Hello San Francisco! Benjamin Wiederkehr Interactive Things & Datavisualization.ch presented by Interactive Things 1Hi, I am Benjamin from Switzerland and I am here with my coworker Peter.
Interactive Things User Experience & Data Visualization Studio Zürich, Switzerland presented by Interactive Things 2We both work for a user experience and data visualization studio that I founded with fourfriends of mine, one and a half years ago.
„ Wholeheartedly passionate about making things understandable, “ usable, enjoyable & actionable. 3The combination of these two ﬁelds comes from our believe, that applying principles fromdata visualization to UX design and vice versa is immensely beneﬁcial to the end product.
Datavisualization.ch Resource for Data Visualization & Infographics Our Blog presented by Interactive Things 4I also write about data related things from a Swiss perspective on Datavisualization.ch. Wedocument a lot of new projects published by the community, share our thoughts about thisﬁeld and give guidance to starting out practitioners.
Not yourmother‘sinteractiondesigncompanypresented by Interactive Things 7
Just like pugs and costumeswe combine things that just belong together
We apply data visualizationprinciples to interface design.map show patterns, not dataoptimize maximize the information to cognitive effort ratiostabilize stabilize the informational and operational contextadapt make the interface coherent with the applicationdigitalize push the potential of the digital medium to handle complexitypresented by Interactive Things 9
Data In Sight presented by Interactive Things 10First I want to thank the ladies from swissnex for inviting me. Actually, when they ﬁrstapproached me about taking part in is, I was ﬂattered and naive as I am, didnt grasp whatthat really meant. But, when they asked me to give a talk about data visualization in the BayArea and I was terriﬁed. Because, you know, you guys obviously know your shit!
Google Stanford Stamen Bloom presented by Interactive Things 11Some of the best work in visualization comes from people that live here like Google,Stanford, Stamen and more recently Bloom.
A) I am not going for a portfolio talk B) I am not going for a "how to" talk C) You guys probably are a lot smarter than I am presented by Interactive Things 12When I was thinking about what I should talk about, I knew three things:A) I am not going for a portfolio talkB) I am not going for a "how to" talkC) You guys probably are a lot smarter than I am.So, I decided to leverage this collective wisedom to include a few questions that keep me upat night. Actually, thats what I gonna do most of the time: raise questions! And what I hopeto do, is letting YOU ﬁnd your own answers over the course of the next 24 hours.
INTENT & IMPACT Thoughts on Persuasion in Visualization presented by Interactive Things 13I dubbed it impact and intent and it will be more an collection of thoughts and questions foryou to reﬂect on, discuss, seek answers than a complete theory.
Explore → Ideate → Create → Publish presented by Interactive Things 14One thing that strikes me is the amount of talk around the visual and functional qualities ofvisualizations or the process of creating them, but I feel a lack of discussion around theunderlying motivation and the resulting outcome.I think that visualization should be seen as a means to an end and not an end in its ownright. Thus, this talk is focused on the things that happen before the exploration phase andafter the publication.
Talk - Action = Shit presented by Interactive Things 15The underlying thought is…I am totally stealing this from Brendan Dawes.
INTENT & IMPACTHave a clear understandingwhy you do what you do.presented by Interactive Things 16
01 Set your aim Informing people → Increase knowledge Convincing people → Shape opinions Nudge people → Change behavior presented by Interactive Things 17First we need to be clear about our goal with the visualization.Do you wan‘t to inform people to increase their knowledge? Fine.Or do you want to convince people and shape their opinions? That‘s ﬁne, too.Or do you want to nudge people to ultimately change their behavior ? That‘s great!Inspired by Enrico Bertini, Fell in Love with Data
Increasing Knowledge presented by Interactive Things 18How do humans learn and increase their knowledge?
Sarah Slobin „ Something new, relevant, diﬀerent, informative and even entertaining is a good place to start. “ 19If you plan to inform and delight readers then something new, relevant, different, informativeand even entertaining is a good place to start.Sarah Slobin, Visual Journalist for the Wall Street Journal, previously at NYT, Fortune, CNNMoney.
Scheiter, Wiebe, & Holsanova Decorative →Enlivening Text Representational →Making information more concrete Organisational →Bringing coherence to data Interpretative →Enhancing understanding of data Transformative →Recode information into more concrete and memorable form, organizing it through relations, and providing systemic means of retrieval presented by Interactive Things 20Transformative visualization have the strongest positive learning effect. Thus, I highlyrecommend to move your efforts in this direction.Make information concrete & memorable.Organize it for faster comprehension.Provide options for analysis.
Shaping Opinions presented by Interactive Things 21How do humans build up their opinions and beliefs?
Aristoteles „ In an ideal society opinions are the end result of informed discussions, readings, & listenings. “ 22That‘s quite a romantic view on us as humans, but we know it better, right?
Whenever we are confronted with external stimuli we ﬁrst resort to what we feel or what we believe and later to what we think.stimuli limbic system neocortex reaction The cognitive process is a combination of emotion & reason. presented by Interactive Things 23
Clara Kayser-Bril, Nicolas Kayser-Bril and Marion Kotlarski: 100 Years of World Cuisine„100 Years of World Cuisine“ uses very strong visuals that immediately provoke an emotionalreaction to convey their story.
Changing Behavior presented by Interactive Things 25What is necessary for humans to change their behavior?
Behavior Model According to B. J. Fogg is peoples behavior a result of the convergence of three elements: Motivation, Ability, & Trigger presented by Interactive Things 26To do a certain task or even to change behavior someone must be motivated for that.Furthermore, the users ability or the tasks simplicity either should be as easy as possible or itshould be perceived easy to do. Finally, the user must be triggered for action.As designers and developers we need to make it simple for them to use. Thus, the abilityshould be a problem.So how can we motivate people?And how can we include triggers for action at the right time?
Gamification Using game mechanics in non-gaming contexts to improve user engangement or even change user behavior. You know, stuff like rewards, leaderboards, competitions. presented by Interactive Things 27There are many services that are sucessfully using game mechanics to increase userengagement. So, it looks like a promising method that could be applied to visualization aswell.
TidyStreet.orgTidy Street is a project from Brighton, UK that happend earlier this year.Each day the participants electricity usage over the previous 24 hours will be marked on thestreet compared to the average Brighton household‘s electricity usage.
02 Tell a storypresented by Interactive Things 31
Donald Norman „ Stories are important cognitive events, for they encapsulate, into “ one compact package, information, knowledge, context, & emotion. 32Effectively designed transformational visualizations can assume this exact role, acting notjust as simple data representations but rather as layered, multidimensional, opticalallegories, perceptually aequivalent to stories.Inspired by Carla Casilli.
Edward Segel & Jeffrey Heer Narrative Visualization: Telling Stories with Data Martini Glass Structure Interactive Slideshow Drill-Down Story presented by Interactive Things 33Edward Segel and Jeffrey Heer published a wonderful paper in 2010 about this topic — Irecommend everybody has a look at it. Narrative Visualization: Telling Stories with Data
Faces of the Dead by New York TimesMartini Glass Structure: Starts with one story and then let‘s the user explore further.
Budget Forecasts, Compared With reality by Amanda Cox for New York TimesInteractive Slideshow: Tells the story over multiple slides with every slide being interactive.
Murder: New York City by New York TimesDrill-Down Story: The user needs to start exploring the application to get more detailedinformation.
03 Make it personalpresented by Interactive Things 37
Jobless Rate for People Like You by New York TimesStart with the general public
Jobless Rate for People Like You by New York TimesSelect your own demography…
Jobless Rate for People Like You by New York TimesAnd then start comparing it to related or opposite demographics.
04 Don‘t be evil The people trust you to act with fair spirit — please be aware of that.presented by Interactive Things 41
You can twist data just like a balloon animal. But, keep in mind that these things usually pop before you get home.canopic on ﬂickr.com
INTENT & IMPACTHave a clear vision for what youwant to achieve with your work.presented by Interactive Things 43
John Snow: Cholera Map1813 - 1858 English physician
John Snow convinced Whitehead that the Broad Street pump was the source of the local infections. Whitehead then joined with Snow in tracking the contamination to a faulty cesspool and the outbreak’s index case presented by Interactive Things 45Henry Whitehead was a Church of England Cleric.
Florence Nightingale: Causes of Mortality in the Army in the East1820 - 1910 English nurse writer and statistician.
Florence Nightingale convinced military authorities,Parliament and Queen Victoria to carry out her reforms.Her insistence on good sanitation, fresh air and publichealth saved thousands of lives, both for soldiers andcivilians, on battleﬁelds and in hospitals.presented by Interactive Things 47
• Over 106,000 tons of carbon were offset in the year following the ﬁlms release, which is equivalent to 225 million car miles. • 4200+ tons of carbon were offset just by people swtiching to compact ﬂuorescent light bulbs. • Over 15 climate change bills have been introduced in Congress, with the historic Markey-Waxman Bill passing the House in June, 2009. • Over 2600 people have been trained to give The Climate Project presentation and 4 million people on all seven continents have heard the presentation.presented by Interactive Things 49
05 Plan Plan the actions that you want people to take after engaging with your work. presented by Interactive Things 50Like, Share, Digg, Save are not impacting peoples lives!Include actionable items into your visualizations & interfaces and set up the infrstructure forpeople to take action.
Small Habits by GreenPeace & Daniel FischerInclude actionable items into your visualizations & interfaces and set up the infrstructure forpeople to take action.
The Humans Development by Global Giving & Roland LoessleinInclude actionable items into your visualizations & interfaces and set up the infrstructure forpeople to take action.
06 Observe Observe the impact that your work has after you published it.presented by Interactive Things 53
Google Analytics Feedburner Twitter Search Social Mention presented by Interactive Things 54Try to measure as much as possible about the usage of your visualization.Google Analytics, Google Reader, Twitter, Social Mention.Dont stop there and rather set up your own analytics…
UNDP & Interactive Things: Human Development Report 2.0The UNDP measures all submitted conﬁgurations to learn from the people. Ultimately thiscould inﬂuence how the different dimensions of the Human Development Index arewheighted.
OECD, Moritz Stefaner & Raureif: Better Life IndexJust like the UNDP, the OECD measures user interaction in their newest application calledBetter Life Index.
Recap1. Set your aim2. Tell a story3. Make it personal4. Don‘t be evil5. Plan for actions6. Observe your impactpresented by Interactive Things 57
THANKS!If you have any answers, please get in touch.Email firstname.lastname@example.orgTwitter @wiederkehrPhone +41 76 533 33 72presented by Interactive Things 58