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Job satisfaction

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Job satisfaction

  1. 1. JOB SATISFACTION<br />www.humanikaconsulting.com<br />
  2. 2. Job SatisfactionDefinitionA pleasurable, positive emotional state resultingfrom the appraisal of one’s job or job experience<br />
  3. 3. Measuring Job Satisfaction<br />
  4. 4. Measuring Job SatisfactionStandard Measures• Global measuresJob Diagnostic Survey (JDS: general)FacesJob Descriptive Index (JDI: Work-in-general)• Facet MeasuresJob Descriptive index (JDI: original)Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS: facet)Note. Standard measures of job satisfaction generally focuson the cognitive or affective evaluation of a job.<br />
  5. 5. A General Model ofJob SatisfactionAntecedents Job Satisfaction ConsequencesSituational CharacteristicsPersonal CharacteristicsPerson x Situation InteractionOrganizational outcomesPerformanceAttendanceRetentionPersonal OutcomesQuality of work lifeQuality of lifeHealth and well-being<br />
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  8. 8. Theoretical Perspectives<br />
  9. 9. 1.Situational PerspectiveJob satisfaction is a reaction to the situation (e.g., Herzberg’sconcept of job enrichment)Job satisfaction is influenced by the reactions of others (e.g.,Salancik & Pfeffer social information processing theory)2.Person PerspectiveSatisfaction is influenced by personal dispostions (e.g., Staw &Ross, 1985; Arvey et al., 1989; Ilies & Judge, 2003)3.Person-Situation Interaction PerspectiveSatisfaction is a joint function of the person and the situation (e.g.,Locke’s (1976) value theory; Loftquist & Dawis’s (1969) theory ofwork adjustment)<br />
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  13. 13. Job Satisfaction andJob Performance<br />
  14. 14. Hypothesis“Satisfied workers are productive workers.”Empirical EvidenceNarrative ReviewsBrayfield & Crockett (1955) -- "no appreciablerelationship"Locke (1976) -- "job satisfaction has no direct effecton productivity"<br />
  15. 15. Empirical EvidenceMeta-analyses 1.Vroom (1964) -- median r = .142.Iaffaldano & Muchinski (1985) -- sample weightedr = .17 3.Podsakoff & Williams (1986) -- corrected r = .214.Judge et al. (2001) – corrected r = .30 (.52 forcomplex jobs)<br />
  16. 16. Discussion QuestionWhy is the correlation between job satisfaction andperformance so weak?Possible Answers1. Job satisfaction is just one of manycontributing factors – see Theory of PlannedBehaviour to illustrate<br />
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  18. 18. Discussion QuestionWhy is the correlation between job satisfaction andperformance so weak?Possible Answers2. Problems with the measurement of job satisfaction• problem predicting specific behaviour from globalattitudes• Differential relevance of various facets of satisfaction<br />
  19. 19. Discussion QuestionWhy is the correlation between job satisfaction andperformance so weak?Possible Answers3. Problems with the measurement of jobperformance• Organ (1977): satisfaction should be a better measureof extra-role (OCB) than in-role performance• Bateman & Organ (1981): r = .41 with OCB<br />
  20. 20. Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism<br />
  21. 21. HypothesisSatisfied workers will attend more regularlyEmpirical EvidenceMeta-analyses report correlations between -.15 and -.25 (e.g., Hackett & Guion, 1985; Scott & Taylor,1985)Potential Explanations1. Problems with the measurement of absenteeism (e.g.,voluntary vs. involuntary)2. Satisfaction is one of many factors influencingattendance (see Steers & Rhodes’ model)<br />
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  23. 23. Job Satisfaction and Turnover<br />
  24. 24. HypothesisSatisfied workers should be less likely to leaveEmpirical EvidenceMeta-analyses report correlations between -.20 and -.30(e.g., Griffeth et al., 2000; Lee et al., 1999; Tett &Meyer, 1993)Potential Explanations1. Problems with the measurement of turnover (e.g.,voluntary vs. involuntary)2. Satisfaction is one of many factors influencing turnover(see Hom & Griffeth, 1991, model)<br />
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  26. 26. Summary• Job satisfaction is an attitude that can affect workbehaviour and personal well-being• Job satisfaction can be enhanced by:Improving work conditions (job, role, relationships,etc.)Selecting those who:Are predisposed to be satisfiedFit with the job, culture, role, etc.• Job satisfaction has modest but meaningful effectson performance, attendance, retention etc.Effects are strongest for “volitional” behaviour (e.g.,OCB, voluntary absence, voluntary turnover)<br />

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