Personality and Measurement


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Personality and Measurement

  1. 1. KONSTRUKSI ALAT UKUR Personality and PSIKOLOGI Measurement
  2. 2. WHAT IS PERSONALITY?Personality patterns of behaving and thinking that are consistent across a variety of situations
  3. 3. FOUR THEORIES OF PERSONALIT Y 1. Psychoanalytic 2. Trait 3. Humanistic 4. Socio-Cognitive
  4. 4. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORYFreud’s theory: unconscious motivations influence personality
  5. 5. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE Psychoanalysis (Freud) Theory: our actions are due to unconscious conflicts Therapy: treating psychological disorders by uncovering and interpreting unconscious conflicts
  6. 6. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVEFree Association method of exploring the unconscious person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
  7. 7. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE  Unconscious (Freud)  A reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories Two main unconscious instincts: sex and aggression  Preconscious  information that is not conscious but is retrievable into conscious awareness
  8. 8. THREE PERSONALITY STRUCTURES1. Id2. Ego3. Superego
  9. 9. PERSONALITY STRUCTURE Ego Conscious mind Freud’s idea Unconscious mind of the Superego mind’s Id structure
  10. 10. PERSONALITY STRUCTUREId unconscious psychic energy strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive instincts operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification
  11. 11. PERSONALITY STRUCTURESuperego our conscience given to us by family/society operates on morality principle, sets standards right vs. wrong
  12. 12. PERSONALITY STRUCTUREEgo conscious part of personality mediates conflict between id and superego operates on the reality principle, delays gratification of id impulses
  13. 13. DEFENSE MECHANISMS  Defense Mechanisms  conflicts of id and superego produce anxiety  defense mechanisms reduce anxiety by distorting reality
  14. 14. DEFENSE MECHANISMS: EXAMPLES Regression  retreating to behavior appropriate for an earlier stage of development (e.g., temper tantrum) Repression  pushing anxiety arousing thoughts into the unconscious (e.g., serious traumas like rape)
  15. 15. DEFENSE MECHANISMS  Reaction Formation  expressing feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings (e.g., Ban the filth! I hate homosexuals!)
  16. 16. DEFENSE MECHANISMS Projection  disguising our own impulses by attributing them to others (e.g., You always start arguments!) Rationalization  making up an untrue justification to ourselves for doing something (e.g., sour grapes)
  17. 17. DEFENSE MECHANISMS  Displacement  shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a less threatening object or person (e.g., kicking the dog!)  Sublimation  rechanneling of unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities (e.g., a great artist who paints nudes!)
  18. 18. ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS Projective Tests  used to assess personality (e.g., Rorschach or TAT tests)  How? provides ambiguous stimuli and subject projects his or her motives into the ambiguous stimuli
  19. 19. ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS--TAT Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) people express their inner motives through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
  20. 20. ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS -- RORSCHACH Rorschach Inkblot Test  the most widely used projective test  a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach
  21. 21. ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS-- RORSCHACH used to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
  22. 22. PERSONALIT Y TESTS Good tests are reliable and valid  reliable: consistent, getting the same results each time the test is administered  valid: measure what it is suppose to measure
  23. 23. CRITIQUE OF PSYCHOANALY TIC THEORY  (+) Can help us understand ego defenses used by everyone (and OK to use if not overused)  (+) Alerts us to the unconscious causes of behavior  (-) Assessment is subjective (TAT, Rorschach)  (-) Reliability and validity of measurement are problems
  24. 24. THE TRAIT THEORY Trait  a characteristic pattern of behavior  usually assessed by self-report inventories
  25. 25. ASSESSING (MEASURING) TRAITS Personality Inventory  a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to assess traits  objective scoring -- a real plus!
  26. 26. ASSESSING TRAITS: AN EXAMPLE  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)  the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests  developed to identify emotional disorders
  27. 27. MMPI: EXAMPLE OF ITEMS!“Nothing in the newspaper interests me except the comics.”“I get angry sometimes.”
  28. 28. MMPI -- VALIDITYEmpirically Derived Test 1 . Select two groups of subjects (e.g., clinically depressed vs normals) 2. give a large pool of questions to them 3. keep only those questions that discriminate between groups
  29. 29. MMPI Clinically Hypochondriasis 1 significant (concern with body symptoms) range Depression 2 (pessimism, hopelessness) Minnesota Hysteria 3(uses symptoms to solve problems) After treatment Multiphasic (no scores Psychopathic deviancy 4 in the clinically significant range Before treatment Personality (disregard for social standards) Masculinity/femininity 5 (interests like those of other sex) (anxious, depressed, and Inventory Paranoia (delusions, suspiciousness) 6 displaying deviant (MMPI) test profile behaviors) Psychasthenia 7 (anxious, guilt feelings) 8 Schizophrenia (withdrawn, bizarre thoughts) 9 Hypomania (overactive, excited, impulsive) 10 Social introversion (shy, inhibited) 0 30 40 50 60 70 80 T-score
  30. 30. THE FIRST TRAIT THEORY UNSTABLE Moody Two Factor Trait Touchy Anxious Restless Rigid Sober Aggressive Excitable Theory of Pessimistic Reserved Changeable Impulsive PersonalityUnsociable OptimisticQuiet Active melancholic cholericINTROVERTED EXTRAVERTEDPassive phlegmatic sanguine SociableCareful Outgoing Thoughtful Talkative Peaceful Responsive Controlled Easygoing Reliable Lively Even-tempered Carefree Calm Leadership STABLE
  31. 31. THE “BIG FIVE” PERSONALITY FACTORS Trait Description Emotional Stability Calm versus anxious Secure versus insecure Self-satisfied versus self-pitying Extraversion Sociable versus retiring Fun-loving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Openness Imaginative versus practical Preference for variety versus preference for routine Independent versus conforming Agreeableness Soft-hearted versus ruthless Trusting versus suspicious Helpful versus uncooperative Conscientiousness Organized versus disorganized Careful versus careless Disciplined versus impulsive
  32. 32. CRITIQUE OF TRAIT THEORY (+) Can help us categorize and predict others’ behavior (+) Can aid in self understanding (+) Measurement of traits can be done objectively (reliably and validly) (-) Traits describe behavior, but don’t explain behavior (-) Trait theory underestimates the power of the situation in determining behavior
  33. 33. HUMANISTIC THEORY: EMPHASIS ON THE SELF Self-Concept  one’s perception of oneself: “Who am I?” Ideal Self  the self I would like to be Real Self  the way I really am
  34. 34. HUMANISTIC THEORY: THE SELVES Self Concept (defense (low self- mechanisms) esteem)Real Self Ideal Self
  35. 35. HUMANISTIC THEORY: EMPHASIS ON THE SELF Self-Esteem  one’s feelings of high or low self-worth  Physical  Intellectual  Social
  36. 36. HIGH SELF-ESTEEM: A GOOD THING?  Low Self-Esteem: Experiments tell us  heightened prejudice  heightened judgmentalism  High Self- Esteem:  lower levels of depression
  37. 37. HUMANISTIC THEORY: ONE MORE SELF! Self-Serving Bias  a readiness to perceive oneself favorably  “somewhat likely” to go to heaven?  OJ Simpson, Bill Clinton, Michael Jordon, Mother Theresa, or ________ !!
  38. 38. HUMANISTIC THEORY: AWESTERN PERSPECTIVE  Individualism (West)  defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes (introverted, etc.)  giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals  Collectivism (East)  defining one’s identity with group identifications (bin, means “son of”)  giving priority to the goals of one’s group over one’s own goals
  39. 39. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVEValue Contrasts Between Individualism and CollectivismConcept Individualism CollectivismSelf Independent Interdependent (identity from individual traits) (identity from belonging)Life task Discover and express one’s Maintain connections, fit in uniquenessWhat matters Me--personal achievement and We--group goals and solidarity; fulfillment; rights and liberties social responsibilities and relationshipsCoping method Change reality Accommodate to realityMorality Defined by individuals Defined by social networks (self-based) (duty-based)Relationships Many, often temporary or casual; Few, close and enduring; confrontation acceptable harmony valuedAttributing Behavior reflects one’s personality Behavior reflects socialbehaviors and attitudes and roles
  40. 40. CRITIQUE OF HUMANISTIC THEORY  (+) Makes the SELF central to our understanding of behavior  (-) Culture-bound theory (applies to the West)  (-) Is too subjective, not objective  (-) Maybe overly optimistic view of human nature (all of us are moving toward self-actualization?)
  41. 41. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY Behavior is due to  Social influences (other people)  Cognitive influences (how we perceive ourselves and our social environment)
  42. 42. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY (MODEL) Social Influences: “My friends do well in school.” Behavior Cognitive Influences:(I perform well “I know if I work hard, in school) I can do well in school)
  43. 43. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE- LEARNED HELPLESSNESS Learned Helplessness Bad Events Cognition: “I perceive I don’t have control” I feel helpless
  44. 44. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY Personal Control  a cognitive factor (in the model)  our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless
  45. 45. LOCUS OF CONTROL Internal Locus of Control  the perception that one controls one’s own fate External Locus of Control  the perception that outside forces determine one’s fate
  46. 46. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVEPositive Psychology scientific study of ways to foster a healthy personality and communityKey Concept: Learned Optimism expecting positive events to occur an seeing oneself as competent. research: optimistic people live longer/healthier lives
  47. 47. CRITIQUE OF SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY (+) Based on solid research (+) Takes into account both personality (especially cognition) and social situation (-) Underemphasizes importance of traits