Sinclair Lewis Typing Image ID: WHi-51874
    91. 91. ACCESS CONSIDERATIONS Historical Society library stacks, 1896 Wisconsin Historical Society WHi-23281
    92. 92. WHY ARE YOU PROVIDING ACCESS TO CONTENT? • User demand • Institutional visibility • Legal mandates or grant requirements • Generate revenue • Contribute to our collective knowledge South Wood County Historical Museum
    93. 93. WHAT MAKES A GOOD ONLINE COLLECTION? • Publicly accessible. • Searchable - Includes keywords and other descriptive information (metadata) so users can find what they’re looking for. • Organized and consistent. • Based on existing international/national/statewide standards and best practices. • Uses software that is sustainable (will be around for a long time) and interoperable (can be migrated or shared). • Respects intellectual property rights. • OAI-PMH compliant (to share content on statewide level)
    94. 94. SOME OAI-COMPLIANT ACCESS PLATFORMS • CONTENTdm • Your own instance • Hosted by Milwaukee Public Library through Recollection Wisconsin • ResCarta Web • Free and open source • Host it yourself or through vendor • Omeka • Free and open source • Host it yourself or through • Other? Beloit College
    95. 95. CONTENTDM • Hosted by Milwaukee Public Library through Recollection Wisconsin • Produced and distributed by OCLC • Costs (through Recollection Wisconsin): • $200 one-time setup fee • Annual hosting fees starting at $75
    96. 96.
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    100. 100. RESCARTA WEB • Free and open source • Host it yourself; or hosting available through Northern Micrographics (fee-based) • ResCarta Foundation – based in La Crosse
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    104. 104. OMEKA • Free and open source • Host it yourself; or subscribe to hosted version, • Developed by the Center for History and New Media, George Mason University
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    108. 108. PROMOTION Wisconsin Tourism Sign, Rhinelander, 1930-1942 Wisconsin Historical Society WHi-37927
    109. 109. POTENTIAL AUDIENCES • Local residents • Students and teachers • Genealogists • Specialists (e.g. Civil War re-enactors, railroad buffs) • Academic researchers • Curious Wisconsinites • Everyone! College of Menominee Nation
    110. 110. STAKEHOLDERS AND PARTNERS • • • • • • • • Board Staff and/or volunteers Local experts Community members Chamber of Commerce Local government Students Other organizations in your community/ county/region • Who else? McMillan Memorial Library, Wisconsin Rapids
    111. 111. ENCOURAGING USE OF YOUR COLLECTIONS • Organizations are moving away from “if you build it, they will come” approach – Google is not enough • Participatory archives concept—shared authority, community engagement • Bring your content to your audience—find them where they already are Milwaukee Public Library
    112. 112. MARKETING IDEAS • Add introduction/background information on your own website • • Highlight an item of the day/week/month • e.history • Host an opening event • Whitefish Bay Public Library • College of Menominee Nation • Host a slide show or exhibition • South Wood County Historical Museum • Mineral Point Historical Society Rock County Historical Society
    113. 113. MARKETING IDEAS • Send someone with a laptop to popular local spots/events to demonstrate digital collections: • Ask, “Where do people go first to look for this kind of information?” and then, market there • Upload a few digitized images to Flickr with descriptions that point back to your related digital and physical collections. • Contribute to relevant pages on Wikipedia and include references pointing to specific digital materials. • Request that the Chamber of Commerce and other relevant local organizations link to the new digital collections from their websites. • Send a press release to local media
    114. 114. EVALUATING IMPACT Understanding current users…     Online survey instrument Web analytics Email subscriber lists Visitor forms Understanding future users…  Special interest groups (AASLH, SAA, etc.)  Listservs  Workshops and conference sessions
    115. 115. WRAPPING UP – FINAL THOUGHTS Commencement, 1978 UW-Madison Archives
    116. 116. ROLES • Project Manager • Scanner • Cataloger • File Manager • IT Specialist • Outreach Specialist • Other? "Deering Ideal" Stripper Harvester Catalog Cover Image ID: WHi-27577
    117. 117. TIMELINE • Set final date for project completion • Establish goalposts – break project into smaller steps/phases/goals • Set timeframe for meeting each goal • Regularly revisit project progress and modify schedule as needed • Always budget extra time IH General Office Mail Room Image ID: WHi-12016
    118. 118. TIMELINE • Timeline will vary greatly depending on… • • • • Project scope Types of materials Staff experience Available resources • One model: • 1/3 reformatting • 1/3 metadata • 1/3 management, quality control, etc. • Source: Steven Puglia, ”The Costs of Digital Imaging Projects,” RLG DigiNews v. 3, no. 5 (1999) WHi-4352
    119. 119. TIPS FROM OTHER DIGITIZERS • If I could do it all over again, I would: • Tackle a smaller group of materials at first • Make sure two people started the project at the same time so we could help each other • Start with a clearer plan • Take the time to sort and research the physical collection before digitizing • Have firm deadlines to help me stay on track Langlade County Historical Society
    120. 120. NEXT STEPS/TO DO LIST • Review collections and set priorities for digitization. • Consider developing a written selection policy. • Determine the copyright status of any materials you plan to share online and secure permissions from copyright holders if materials are not in public domain. • Acquire scanning equipment or make other plans for conversion. • Familiarize yourself with good, useful metadata by looking at other online collections.
    121. 121. NEXT STEPS/TO DO LIST • Develop a file naming convention document. • Develop a storage management policy • E.g., number of copies, locations • Monitor copies of content for errors/changes • Evaluate technology to determine your preferred access platform • Develop a marketing plan • Determine how you will evaluate the success of your marketing plan
    122. 122. THANK YOU! • Sarah Grimm, Wisconsin Historical Society 608-261-1008 • Emily Pfotenhauer, WiLS 608-616-9756 • Slides and handouts available at http://recollectionwisconsin .org/wla2013 South Wood County Historical Museum