TreeThe linguistic sign consists of a signifier and a signified,these are, however, more strictly a sound image and aconcept, both linked by a psychological associativebond.
S ----------- r ……………s ----------- RStimulus------ words ----- Response, this viewshows that meaning is as a description froma situation which there are stimulus (S) thatmay cause someone to say something (r)and the response ( R) is an effect of thewords said by someone (s)
Reference is a term which is usedwhen we are talking about thedenotation of word. Sense relates to the complex systemof relationships that hold between thelinguistic elements themselves.
First, make statemens is good, butbetter we also ask question or giveorder. Second, speech act.Thirdly, much ofwhat we say is not a statement offact but an evaluation.Fourthly language is often deeply
concerned with a varietyof social relations.Fifthly, we need notmean what we say.Sixthly, presupposition isdistinction from assertion.NEXT…
Not all words seem to have the same kind ofthe meaning. It is not at all clear that the word is a clearlydefined unit. There is a problem with what have beencalled TRANSPARENT and OPAQUE words. There are many words in English that arecalled PHONAESTHETIC Semantic division seems to’ override’ worddivision. Finally we have the problem of idioms