Supportive leadership


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Supportive leadership

  1. 1. Supportive Leadership Behavior
  2. 2. Types of Supportive Leadership Behavior
  3. 3. Being friendly,informative, and encouraging
  4. 4. Being considerate and understanding
  5. 5. “Showing concernfor followers needs”
  6. 6. “Beingsympathetic to other’s problems”
  7. 7. “Helping followersdevelop abilities and careers”
  8. 8. Why Supportive Leadership is Effective?
  9. 9. #1 They satisfy people’s needs to be liked and appreciated by others, to berespected as capable and valuable, and to be continually improving; and
  10. 10. “Supportiveness helps keep a group together bypromoting cohesion among members and keeping individuals from becoming alienated” #2
  11. 11. Can Supportive Behavior ever be Ineffective ? • Yes! • A short story • A leader must be careful how supportive behavior is used and tailor the approach to the needs and concerns of followers.
  12. 12. How to Be Supportive: Skills and Power Bases Interpersonal SkillsCommunication Technical andSkills professional competence Skills, Traits, and Sources of PowerExpertPower Reward Power Referent Power
  13. 13. Communication skills as supportive leader behavior tool:Interpersonal Skills as supportive leader behavior tool:•Through positive, friendly interpersonal relations, leader supportsfollowers, cooperates with them, develops trust with them, andassists them.•Provides social support when followers are upset or under pressure.•Shows appreciation and takes interest in followers’ lives.•Sociable leaders enjoy spending time on a regular basis with eachfollower. Maintain positive cheerful disposition, said to be easy toget along with, show consideration and trust towards others.Expertise as supportive leader behavior tool:•Must have expertise to provide training and development.•Supportive resource in solving problems•Provide useful feedback on performance•Increases leader’s confidence and willingness to support followers.
  14. 14. How to Be Supportive: Skills and Power Bases Interpersonal SkillsCommunication Technical andSkills professional competence Skills, Traits, and Sources of PowerExpertPower Reward Power Referent Power
  15. 15. In addition to developing specific skills, supportive leaders also work atdeveloping three different power bases from which they can effectively apply theirleadership skills: expert, referent, and reward•Expert power helps leaders support followers by providing knowledge, skill andability in performing important tasks and solving problems. The more importantthe follower’s problem, the greater the likelihood the leader will have to rely onexpert power. Effective leaders use expert power to support followers byproviding needed knowledge, being available as a source of technical advice,helping individuals solve job problems, providing explanations of processes, andreferring followers to needed sources of information or assistance.•Leaders whose personality, accomplishments, and integrity cause followers toadmire and identify with them acquire referent power. When leaders have referentpower, followers attribute favorable motives to the leaders, they want their leaders’approval, and they interpret small, insignificant behaviors by the leader assupportive (e.g. smile, or other friendly gesture).•Reward power can be used to provide needed resources, a better work schedule, alarger expense account, or advice to for followers. Therefore supportive leadersshould work toward acquiring reward power.
  16. 16. Communication Skill • Effectively convey their ideas and feelings, listen actively, and elicit ideas and feelings from their followers. • Be responsive to followers’ task-related problems, complaints, and personal problems. • To indicate how much followers are valued .
  17. 17. Where are Supportive Behaviors Likely to be Employed?• When superior is supportive• Organizational mission – Human services – Work with volunteers – High involvement, high commitment cultures
  18. 18. Supportive Behaviors Around the World • Britain - sharing of information and welcoming follower suggestions • Japan & Hong Kong - interactions with group in and out of work • U.S. - Open door policies, management by walking around
  19. 19. Who Should Receive Supportive Behavior?Propositions:a) The leader should show the most concern, be most considerate, and provide the greatest encouragement for the best performers because positive behavior should be reinforced.b) Interpersonal support should be provided to followers as needed regardless of performance.
  20. 20. Impact of Supportive LeadershipFollower Benefits:• Satisfaction with work, job & supervisor• Increased commitment• Reduced stress• Increased self- confidence• Increased performance
  21. 21. Impact of Supportive LeadershipOrganizational Benefits:• Increased cohesiveness • Increased cooperation & harmony • Increased productivity• Lower turnover, absenteeism, lateness, grievances
  22. 22. Situations Where Supportiveness may or may not be Effective1) Followers are under high stress while trying to complete a dangerous task.2) Followers are new to the job and are unsure of their abilities and positions.3) Followers are small group of counselors in a student services dept. of a state university.4) Followers are very opinionated and stubborn in their point of view.
  23. 23. Situations Where Supportiveness may or may not be Effective5) Followers are a large group (over 30) who work at widely varying tasks at different locations.6) Tasks require creativity and new learning with much competition and possible conflict with other groups.7) Work involves designing & testing computer programs. Personnel is highly trained and competent and obtain a great deal of satisfaction from their work
  24. 24. • Favorable environments: 1,2,3, & 6. They reflect a need for supportiveness that can enhance or increase leadership effectiveness.• Decrease or neutralize: 4 & 5. Indicate followers who may resist or are immune to the positive effects of supportiveness. When supportive behaviors are present, they will likely produce little or no impact in follower reactions. May be subject to other types of influence.• Replacement of followers’ need for supportiveness: Environment 7. When workers find tasks especially satisfying and basis for high follower commitment and performance, little supportiveness from leader is necessary.
  25. 25. Situational Factors that Increase Effectiveness of Supportive LeadershipFollower Characteristics Organizational•Low self-confidence and Group Characteristics•Low self-esteem •External•Insecurity Conflict•Expectation that leader •Newly formedwill be supportive group•High growth needs •Cohesive group Situational with shared beliefs in leader FactorsTask Characteristics •Formal plans, goals, and•Dissatisfying procedures•Stressful •Mission•Highly structured emphasizing•Requires creativity human services•Requires learning •Authoritarian superior
  26. 26. Task Influences: Showing confidence in workers, treating them with empathy relievesstress and allows works to be more effective.Organizational and group influences: External Group conflicts - workers appreciateleader reassurance. Also newly formed groups highly influenced by supportive leaderwhen he/she helps define goals and role definitions. These people need more supportand attention than other groups.A cohesive group has a high degree of solidarity, unity, and felt closeness among themembers, and supportive leadership often pays off well in increased productivity aswell as worker attitudes. Group norms can influence outcome here--if favorable toleader, works for, if not favorable will work against and decrease the positive effects ofa leader’s supportive behavior.Followers in bureaucratic organizations respond well to supportive behaviors.Apparently seen as rare caring human rather than organizational machine.Follower Characteristic Influences: Followers w/above characteristics see supportiveleader as considerate and understanding as a source of comfort and encouragement andtherefore show positive reactions to this behavior. Leaders who are supportive inindividuals reaching their goals is well received.
  27. 27. Situational Factors that Decrease Effectiveness Dogmatic Followers Large Group Factors that Decrease Effectiveness Broad Task Scope High Level Job
  28. 28. Situational Factors that Replace the Need for Supportive LeadershipIntrinsically Feedback fromsatisfying task Task•Interesting Situational •Rapid Factors •Specific•Gratifying•Meaningful •Accurate High importance placed on organizational rewards •Pay Raises •Promotions
  29. 29. Leadership Process Model for Supportive Leadership Leader Supportiveness Enhancers of Neutralizers of Supportiveness Supportiveness FollowerReplacements for Psychological Supportiveness Reactions Follower Behavioral Outcomes
  30. 30. This is a pictorial of the model of supportive leader behavior.Starting at the top, supportive leader behaviors are shown toinfluence follower/group psychological reactions, which in turnaffect the followers’ behavioral outcomes. Situational factors thatcan increase or decrease the effectiveness of supportive behaviorare shown on each side and their impact comes to play when theyinteract with the supportive behavior. The arrows from the leadersupportiveness box to situational factor boxes indicate that theleader sometimes can manipulate situations to improve followers’reactions indirectly and thereby replace the need to providesupportive behaviors.
  31. 31. Leader Supportiveness•Concerned, trusting, andrespectful of followers•Considerate understandingattitude•Friendly, encouraging,communicative•Fostering followerdevelopment
  32. 32. Enhancers of Supportiveness•Dissatisfying or stressful job•Low follower self-confidence, insecurity, or self esteem•Follower expectations of high growth needs•Structured work tasks•Complex creative task•External group conflict•New or cohesive group•Organizational mission•Authoritarian superior
  33. 33. Neutralizers of Supportiveness•Dogmatic followers•Large group•Broad task scope•High job level
  34. 34. Follower Psychological Reactions •Satisfaction of esteem and acceptance of need •Satisfaction with work and supervisor •Overall job satisfaction •Organizational commitment •Lower perceived stress and burnout •Group harmony and cohesion
  35. 35. Follower Behavioral Outcomes•Lower Turnover, tardiness, absenteeism, and grievance rates •Increased individual and group performance
  36. 36. THE LEADER is ... YOU