“Companies fail when they become complacent and imagine that theywill always be successful. So we are always challenging ourselves. Eventhe most successful companies must constantly reinvent themselves. --Bill Gates Chairman and Chief Software Architect Microsoft
The Business World Today Constant change! – Technology – Society – Environment – Competition – Diversity
OrganizationA systematic grouping of people brought together for some specific purpose
What Three Characteristics Do All Organizations Have in Common?•People – It takes people tomake decisions and to performthe activities which turn goalsinto reality•Systemic Structure – divisionof labor that defines the roles ofthe members in theorganization, creates rules andregulations•Purpose - Typically expressedin terms of goals and objectives
What is Management?The process of deciding how best to use abusiness’s resources to produce good or provideservices – Employees – Equipment – Money
ManagementEfficiency – The process of getting Effectiveness –doing a task things done, effectively doing the rightright, refers to and efficiently, through task; Translatesthe relationship and with other people into goalbetween inputs attainmentand outputs
Levels of Management Senior management – Establishes the goal/objectives of the business – Decides how to use the company’s resources – Not involved in the day-to-day problems – Set the direction the company will follow – Chairperson of the company’s board of directors, CEO, COO, senior vice presidents
Levels of ManagementMiddle management – Responsible for meeting the goals that senior management sets – Sets goals for specific areas of the business – Decides which employees in each area must do to meet goals – Department heads, district sales managers
Levels of Management Supervisory management – Make sure the day-to-day operations of the business run smoothly – Responsible for the people who physically produce the companys products or services – Forepersons, crew leaders, store managers
The Management ProcessThree ways to examine how managementworks:– Tasks performed • Planning, organizing, staffing, leading, controlling– Roles played (set of behaviors associated with a particular job) • Interpersonal, information-based, decision-making– Skills needed • Conceptual, human relations, technical
The Management Process• Planning – Decides company goals and the actions to meet them – CEO sets a goal of increasing sales by 10% in the next year by developing a new software program
The Management Process • Organizing – Groups related activities together and assigns employees to perform them – A manager sets up a team of employees to restock an aisle in a supermarket
The Management Process Staffing – Decides how many and what kind of people a business needs to meet its goals and then recruits, selects, and trains the right people – A restaurant manager interviews and trains servers
The Management ProcessLeading – Provides guidance employees need to perform their tasks – Keeping the lines of communication open • Holding regular staff meetings
The Management Process• Controlling – Measures how the business performs to ensure that financial goals are being met – Analyzing accounting records – Make changes if financial standards not being met
Relative Importance of Types ofSkills for Different Levels of Managers
Principles of Management• A principle is a basic truth or law• Managers often use certain rules when deciding how to run their business• Most management principles are developed through observation and deduction
Principles of ManagementDeduction is the process of drawing a generalconclusion from specific examples – Observe that employees in 15 companies work more efficiently when their supervisors threat them well – Deduce/conclude that a pleasant work environment contributes to productivity – Conclusion becomes a management principle
Principles of Management• Management principles are best viewed as guides to action rather than rigid laws• If a principle does not apply to a specific situation, an experienced manager will not use it – Important to recognize when a principle shouldn’t be followed – Being able to change and adapt is an important management skill
Principles of ManagementDo all employees need toarrive at work at thesame time?
Principles of Management Do people who work in offices need to dress in a certain way?
Old ParadigmThen (50 years ago) – Overseer – Disciplinarian – Enforcer of policy – “Do as I say, not as I do” mentality
Supervisor As Change Agents • To cut costs and increase productivity • Continuous quality improvement • Introduction of work teams • Flexible work hours • Accident prevention and stress reduction programs
– Organizations are thinning middle management – Significantly expanded responsibilitiesSupervisor As Fewer Middle Managers
Supervisor As A Trainer– Training important more than ever and supervisors carry the primary burden of designing and training– Many new employees are poorly prepared for work or have language or communication deficiencies– The use of technology requires more training
Supervisors Go By Many Titles • Assistant manager • Department head • Head coach • Team leader • Shift leader/captain • Foreman
Key Supervisory Tasks• Motivate• Provide feedback• Resolve performance problems• Blend employee goals with work requirements• Improve communications and keep employees informed• Responsible for employee training and skills
Where Do SupervisorsCome From?From Within• Source of the majority of new supervisors• Operatives who know how things are done and know the organization• Abilities are known to management• Acts as an employee motivator• Know the operation• Understand the organization• Know the employees• Have prior experience on which to make decisions• Employee motivator
Where Do Supervisors Come From? • From Colleges – both 2 and 4 year • With additional organizational training can readily step into frontline management
Is the Transition to Supervisor Difficult?• Initial view of manager as “boss” is incorrect• Unprepared for the demands and ambiguities of the job• Technical expertise is no longer the primary determinant of success and failure• Supervisor’s job comes with administration duties• The “people” challenge
• NOW – Key communicatorIs the Transition • Paperworkto Supervisor • Accountability • Stuck between operatives andDifficult? managers • Usually promoted from peer group • Left out of the decision-making process • Must have a much more personal relationship with employees
Technical skills – the specialized knowledge andexpertise used to carry out particular techniquesor procedures.
Human relation skills – the ability to work effectively with other people.
Conceptual skills – the ability tosee the relation of the parts to thewhole and to one another.
Decision-making skills – theability to analyze informationand reach good decisions.
Knowledge skills – the ability to utilize various communication technology to manage and distribute continuous streams of data.
Responsibilities• Carry out the duties assigned to them by higher-level managers – Give managers timely and accurate information for planning• Keep managers informed about the department’s performance• Cooperate with co-workers in other departments
Accountability Accountability refers to the practice of imposing penalties for failing to adequately carry out responsibilities, and it usually includes giving rewards for meeting responsibilities.