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Competence, like truth, beauty, and contact lenses, is in the eye of the beholder.
Laurence J. Peter

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  1. 1. Competency
  2. 2. “Competency work has become the leading logic model for diagnosing, framing, and improving leadership in general and human resource management in particular.” Dave Ulrich
  3. 3. Workshop Objectives By the end of this workshop, participants will be able to: •Describe a process for developing competency frameworks. •Identify challenges and potential barriers to developing and implementing competency frameworks. •Identify opportunities available with the implementation of competency frameworks in an electronic system.
  5. 5. Competence Competent = ‘able to do something well’ (Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary Online, 2008) Competence = the generic quality possessed by a competent person (in the same way, for example, that beauty refers to beautiful) The meaning of the terms competent and competence is clear and will not be discussed further.
  6. 6. Origin of competencies and competency (1) On what competence depends? In his seminal article of 1973 Testing for Competence Rather Than for ‘Intelligence’ the American psychologist David McClelland asserted intelligence and aptitude tests and school grades are not good predictors of success in education and in life. He pointed out several other personal features (Communication skills, Patience, Realistic goal setting, Ego development, etc.) are better predictors. As they are related to competence, for referring to them McClelland creates a new word with similar spelling: ‘competencies’ (singular ‘competency’).
  7. 7. Origin of competencies and competency (2) GENERAL DEFINITION: Competencies are the human factors by which competence depends. This way it comes out competence depends on competencies. Similar words are used with different meaning. This is the reason of the current confusion with these terms.
  8. 8. Evolution of the meaning of Competencies / competency (1) In McClelland (1973) competencies are ‘task and organisation specific’, that is to say they are described and exist only with reference to a specific work-related task carried out within a given organisation. For example the fluency in German as a second language is a competency only if it constitutes an essential element for the effective carrying out of a given role in a particular organisation. So for McClelland in each given organisation a specific and unique group of competencies (a ‘competency model’) can be identified. DEFINITION 1973: A competency is each personal feature which (usually combined with others) allows the effective execution of a particular task in a given organisation.
  9. 9. Evolution of the meaning of Competencies / competency (2) In 1982 Richard Boyatzis a colleague of McClelland, defines competency as ‘an underlying characteristic of an individual, which is causally related to effective or superior performance in a job’ which could be ‘a motive, trait, skill, aspect of one's self image or social role, or a body of knowledge which he or she uses’. Here competencies are ‘task specific’, that is to say they are described and exist with reference to a generic above the average capability. The reference to a specific organization is dropped. For example the fluency in German as a second language is a competency in any case. DEFINITION 1982 (derived by Boyatzis) a competency is each personal feature which (usually combined with others) can lead to good general work performance.
  10. 10. Evolution of the meaning of Competencies / competency (3) In recent years, in careers guidance, education and training, a further definition which does not refer to good work performance has become widespread in Europe. See for example (EC Recommendation 2006/962/EC) ‘Competences are defined here as a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the context. Key competences are those which all individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment.’ Note the different spelling ‘competences’ instead of the original ‘competencies’. ‘Competences’ looks like the plural of ‘competence’, so it is even more confusing.
  11. 11. Evolution of the meaning of Competencies / competency (4) CURRENT DEFINITION IN CAREER GUIDANCE AND EDUCATION: a competency is each personal feature which (usually combined with others) is generally utilizable in the workplace, in school or in ordinary life, regardless of the nature of the work or level of performance achievable through its use. Here reference to a capability above the average has been dropped because many clients of career guidance and educational services have none or very few personal features above the average. To describe them as low equipped or missing with competencies will disempower them.
  12. 12. Competencies: an useful construct in Career Guidance? In 1909 Parsons affirms vocations must be identified taking into consideration three large groups of factors: (1) a clear understanding of yourself, your aptitudes, abilities, interests, ambitions, resources, limitations, and their causes; (2) a knowledge of the requirements and conditions of success, advantages and disadvantages, compensation, opportunities, and prospects in different lines of work; (3) true reasoning on the relations of these two groups of facts.’
  13. 13. Competencies: an useful construct in Career Guidance? When Parsons listed, in 1909, the factors on which good work performance depends, he identified most of those personal features whose subsequent ‘discovery’ (in 1973) was to make McClelland’s name. In light of Parsons exposition, the use of the concept of competencies in career guidance would not seem such a big step forward if not for the possibility of using terminology in common with the world of work. On the other way, for the reasons explained, many misunderstandings arises when using this term.
  14. 14. “ Hire for attitude, train for skill” – Herb Kelleher, Founder of Southeast airlines
  15. 15. Competency - Definition A characteristic and measurable pattern of knowledge, skill and ability, demonstrated through behaviors, which underlies and drives exceptional performance.
  16. 16. Competency-Based System Performance Management Training & Development Succession Planning Career & Workforce Planning Core Competencies Recruitment, Selection & Classification Focus on Performance & Development Needs of Agency Goal: To develop a performance management system that: •Provide a system’s approach to employee development and succession planning. •Supports employees in achieving their position goals and developmental needs. •Align and cascade individual goals with organizational performance measures.
  17. 17. Role of Competencies Competencies Translate Vision into behaviors needed Increase effectiveness of hiring and shorten learning curve Improve Employee satisfaction Identify gaps between present and needed skill requirements Improve productivity and effectiveness
  18. 18. US origins of competence •White (1959), McClelland (1973) •Hay-McBercompetency framework •psycho-social attributes associated with superior performance •competency-based HRM end 1990s: knowledge and skills –functional also motivation? (McLean 2004)
  19. 19. US origins of competence •1980s competence-based VQs •occupational standards mainly functional •inadequate underpinning knowledge? •hybrid models since late 1990s including cognitive and behavioural •comprehensive competence frameworks such as NHS since 2000
  20. 20. 20 Core Competence “DOING WHAT YOU ARE BLOODY GOOD AT” Prof John De Figiuredo (MIT)
  21. 21. 21 CORE COMPETENCE The set of organisational skills that potentially makes the organisation effective in certain activities
  22. 22. 22 FOUR TESTS OF CORE COMPETENCE A bundle of skills and Technologies which are critical for organisational success. A managerial asset which sets the organisation apart from competitors. Makes a disproportionate contribution to what customers perceive as “added value”. Provides competitive advantage
  23. 23. 23 The essential thing is that it must be something that is peculiar to your organisation and which others cannot copy.
  24. 24. 24 Organizational Capabilities •The set of competencies needed to effectively compete in Knowledge Economy •(Dave Ulrich) •These sets of competencies (capabilities)need to be identified and sourced. •But more importantly, success lies with developing and applying them and matching them to opportunities. •Our HR Competencies are developed from they are Source of your Business Strategy.
  25. 25. 25 Source of Organisational Capabilities: Human Capital-skills,experience,know-how and capabilities of individuals in the organisation. Structural Capital-Organisational architecture,business processes,culture,decision making,patents, trademarks.(Intellectual Capital). Relationship Capital-internal and external interconnectedness, Value Chain Management,Image promotion and development
  26. 26. 26 HRM can increase its contribution to the organisations’ effectiveness by playing key role in creating value in each of the components of strategic capability. Through sound HR Policies, Programs and Practices •HR should be involved in the identification of Key Competencies that are needed to exploit existing Organization Capabilities; Developing Competencies to achieve organization's strategy.
  27. 27. “HR must give value or give notice.“ Dave Ulrich
  28. 28. 28 What is the Link with HR? •There is a relationship among the different types of Intangible Capital –Human Capital drives Structural, and Relationship and Capital –Without Talented and Skillful people, the patents, processes, professional relationships and channels, would not exist.
  29. 29. 29 HR Input into Strategy Formulation is more critical with the CORE-Competency Approach).; Organisational Skills that constitute its core competencies are usually embedded in its people.(Human Capital) What is the Link with HR?
  30. 30. 30 COMPETENCIES AS LINK BETWEEN STRATEGY AND HUMAN RESOURCE PROGRAMMES Business Strategy Organisational Capabilities Capability Components Competencies Human Resource Consequences •Strategy •Mission •Values • Objectives •Characteristics of the organi- zation which are crucial for success- fully imple- menting the organization’s strategy •Measures and actions needed to build each Capability •The competencies (skills and behaviour) needed to bring about the required capability components •Human Resource activities for developing and reinforcing the required competencies
  31. 31. 31 FROM STRATEGY TO INDIVIDUAL COMPETENCIES Business Strategy Organisational Capabilities Capability Components Employee Competencies Strategic Intent • To become the Leading telecom provider in Egypt •Obtain and maintain No. 1 position in telecom l services provision • Accelerate network expansion •Strong focus on Added value of Customers • Sophisticated information system. •Knowledge of the Market and Competitors • Understanding of The customer. • Customer focused attitude.
  32. 32. 32 The HR Manager needs to have an audit of the skills and capabilities of the Organisation’s Human Resources; match these against the organisation’s Mission and Objectives and develop a plan to fill any identified gaps. What is the Link with HR?
  33. 33. 33 Based on this, HR can develop: Recruitment policies; Training Policies Skills and Competency Profiles Reward Systems What is the Link with HR?
  34. 34. 34 •HR needs skills and tools for competency tracking and management for the individuals and teams within an organisation. •Such tracking helps in Skills Gap analysis. •These processes can now be assisted by standardised data formats, which can be automated. What is the Link with HR?
  35. 35. 36 SUMMARY Competencies begin to play a central role in the formulation of an HR strategy; This is an HR strategy that is directly aligned to the business strategy