APPLICATION NOTEDATA OFFLOAD SURVIVAL GUIDE - PART 3 www.greenpacket.com
APPLICATION NOTEAbstractSmart devices (smartphones and tablets) have simpliﬁed consumer accessto services across multiple channels. The ability to use voice, mobile apps,SMS, email, websites, chat, video, and social media through a single deviceis forcing operators to rethink their mobile strategies in the form of ofﬂoad.As a result of increased data usage, operator networks becomeincreasingly congested. As such, a smart and dynamic connectedinteraction is necessary to allow better trafﬁc management with particularcapabilities of the device with which it is characterized.In this paper, we will examine how dynamic data ofﬂoading with 3GPPbased Access Network Discovery Selection Function (ANDSF) plays its rolein the implementation of selective ofﬂoading. ANDSF as speciﬁed in 3GPPstandards describes how the inter-system mobility between 3GPP systemsand non-3GPP systems (WLAN, WiMAX, CDMA) policies and priorities cancontrol the conditions for which a device connects to which wirelessnetwork. As mobility is becoming a mainstream for customer engagement,operators must ensure contextual continuity is preserved through anintegrated approach.This can be achieved with a client-based implementation as describedwith reference to applying real-time connection state and policy control.Policy enforcement and policy management is mapped more accuratelywith an overall knowledge of the network at any given point of time.By intelligently managing the distribution of network load, congestion canbe strategically minimized.
APPLICATION NOTEContentsOverview 01Mission Critical Experience Counts 02Taking Charge, the Power of Enriched ExperiencesModeration of ServicesInjecting Meaning to Ubiquity 05Dynamic and SmartShape Selective Offload with Greenpacket 07Conclusion 09On the Move with Selective Offload 10
APPLICATION NOTE Overview - 01OverviewRecent market research resonate the general consensus that Wi-Fiofﬂoad is ﬁnding a strong foothold in networks. This exponential growth ofdata trafﬁc is forcing operators to evaluate mid to long term migrationstrategies to LTE while in need for short term strategies to relieve theircongested macro cellular networks.Based on analyst studies from Comscore and Heavy Reading, a lot ofdata trafﬁc is already being ofﬂoaded to private and public Wi-Fi networksin homes, at work and public places. The estimates show 20% to 80% ofsmartphone data trafﬁc is traversing these private and public Wi-Finetworks. Meanwhile, network equipment vendors are also racing todevelop carrier-grade Wi-Fi infrastructure solutions as part of theirsolution spread. Similarly operators are experimenting how to fullyintegrate Wi-Fi capabilities into their networks to ofﬂoad data trafﬁc fromtheir primary 3G network. Although still lacking understanding andanalysis of determining where, when and if using Wi-Fi ofﬂoad actuallyhelps the operator’s business case, operators are more willing toexperiment than risk further deterioration of their networks.Consumer behaviors are changing with the use of multiple devices acrosswork, businesses and leisure with demands of consistent qualityexperience. Also using multiple applications on each device is common –a situation where operators no longer control applications. Theseapplications and their operating systems are placing an extraordinaryamount of signaling on the network, resulting in unpredictability. Bydynamically adding network capacity where and when it is neededthrough an incremental, selective and cost-effective upgrade,policy-based Wi-Fi ofﬂoad can help address the growing demand fordata. The motivation of selective ofﬂoad is aimed towards achievinggreater user experience after ofﬂoad.
APPLICATION NOTE Mission Critical Experience Counts - 02Mission CriticalExperience CountsMobile users have long embraced traditional messaging services but it is notenough today for operators to continue on that business model. Today’sconverging communication environment offers a wide range of alternatives.Strikingly, subscriber loyalty is shifting from the mobile network operator to thedevice itself and the capabilities it offers (e.g. HD video, in-built camera,face-time). Price-sensitive customers particularly ﬁnd over-the-top (OTT) serviceslike Skype, WhatsApp and Viber appealing, which offer enhanced features thatSMS and MMS-based service lack. The propensity of OTT displacing traditionalSMS, MMS and voice-based service revenue is real. Subscribers simply nolonger differentiate the various media platforms as separate services, but as a setof integrated communication features as necessary.Recent research indicates that OTT services are impacting operators’bottom lines signiﬁcantly. Of which, 3rd party messaging services costoperators over $8billion in SMS revenues in 2010 and nearly $14billion in2011, according to technology analyst Ovum. To add on the list of operatortroubles, these OTT applications for most parts are not optimized and cancause considerable drain on network resources. The constant signaling tothe mobile network generates unnecessary signaling trafﬁc and ultimatelycause congestion and slow down speeds. In some cases, it may causenetwork outage and eventually degrading the user experience. Operatorsneed to ﬁnd ways to reclaim the control of their networks and pro-activelymanage bandwidth management from a multi-dimensional approach. Onesuch method is through the policy management systems and considerationof a converged 3G-Wi-Fi environment. Making Wi-Fi as secure and easy touse as cellular is the way forward for the future of hotspots.
APPLICATION NOTE Mission Critical Experience Counts - 03Taking Charge,the Power of Enriched ExperiencesThe advent of ubiquitous connectivity and the advancement of contentdriven experience into smartphones, tablets and living rooms have raisedthe bar on consumer expectations. Coupled with that, mobility puts adifferent set of challenging requirements on the back end and corenetworks. Today users expect personalized service from their serviceproviders; they expect their network to be smart enough to recognize thetype of device and the access medium on which they are consumingcontent and offer the same personalized service and quality assurancesregardless. According to Ciscos VNI (Visual Networking Index) report, therewill be an estimated of 2 billion M2M connections in 2015. Of which, manyof these new applications are enabled by mobility.These predictions provide an insight to potentially inﬂuence how operatorscan map out their networks to match new generation network needs. Thenear-term strategy is to avoid becoming dumb pipes and ﬁght againstrevenue leakage by focusing on the user experience. From a longer termoutlook, it is vital for operators to monetize additional cellular usage byinvesting in and enhance the capabilities of existing mobile networksalongside carrier-grade Wi-Fi deployments, to identify and prioritizeapplications that are reliant on the inherent beneﬁts of cellular networks andWi-Fi. Most importantly operators must exploit inventively the pricingstrategies that allow operators to realign the price of access with theperceived value by the vast majority of customers that will have a profoundimpact on the mobile network.
APPLICATION NOTE Mission Critical Experience Counts - 04Moderation of ServicesAdvances in network technologies had brought some relief, but onlyaddress partly the issue of congestion. Therefore, more needs to be donein order to holistically tackle the issue. By combining device-based solutionwith network-based solution, Greenpacket provides a relativelystraightforward resolution. The series of Intouch Mobile Data Ofﬂoadsolution is designed to give operators the ﬂexibility to enhance scalability,increase implementation speed, and improve data ofﬂoad measuresthrough a phased approach. The ANDSF enabled Dynamic Data Ofﬂoadclient works by retaining to a certain extent the level of visibility on the userpolicy as opposed to blindly ofﬂoading the subscriber onto Wi-Fi networks.Growth in data volumes if not properly managed can cause disruption.By allowing moderation of service access on speciﬁed time, location andnetwork conditions, it can signiﬁcantly help monitor network resources sothat it does not suffer unnecessary overload. Case in example, periodictrafﬁc surge is noticeable during peak hours. Instead of adding costly newcell sites as one of the measures, operators can take advantage ofdynamic data ofﬂoad early to detect congestion and shift trafﬁc toalternative Wi-Fi networks wherever available by enforcing operator policyfor preferred network access.The motivation for implementing ANDSF is largely driven by the need forbetter bandwidth utilization and ultimately better moderation of service.Control and optimization for mission critical applications like VoIP, P2Pstreaming and video streaming is necessary to ensure good userexperience. Operator-controlled and service-aware selection of the type ofwireless networks can bring beneﬁts to the operator looking to ofﬂoadusing Wi-Fi. The ability to retain visibility of which IP trafﬁc remains on Wi-Fi(e.g. best effort Internet trafﬁc like email, web browsing, which arenon-revenue generating) and which IP trafﬁc is maintained on the 3G link(e.g. VoIP that is quality sensitive). This may contribute to betterunderstanding of the trafﬁc models relevant to minimizing congestion.Also, to better integrate the common provisioning of service, billing androaming to be much easier between the carrier network and Wi-Fi.
APPLICATION NOTE Injecting Meaning to Ubiquity - 05Injecting Meaning to UbiquityPervasive connectivity and ubiquitous coverage are two very importantelements for delivering seamless experience. The seamless experience canonly be meaningful, with greater appreciation of the interpretation ofnetwork and device level state information.Today’s networks comprise of multi radio scenarios, likely a mix of WLANand 3GPP based networks. These access networks are not “aware” ofeach other. Although smart devices today are more advanced than before,it still lacks the intelligence to control the access network of the device (UE)state in the other access network. Given that WLAN is not a “controlled”access network and works in unlicensed spectrum, the only networkcondition of radio quality and the performance through that WLAN is madeavailable only to the device (UE). Hence, the device (UE) is in a betterposition to decide the connectivity options. Most often, the networkselection is governed by a default connection manager in the device (UE)that is limited in many ways.
APPLICATION NOTE Injecting Meaning to Ubiquity - 06Dynamic and SmartIn Greenpacket’s approach of a device-based solution, it is intended toprovide a scalable and upgradable migration path to advanced functionalityto support evolved packet core (EPC) infrastructure. The Dynamic DataOfﬂoad client has enough intelligence to enforce operator policy in real-timeby selectively triggering the connection of device (UE) to a given thresholdor the preferred available access network types based on inter-systemmobility policies. The network load can be balanced or spread out to theavailability of network radio resource at the point where congestion is likelyto occur without compromising the user experience in the process.The single-client software works to converge multiple network access andexecutes data ofﬂoading transparently. Incorporating customizable featuresand capabilities, the Dynamic Data Ofﬂoad client can intelligently detect theavailability of access networks based on signal strength and user policiesallowed for accessing certain data services on a cellular network (such as3G) and if there are less congested alternative networks (such as Wi-Fi,WiMAX, EVDO) available in the same vicinity. Operators can also opt tocustomize these policies based on application aware policy, device policy,subscriber policy and time-based policy to trigger data ofﬂoad. Byswitching the user from 3G to Wi-Fi without interruption to connectivity,it ensures a seamless user experience. NE AZARD ZO TSUNAMI H ATA FLOOD IN CASE OF D O Wi-Fi OFFLOAD T
APPLICATION NOTE Shape Selective Offload with Greenpacket - 07Shape Selective Ofﬂoadwith GreenpacketIntouch Dynamic Data Ofﬂoad is a device-based client that is ANDSF 1Note : Policy management andenabled. Within ANDSF, the context of ofﬂoad can be made more control component is usedaccurately at the user level i.e. bearer-aware and closely interacting with the interchangeably with PCRF in this application note.policy management and control component1 (e.g. PCRF server). Instead ofrelying heavily on the network policies enforced at the core network(back end), actual decision making process can be selectively madereal-time as a result of direct relation to the user activity at the device (UE).As a result of the in-built intelligence, the client can determine the bestavailable networks for data ofﬂoad within the pre-loaded local policy in theabsence of network policy. The added advantage of the make before breakin accordance to Mobile IP speciﬁcation further enhances the seamlessconnection experience, without requiring a switch of different connectionproﬁles. The added intelligence of ANDSF brings beneﬁt to the negotiationof connection state by various operator policies supported as:• Location-Aware Policy – cell ID or associated SSID is checked against the policy database for speciﬁc locations that are preferred/relevant• Access Network Discovery Policy – list of available access networks (RAT type) that are available within the vicinity and facilitation of prioritized access network selection for network handover• Time-based Policy – conﬁguration of policy validity “time to live” interval to current location and proﬁle• Subscriber-based Policy – dynamic allocation of subscriber package and proﬁleBy means of direct device (UE) communication at applications level towardsthe PCRF2 the ANDSF module provides indication to the device (UE) on the 2Note : The PCRF server in thisselection of network by reducing over the air processing required in the instance is 3GPP ANDSF standard compliant.device (UE) to establish the wireless link. Through connection shifts based ANDSF module can exist independently or implementedon context information and by combining knowledge about real-time within proprietary policynetwork levels, applications and devices (past data usage history), gives control and management server that may comprise ofgreater control on ofﬂoad strategy rather than a single isolated several functional modules, depending on the networkmeasurement of the radio conditions. By re-prioritizing subscribers on a architecture.congested cell site or ofﬂoad all or partially mobile data trafﬁc to Wi-Fi,
APPLICATION NOTE Shape Selective Offload with Greenpacket - 08during peak congestion periods, speciﬁc times of day, application-speciﬁcservices or combination of them, operators can have the ﬂexibility ofensuring good QoS at times of high capacity demand. The Intouch MobileData Ofﬂoad portfolio can also be extended to include an analytics drivenability to differentiate other solution in the market, whereby QoS is highlydesirable and work in tandem with PCRF.The client will check the existing policy. If the policy is alive, it applies thecurrent policy. Otherwise, the client will request for a new policy. Similarly,the business rule engine in the PCRF pushes dynamic and subscriberspeciﬁc policy decisions by checking the subscriber speciﬁc data (e.g.subscriber package, access entitlement/restriction) accordingly. Based onthis information, PCRF dynamically modiﬁes the connection policy ruledepending on the type of policy control required, acting as a policymanagement point. The policy decisions are delimited by validity of thelocation, time of day and discovery information. The client learns ofsubscriber state and network state parameters over time to detect thecorresponding bearer (Wi-Fi, 3G, WiMAX) to the suitability of context(service type, device type). These parameters ensure that the operatorretains visibility of which IP trafﬁc are critical and retained on the 3G orWi-Fi connection. Client detects user is in mobility 3G Wi-Fi Wi-Fi (Off) 3G 3G (On) 3G Policy Policy 3GPP unavailable 3GPP congested Wi-Fi available Wi-Fi available Location : home Validity 1200 - 1400 Wi-Fi (On) Wi-Fi Wi-Fi (On) 3G (Off) 3G (Off) Client Switch Time of Day Policy from 3G~Wi-Fi Client Offloads to Wi-FiFigure 1 : Intouch Dynamic Data Ofﬂoad
APPLICATION NOTE Conclusion - 09ConclusionMobile trafﬁc demands will likely exceed network capacities in the short tomedium term, despite planned LTE deployments. The enabling of richcommunications is by far the greatest inﬂuence Wi-Fi have had on the userexperience. Despite Wi-Fi ofﬂoad featuring signiﬁcantly on the operator’sagenda, other aspects that Wi-Fi play out in the cellular network is far andwide in between. Operators should not underestimate client device behavior,as it brings a range of use cases, imminent in today’s diverse networks andavoid falling into the trap of building networks in silo – they must instead usemethodologies that exhibit true performance and measure user experiencethrough connectivity, mobility and inter-operability.Dynamic data ofﬂoading is necessary to minimize congestion. The earlier acongestion trigger is controlled and managed, the earlier the operator cancontinue to improve the distribution of network resources from theperspective of spectrum planning. Since networks do not behave identicallynor follow the same trafﬁc model, data ofﬂoading exercise can facilitatebalancing the load whenever congestion occurs. Policy enforcement andpolicy management is mapped more accurately with an overall knowledge ofthe network at any given point of time, rather than a silo representation at theaggregation point at the backend. More and more operators are embracingdata ofﬂoading as means to satisfy the bandwidth requirements. Withdynamic data ofﬂoading methodology, the operators can maximize thenetwork’s core assets while holding off CAPEX intensive investment eitherfor 3G or LTE. Through the extension of dynamic policy controls that isintegrated, operators can truly beneﬁt from alleviating mobile data burden itplaces on the mobile network.
APPLICATION NOTE On the Move with Selective Offload - 10On the Movewith Selective OfﬂoadThe foundation of traditional cellular networks is experiencing atransformation. Renewed interest in Wi-Fi is rapidly changing businessmodels for operators. As consumers become more sophisticated, andshifting their fondness for newer applications, operators must work harder todeliver those experiences. Navigating the complexities of service integration,monetization, streamlining core processes and differentiation need not besubjected to long development cycles. Turn your challenges intoopportunities as we introduce a phased approach for data ofﬂoad strategy.Embark on a journey with Greenpacket to discover the meaning of selectiveofﬂoading and start realizing the possibilities for boosting your network.With Greenpacket, you bring value to your subscribers and become theirpartner of communication needs.Free ConsultationIf you would like a free consultation on how you can leverage data ofﬂoadsolutions for enhanced network performance and user experience, feel freeto contact us at email@example.com. Kindly quote thereference code, SWP0912-P3 when you contact us.