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Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V SP1 Component Architecture


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Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V SP1 Component Architecture

  1. 1. Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V How Installing the Hyper-V Role Changes Architecture Virtual Network Architecture Virtual Machine Snapshots Live Migration Operations You can install Hyper-V as a role in Windows Server 2008 R2. It installs all the components of the Hyper-V technology, Hyper-V supports three types of virtual networks: private virtual networks, internal virtual networks, and external virtual networks. The virtual network With live migration, you can move a running virtual machine from one physical server to another without interruption of service. including the remote management tools. Hyper-V introduces architectural changes to Windows Server 2008 R2. Snapshots are read-only, ―point-in-time‖ images of a virtual machine. You can capture the configuration and state of a virtual machine at any point in time, and return the Live migration requires the Failover Clustering feature to be added and configured on the servers running Hyper-V. switch forms the center of all Hyper-V virtual networks. It never appears as a physical entity—it is a software representation. virtual machine to that state with minimal interruption. Multiple snapshots can be created, deleted, and applied to virtual machines. Snapshots form parent-child Windows Server 2008 R2 Installation Windows Server 2008 R2 withHyper-V Additions Hyper-V Role Physical computer: Windows Server 2008 R2 with the Hyper-V role or Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 hierarchies with a parent virtual hard disk (VHD) and automatic virtual hard disks (AVHDs). Take Snapshot: Example A Snapshots create point-in- Take Snapshot: Example B Take Snapshot: Example C Live Migration No virtualization components are installed by default. Windows is now running on top of Windows hypervisor! Virtual Snapshots also apply to Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2008 R2 Preventing Overlapping MAC Address Ranges Machine Install security updates time copies of memory, Install application modified virtual machine Install service pack Process Management Operating System configuration information, configuration settings Live migration is a new feature in The source and destination computers User Installation with Hyper-V Role WMI Provider Virtual Machine You can use Virtual Network Manager to configure Windows Server 2008 R2. are servers running Hyper-V. Mode Application Windows Server 2008 R2 the range of MAC addresses that Hyper-V uses for A and the VHD. B (network, memory, etc.). C Virtual network adapters communicate with the User VMMS management operating system through VMBus. The Virtual Machine (multiple virtual machines with associated dynamic MAC address generation. Create a virtual machine on The new virtual machine is set up on the destination computer. Mode management operating system receives those requests virtual network adapters) 00 15 5D 18 12 68 Timeline for running virtual machine a destination computer Memory is allocated to the destination virtual machine. New Windows Server 2008 R2 VMWP through the VSPs and directs them to the underlying Once a snapshot is created, Create a network connection Virtual physical network devices through the networking stack Server all virtual machine 1 Transfer configuration data across network Machine Kernel Applications Copy of between computers for Windows Kernel of the management operating system. Running Copy of operating system files, Mode Configuration Snapshots do not transferring virtual machine Windows Server 2008 R2 C ID VHD Hyper-V Configuration application data, and data Snapshots can be taken configuration data. Then AN affect the running Kernel Network Stack MA VL changes made during the Copy of if virtual machine is create a virtual machine on Mode Windows Kernel Network Stack Copy of execution of the virtual offline or online. state of the virtual Drivers Adding the Hyper-V role Memory machine are stored in the Memory machine. the destination computer. Source Destination modifies the Windows Server Drivers The virtual network adapter is created and A virtual interface with its own MAC address is Computer Network Storage Computer connected to the management operating system. exposed in each virtual machine. associated snapshot AVHD. New 2008 R2 server architecture. Virtual LAN Identification (VLAN ID) New AVHD AVHD VSP VMBus Virtual Network For each virtual network adapter connected to a (changes) (changes) Hyper-V iterates the memory copy process several times. Standard Hyper-V Role Virtual Network virtual machine, it is possible to specify a VLAN ID Migrate memory pages Windows Certified Adapter The virtual machine continues to run during the migration. (Optional) Adapters to be used by that virtual machine. Virtual LANs Points back to parent All updates to VHD All updates to parent AVHD Memory assigned to the Hardware must be supported on the physical network Hypervisor VHD for unchanged data A now made to AVHD B now made to new AVHD B migrating virtual machine A B adapter. 2 is copied over the network Transfer memory information across network C Windows Certified Links back to parent AVHD for its data Links back to parent AVHD for unchanged data to the destination Hyper-V can be installed as a role on a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2008 R2 Hardware computer. This memory is or as a role on a full installation of Windows Server 2008 R2. When a snapshot is taken, a new AVHD is created, and the Taking consecutive snapshots (assuming no previous snapshots referred to as the working virtual machine points to this disk. are applied) creates a snapshot hierarchy with a single branch. set of the migrating virtual Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V Product Classification Source Destination Adding the Hyper-V role Virtual Network Configurations machine. Computer It is important to note that the AVHD created from a snapshot Virtual machine snapshots are recommended for test and Network Storage Computer Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a hypervisor-based server virtualization technology thatServer installed as a role in modifies the Windows can be Using Virtual Network Manager, you can create and manage contains ONLY the data since the snapshot was taken. development scenarios. Windows Server 2008 R2. 2008 R2 server architecture. Hyper-V virtual networks. C Virtual Network A B D Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 is a stand-alone server virtualization product. It includes the Windows hypervisor, the Switch Copy modified memory, The live migration process can be cancelled at any Windows Server driver model, and virtualization components. Private Virtual Network: Allows network communications between virtual machines on a server running Hyper-V. Provides isolation Snapshot Operations Snapshot Creation Snapshot Deletion register, and device state point before this stage of the migration. The virtual network switch functions like a from management operating system and external network. Duplicate remaining memory Transfer memory pages Windows Server 2008 R2 Detailed Hyper-V Architecture physical switch and routes networking In Hyper-V Manager, when you create a snapshot the following occurs: Deleting a snapshot deletes all the saved state files (.bin and 3 pages are transferred to the traffic through the virtual network to its Internal Virtual Network: Allows communication between virtual machines on a server running Hyper-V, and between virtual Create Create .vsv files). Hyper-V takes different actions on AVHDs, depending destination computer. The When the Hyper-V role is added to Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows hypervisor takes control of the physical computer destination. It connects physical and virtual snapshot A snapshot B on the location of deleted snapshots relative to the running source computer also Transfer register and device state network adapters. machines and the management operating system. and creates partitions. The parent partition becomes a special virtual machine that runs the management operating state of the virtual machine. transfers the register and system (Windows Server 2008 R2), which you use to manage virtual machines. You can create virtual machines that run External Virtual Network: Allows network communication Timeline for running virtual machine device state of the source guest operating systems in the child partitions. between virtual machines, the management operating system, and Source Destination 1 Process repeated Timeline for running virtual machine computer. the external network. (Optional) 1 The virtual machine pauses. Computer Computer Windows Server 2008 R2 with Hyper-V role or Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 Physical Physical per snapshot Snapshot A Snapshot B Network Storage Management Operating System Virtual Machine Virtual Machine Virtual Machine Network Network For better isolation, in the Windows Server 2008 R2 user interface, you can now choose whether to 2 An AVHD is created for the snapshot. When you delete a snapshot, the following occurs: Adapter #1 Adapter #2 allow the management operating system to share a connection to an external virtual network. The copy of the virtual machine configuration Move storage from Applications Windows operating systems Windows operating systems Linux operating systems D 3 The virtual machine is configured. 2 New taken during the snapshot process is removed. source to destination Windows Management Provider that have integration services that have integration services that have integration Control of the storage included (Windows Server services available. A single physical network adapter can be associated with at most one external virtual network, or left AVHD AVHD The copy of virtual machine memory taken (WMI) 2008 R2, Windows 7). delivered through Hyper-V. Integration services are 4 The virtual machine is pointed to the during the snapshot process is removed. 4 associated with the source Transfer Control Interface for local and remote These must be separately available as a separate Physical for use by the management operating system. newly created AVHD. computer, such as any virtual machine administration. installed in the virtual Web download. External When the virtual machine is powered down, VHD files or physical Network Physical machine after the guest Switch We recommend using at least two physical network adapters on servers running Hyper-V. You should the contents of any ―deleted‖ AVHDs are storage ―pass-through‖ Virtual Machine Management operating system is installed. Integration services are Network 5 The virtual machine resumes (the 3 merged with its parent. User Service (VMMS) available for a variety of dedicate one adapter to the physical computer and the other adapter to the virtual machines. time lapsed is not perceivable by disks, is transferred to the Linux distributions. Deleting a snapshot subtree deletes the selected snapshot and destination computer. Source Network Storage Destination Mode Manages the state of the virtual Hyper-V-specific (―synthetic‖) end user). Configuration Computer Computer machines. any snapshots listed hierarchically underneath it. devices require integration services. Virtual Network Interfaces in Hyper-V 6 While virtual machine is running, the contents of the virtual machines 4 A B C Bring virtual machine on destination computer online Virtual Machine Worker Process In Hyper-V, the virtual machine queue (VMQ) feature enables physical network adapters to use direct memory access (DMA) to place the contents of data packets memory are saved to disk. (VMWP) directly into virtual machine memory, which increases I/O performance. The destination computer is now able to access virtual machine memory and storage. The new virtual If a guest operating system machine is now active. Represents the actions taking 5 place in the virtual processor(s), Applications Applications Applications Data Path Without Virtual Machine Queue Data Path with Virtual Machine Queue attempts to modify memory that emulated devices, and the has not yet been copied, the write 5 Memory D E Clean up network – migration is complete virtual motherboard. In standard Hyper-V environments, the virtual network switch in With Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008 R2, you can use the VMQ-enabled network adapter to copy attempt is intercepted and copied to the management operating system filters data based upon MAC received data directly to a virtual machine’s accessible memory. This avoids the copy of received the original memory contents. The virtual machine is now migrated to the destination computer. The physical network switch is informed, and it address and VLAN tags. It copies the data and then routes it to the data from the management operating system to the virtual machine. The network adapter card Running Virtual refreshes its MAC address table so that network traffic now uses the correct switch port to communicate with the 7 When the snapshot is completed, the For a virtual machine migrated virtual machine. Windows Operating Legacy Windows Linux associated virtual machines through the virtual machine bus must have hardware support for virtual network queue (VMQ). without snapshots, all Machine 6 Windows Server 2008 R2 (VMBus). Non-VMQ-enabled physical network adapters use the virtual machine configuration file, the System Operating System Operating System virtual machine saved state files, and 6 changes made to the Deleting a snapshot between the first snapshot and the Live migration is supported in Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V and Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2. Virtual Infrastructure Driver (VID) following device data path: Management Operating System Virtual Machine Virtual Machine guest operating system running state of the virtual machine preserves AVHDs. When Virtualization Service Virtualization Service Virtual Machine Virtual Machine the snapshot (AVHD) are stored in a files, application files, B Hyper-V Storage Provides partition, memory, and folder under the virtual machines the virtual machine is shut down, the data in the AVHDs is Client (VSC) Client (VSC) Routing, VLAN Filtering, and Data Copy Accessible Accessible and data are applied to merged with the parent. (including Clustered processor management for the Legacy operating Memory Memory snapshot directory. the VHDs associated You should dedicate at least a 1-gigabit virtual machines. Management Operating System Virtual Virtual If the deleted snapshot exists on a different branch or the Use either Failover Cluster Manager, System Shared Volumes) VSC communicates with systems are installed with the virtual same branch but at a point in time after the running state of Ethernet connection for the live migration using emulation. Linux VSC Machine Machine 7 machine. Center Virtual Machine Manager, or Windows the VSP in the parent Virtual Network E the virtual machine, then the AVHD is deleted immediately. PowerShell to initiate live migration. network between cluster nodes to transfer partition over the Once a user installs Routing, VLAN Filtering, and Data Copy Port 1 Port 2 the memory pages of a virtual machine. Virtualization Service Provider TCP/IP TCP/IP Switch integration services, Kernel (VSP) VMBus. It services the Hyper-V specific TCP/IP TCP/IP Snapshot Operations Applying Virtual Machine Snapshots Mode Uses the VMBus to provide Hyper-V- virtual machines device devices are used. Virtual Network Virtual Virtual Windows Server 2008 R2 Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV) access requests. Virtual Network Virtual Network specific device (―synthetic‖ device) Switch Network Network Applying a snapshot to a virtual machine basically means copying the complete virtual machine state from the selected snapshot to the active virtual machine. This Cluster Shared Volumes simplifies the configuration and management of clustered virtual machines. With CSV, multiple clustered virtual support to VSCs. Adapter 1 Adapter 2 Miniport Driver Adapter 1 Adapter 2 Drivers Drivers Drivers Port 1 Port 2 effectively returns your current working state to the previous snapshot state. Any unsaved data in the currently active virtual machine will be lost if you do not take a machines can use the same physical disk, while still being able to fail over (or move from node to node) independently of one another. new snapshot of the current virtual machine state before you apply the selected snapshot. Data bypasses Take Snapshot: Take Snapshot: Coordinator Node CSV provides VMBus Example A Example B a single CSV allows Drivers VMBus VMBus VMBus VMBus VMBus Miniport Driver the virtual When you apply a snapshot of a running Applying any previous Apply Snapshot A fully distributed network switch virtual machine, the following occurs: Install security Configure networking consistent snapshot creates another updates file name access to the Cluster Shared Volumes are volumes in a failover cluster file system. VMBus 1 The virtual machine saved state branch to the snapshot that multiple nodes can read from and write to at the space. Cluster Cluster VMBus files (.bin, .vsv) are copied. hierarchy, starting at the Applying the snapshot VMBus Default VMQ 1 VMQ 2 VMBus applied snapshot. A does not cause the B same time. The nodes coordinate the reading and writing Node B Store virtual Node C Virtual Machines 2 A new AVHD is created, and then Communication snapshot to be deleted. activity so that the disk is not corrupted. machine VHDs linked to the parent AVHD. Parent AVHD on the same Windows Kernel Windows Kernel Default Queue VMBus Running virtual machine Only one node in the failover cluster owns the Cluster LUN using Shared Volume. That node is known as the coordinator Cluster Shared Hypercalls Understanding VMBus Filters Volumes Hyper-V- specific (―synthetic‖) virtual devices for each virtual machine, such as network and storage adapters, communicate with When a snapshot is applied, the original Note: ―Revert‖ is different from applying any node. There is only one coordinator node for each shared Physical Network Copy Copy Each virtual machine is assigned a Link the management operating system through the virtual machine bus (VMBus). snapshot remains and is not modified 1 2 snapshot. It means ―apply last snapshot‖. volume, and it is selected automatically. Cluster Cluster Adapter Received data is copied from Physical Network hardware-managed receive queue. when applied. Node A Node D Windows Hypervisor the management operating Adapter Hardware performs MAC address lookup Snapshots should NOT be used as a Applying a snapshot New snapshots can be taken and previous snapshot branches remain unaffected. Manages processor scheduling and physical memory allocation. system’s memory address causes the virtual space to the virtual machines’ and VLAN ID validation. substitute for backups because virtual machine’s current state to